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Below are the instructions for the assignment and attached is a sample of what each report should look like and each disability will have its own report totaling 14; APA format; 12 font; Times New Roman. The links listed below will help you in completing this assignment but feel free to use other sources to complete this assignment in its entirety.

Categories of Disability Under Part B of IDEA | Center for Parent Information and Resources (parentcenterhub.org)

What Are the 14 Categories of Disabilities? Does it Matter Which Box is Checked? (adayinourshoes.com)

Each report will consist of the following information: 

(a) Definition (and Classification), 

(b) Characteristics, 

(c) Causes, 

(d) Prevalence, 

(e) Identification and Assessment, 

(f) Planning and Providing Special Education Services, 

(g) Collaborating with Parents and Families in a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Society, 

(h) Educational Approaches, and, 

(i) Educational Placement.

Following are the names of types of Learners with Disabilities under IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) in the teaching field of General and Special Education; 

  1. Specific learning disability (SLD)
  2. Emotional and Behavioral Disability (EBD)
  3. Speech or language impairments (SLI)
  4. Hearing impairments (HI)
  5. Visual impairments (VI)
  6. Deaf-Blindness (D-B)
  7. Autism
  8. Intellectual disability (ID)
  9. Orthopedic impairment (OI)
  10. Developmental delay (DD)
  11. Other health impairment (OHI)
  12. Multiple Disabilities (MD)
  13. Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  14.  Deafness

If you have any questions, leave a message and I will check, twice a day.



Research Project Exceptional Students Mild to Moderate



Central State


Abstract This is a research project that will aim to explain in-depth each of the thirteen disability

categories recognized by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, IDEA. For each of the

categories, I will define, give characteristics, causes, explain prevalence, how they are identified

and assessed, how to plan and provide for each, educational approaches, and the process of

educational placement.

Autism Spectrum Disorder Definition and Classification

According to the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), Autism is defined as a

developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social

interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational

performance (IDEA, 2004). Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder.


Autism Spectrum Disorder has a range of symptoms. This prompted the change in the

term from Autism to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Signs of ASD tend to appear early in

life. The most prevalent indicators of ASD are impairments involving communication and social

interaction. Other characteristics that are often seen in students with ASD are repetitive patterns

of behavior, fixations, or rituals. Repetitive behaviors can include speech patterns such as

echolalia or non-verbal behaviors such as repeatedly opening and closing a door. Flapping or

flicking limbs are also common characteristics of ASD (Heward et al., 2018).


Currently, there is no proven cause linked directly through evidence. There are suspected links that

are tied to ASD as potential risk factors. Some of the risks include genetics, mother’s age at birth,

environmental toxins, fragile x syndrome, and metabolic imbalances (Heward et al., 2018).


In 2018, the CDC determined that 1 in 59 children are diagnosed with ASD. Research

indicates that boys are 4 times more likely than girls to be diagnosed. Of those diagnosed with

ASD, 31% are also identified as having an intellectual disability. ASD has been identified across

all ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, those from minority groups tend to be

identified later in life, which inhibits their access to early intervention.

Identification and Assessment At this time there is no medical test that will detect autism. Evaluation is reliant upon direct

assessment, observations, interviews, and questionnaires. Developmental screening, in young

children, can be used to identify potential ASD indicators. However, because of the nature of ASD

and the range in symptoms, not all children are diagnosed early (Hardman et al., 2001). Evaluation

combines all of the above techniques in a combination of developmental screening and

comprehensive diagnostic evaluation which includes a team of experts.

Planning and Providing Special Education Services

One common concept for the intervention for those with ASD is early intervention. Research has shown that those who are identified early and begin autism-appropriate

interventions are more likely to thrive in society and acquire appropriate social skills (ASDF,

2019). As a result of early intervention, children with ASD are able to qualify for services before

they reach school age. This includes early access to preschool services and in some cases, access

to specifically designed schools for children with ASD.

Once a child reaches elementary age, in many cases they are placed in the school setting

with an individualized education plan (IEP) in place. The IEP will provide the student with

accommodations and modifications that will allow them to thrive. In many cases, the IEP will

provide the student with related services (Heward et al., 2018). These services include speech,

physical therapy, occupational therapy, adapted physical education, and functional skills


Collaborating with Parents and Families

As with all disability categories collaboration with the family is vital to the success of the

student. Students who have been identified as having autism will require therapy and

accommodations both in and out of the educational setting. Families can provide important

information about outside approaches being used as well as the child’s strengths and challenges.

A child is more likely to succeed when the family and IEP team are working together to ensure

that all of the student’s needs are being met.

Educational Approaches and Placement

Due to many of the symptoms and behaviors of autism, these students can present

challenges in the classroom. Sensory input and stimulation can cause outbursts or behaviors that

could cause harm to themselves or disrupt others. As a result of these challenges, it is important

that the IEP is working and assessing constantly to ensure the student is thriving in the given

environment. According to Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 31% of

students with autism were educated in the general education classroom, with 18% served in

resource room programs and 40% in separate classrooms (Heward et al., 2018). Placement

will vary depending upon the severity of the behaviors and to best meet the needs of the


Strategies can be used in the educational setting to assist the student with appropriate behaviors

and to access the general curriculum. Some such strategies include applied behavior analysis,

sensory input support, and visual supports.


Hardman, M. L., Drew, C. J., & Egan, M. W. (2011). Human exceptionality: society, school,

and family. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

HEWARD, W. I. L. L. I. A. M. L. (2018). Exceptional Children: an introduction to special


Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004)

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