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1)  M,G       Re: Topic 3 DQ 1

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When the Alma-Ata Declaration was signed, it called for primary health care as the official health policy of all people of the world (Rifkin, 2018). There are 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) that focus on ending hunger, health equity, ending poverty, gender equality, quality education, low-cost efficient energy, clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry and innovation infrastructure, and climate action, to name a few. Alma-Ata supports SDGs with intentions to build sustainable health care for all. Low-income countries are especially suffering from health disparities. Although SDG’s do not reflect primary health care in their agenda, the Astana declaration (Alma-Ata), updated and released in 2018, emphasizes universal health coverage, making it easier for countries to achieve the SDGs when they reorient their health care systems towards primary care (Hone, et al., 2018). With the help of policymakers, funding will help create cost effective interventions or help prioritize funding based on burden of disease, strengthening the global health system.

Health equity is another way Alma-Ata continues to support sustainable development goals (SDG). Universal health coverage should target deprived rural and urban areas, reducing or eliminating user fees. PHC’s have become essential to increase appropriateness and efficiency, by focusing on people and their wellbeing (Hone et al., 2018). Policymakers, governmental agencies, and other decision makers should not discriminate, rather, provide more equitable opportunities for those living in poverty to have access to health care and other resources.

                                                                                         Cite Reference 

Rifkin, SB. Alma Ata after 40 years: Primary Health Care and Health for All—from consensus to complexity. BMJ Global Health 2018. www.https??gh.bmj.com/content/3/Suppl_3/e001188

Hone, T., Macinko, J., & Millett, C. (2018). Revisiting Alma-Ata: what is the role of primary health care in achieving the sustainable development goals? The Lance, 392(10156), 1461-1472. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31829-4

2) L.D  Re: Topic 3 DQ 1

Hello Class,

The concept of primary health care has been at the center of the health development agenda for many decades, initially inspired by the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution and later the focus of the Alma-Ata International. Primary health care is at the core of the health development agenda since the 1950s. It was initially inspired by the 1948 UN Charter and the World Health Organization’s constitution. Primary health care is a comprehensive approach to health that aims to provide the highest possible care and support to all individuals. It includes the promotion and prevention of diseases, as well as the treatment and rehabilitation of patients. (WHO, 2020)

As the first contact between a person and the healthcare system (or the primary care system), primary care is essential for various health-related activities. Implementing a primary health care concept should be accompanied by a multi-sectoral approach that addresses the determinants of health. (WHO,2020)

One of the goals that the UN adopted in 2015 is to improve the health of all people. Another goal aims to promote well-being for all ages. The goal of the SDGs is to improve the health of all people without financial hardship. Universal health coverage is one of the goals of the third SDG. Other SDGs contribute to the attainment of health. 


Chotchoungchatchai, S., Marshall, A. I., Witthayapipopsakul, W., Panichkriangkrai, W., Patcharanarumol, W., & Tangcharoensathien, V. (2020). Primary health care and sustainable development goals. Bulletin of the World Health Organization98(11), 792–800. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.19.245613

3) MCA       Re: Topic 3 DQ 1

Hello Professor  and class,

Two examples of the “Declaration of Alma –Ata” that represent a set of values found in the (SDGs) are good health, well-being, and no poverty. The declaration III states government should protect the health of all the people because it will promote better life and implementation of their health care. SDGs goal #3 is good health and well-being. Making sure individuals have healthy lives. Another example is declaration 1 reaffirms everyone should have good health including physical, mental, and social health. This can include economic sectors and health. SDGS Goal # 1 is no poverty. Trying to end poverty and giving all individuals social protection that will entitle them to better lives and better health. Thank you.


Retrieved from: Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere – United Nations Sustainable Development

Retrieved from: Microsoft Word – almaata_declaration_en.doc (who.int)

4) CHR     

Mitigating climate change must be a priority for public health

“Acting on the climate crisis is a clear, yet still neglected, priority for public health. There is now a large body of work making a clear link between climate change and health. The impacts of climate change on health can be direct—relating primarily to changes in the frequency of extreme weather (such as heatwaves, drought, fires, floods, or storms)—and indirect, through changes on ecosystems (for example, water-borne diseases, and air pollution) and through effects mediated by human systems (such as occupational impacts, undernutrition, mental health, but also migration and conflict).

The health co-benefits of mitigation have been comprehensively set out in reports such as the 2015 Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change. Reductions in emissions reduce air pollution and respiratory diseases; safe active transport decreases road traffic injuries and can reduce the incidence of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Crucially, the response to climate change can bring immense benefits for human health, with cleaner air, healthier diets, more liveable cities, and can reduce the risk factors of future infectious diseases. Taking public health co-benefits into account could make important contributions to offsetting the costs of mitigation strategies.


DQ 2

5)  M.G     Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Universal health care means all people have access to health services without ramifications of financial hardship (WHO, 2021). One benefit of universal health care is that all individuals will have good quality health care services. Most of the time, people will not go see a doctor because they do not have the financial stability to do so. Within families, choices must be made when it comes to health care or food on the table. Universal health care does not just focus on treating disease, but focuses on preventative care, rehabilitation, and other services, to help improve the quality of life and well-being of everyone (WHO, 2021).

One challenge of universal health coverage is the lack of health care services in rural communities. Areas like these are difficult in attracting health care workers. In addition, nearest medical facilities are miles away, making it difficult for individuals living in rural areas to travel if they have no transportation. Responsibility for providing rural access to medical services has generally been left to local governments, and the private sector, or other agencies, via setting up and running hospitals and physicians’ offices (Ikegami, 2014). Because of this, limited funding may inhibit these areas from having access to health care with physicians on hand.

It is possible for universal health coverage to be seen as a realistic goal. I do not think the deadline will be met as we are currently fighting a pandemic and we live in a political world. Japan has a system that they developed to help get health care to those in need in some of the most rural areas of their country. A program known as the Special Promotion Act, started in 1975, is responsible for dispatching and rotating physicians to staff clinics in rural hamlets (Ikegami, 2014). They serve a three-year term and then they get rotated out and placed back in the hospital setting. This may be an idea for other countries, making the possibility of universal health coverage accessible to every individual, globally.

                                                                     Cite Reference

World Health Organization. (2021). Universal Health Coverage. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/health-topics/universal-health-coverage#tab=tab_1

Ikegami, Naoki. 2014. Universal health coverage for inclusive and sustainable development : lessons from Japan (English). A World Bank Study Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/263851468062350384/Universal-health-coverage-for-inclusive-and-sustainable-development-lessons-from-Japan

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