Need help brainstorming curriculum ideas for my upcoming school year.
Need by: 8/15/21
Will pay, please refer to attached documents for further instruction!
Need by: Sunday, August 15, 2021 Total $30- $15 NOW/ $15 COMPLETE
Scenario for the Three Assignments
Assume that you are the curriculum designer for a school district. The school board has requested that several teams develop proposals for new curricula to meet newly established state standards. You and your team must develop the first proposal to provide as a pilot or model for the other teams. You have to first identify a specific curriculum area not currently used in the school district that would greatly benefit the students in the district. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library as well as your textbook to develop a pilot curriculum for a specific discipline area such as reading, math, science or grades K–12 at a local school district.
Refer to the scenario for the assignments. Build on the same pilot curriculum that was identified in the Curriculum Inception assignment that has been attached for your viewing, please be sure to refer to the original assignment and to answer every question laid out here in the outline for curriculum foundations, thank you!
Instructions: Curriculum Foundations
Write a 6–7 page paper in which you:
● Summarize the following aspects of the Curriculum Inception assignment: (a) Describe the specific curriculum area and grade level or levels for the pilot curriculum. (b) Provide four core instructional goals for the curriculum.
● Describe the approach to curriculum development (that is, behavior, systems, humanistic) you will use to shape curriculum design, providing a rationale for your selected approach that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum.
● Describe the philosophical/theoretical approach to curriculum development (for example, idealism or realism) you will use to shape the curriculum design, providing a rationale for your selected philosophy that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum.
● Describe the psychological motivational approach to curriculum development you will use to shape the curriculum design, providing a rationale for your selected approach that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum.
● Discuss one cultural influence that has the greatest impact on the school district and provide a rationale for the impact it has on the district.
● Recommend at least one effective way to integrate the cultural influence into the planned curriculum that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum.
● Develop a strategy for incorporating critical thinking skills (appropriate to grade level) into the planned curriculum using Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive objectives.
● Provide a rationale for your strategy that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum. (Note: A brief description of Bloom’s Taxonomy may be found at The Center for Teaching and Learning.)
● Use at least six relevant, scholarly references published in the last seven years (that is, three new references in addition to the three identified in the Curriculum Inception assignment). (Note: Wikipedia and other nongovernment websites do not qualify as scholarly resources.)
The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:
● Propose an approach to developing a curriculum that is informed by the audience and needs analysis.http://teaching.uncc.edu/articles-books/best-practice-articles/goals-objectives/blooms-taxonomy-educational-objectives
Dr. Teresa Lao
EDU 555: K-12 Curriculum Design & Development
July 27, 2021
Farrell School District is a rural public school located in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. It has
been ranked as one of the worst-performing schools in the state. This poor performance is linked
to the low level of education among the adults, only 16 % of the adult population have a
bachelor’s degree (Stebbins & Sauter, 1). 43.9% of the school children live below the poverty
line, explaining the poor performance in schools. The most problematic subjects in the schools
are math and reading. The percentage of students who are proficient in math and English are 16
and 31 % respectively (Stebbins & Sauter, 1). I, therefore, believe it would be important to
develop a pivot curriculum that improves the math performance in the school.
● Geographical Location
Farrell School District is located in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. It serves a population of 6,798
in Farell, Wheatlands, and Sharon, Pennsylvania.
● Demographic of the Student population
The school has currently enrolled 700 students in pk-12 with only 60 teachers. It operates an
elementary school and a high school. According to Niche, the ratio of students to teachers is 12:1
which is below the statutory requirement of 15:1. The average spending per student in the district
is $26,975 (Farell, 2).
● Cultural Influences
Mercer county has different racial and ethnic compositions. 90.2% of the population is
non-Hispanic white,5.6 % non-Hispanic African Americans,1.04 % Hispanic whites, and 0.677
% non-Hispanic Asians. 90% of the students speak the English language at home while the rest
speak other languages such as Spanish, Asian, Indio-European, ect (Farell, 2).
● Regional accrediting body standards for curriculum development
The accredited body standards for curriculum development in Pennsylvania include academic
standards on different subjects which must be covered in the curriculum. The body responsible
for this is the Pennsylvania Board State of Education. The other standards include assessment
anchors for the different disciplines and eligible content that is regulated by the Pennsylvania
System of School Assessment (PSSA). The state education department has also issued early
learning standards that must be incorporated into the curriculum for elementary students
● State and Local policies on curriculum development
The policies on curriculum development are contained in Title 22, Chapter 4 of Pennsylvania’s
code (Pennsylvania, 3). The code requires that the basis for curriculum development of all
students be based on the accredited academic standards. The curriculum should instill critical
thinking skills in the students, communication, developmental writing, and literacy skills.
The discipline and grade for which the curriculum will be developed
The pilot curriculum will address the poor performance of math by 4th grade students. Most
students within and outside Feral county dislike math. They feel that it has a lot of complex
numbers that are difficult to understand and requires a lot of memorization. Also they find it
frustrating having to repeat the same problems to get the hang of it since math requires making
lots of mistakes. Also, they feel that math limits their creativity compared to other disciplines
such as English and science. There is a fixed way of solving math problems that require
memorization which they find burdensome and boring. According to a survey conducted by the
National Centre for Education, most of the students have developed stereotypes in math because
they heard their parents saying math is boring and difficult. Despite this, some still believe that
math is a great discipline that requires the students to put in the extra effort. The discipline is
ranked among the worst performed subjects in the US.
Farrell school area ranked among the bottom 50 schools in Pennsylvania. Only 16% of its
students are proficient in math with grade 4 registering the least performance. In 2018, the level
of poor performance of math in grade 4 was at 58 % compared to other grades that scored below
50% (Farell, 2). Math is a vital discipline that can benefit students in various ways. It enhances
their problem skills, helps them to understand the world better, and equips them with skills that
they can use to solve real-world problems (Sammons, 4). These skills are very essential for the
students in this area since poor performance is also linked to the poverty levels in the country.
Farrell school district is in a poverty-stricken area with a high teacher turnover rate. The ratio of
students to teachers is 15:1 which is below the statutory recommendations (Stebbins & Sauter,
1). The schools lack a well-structured curriculum that can help improve the student’s
performance. Additionally, most of the parents are not educated and fail to support the children,
and the teachers increase the performance gap.
Benefits of pilot curriculum to the students
A pilot curriculum is essential for determining the areas that need improvement and how to best
attain the desired educational goals. It is essential for schools like Farrell school area district that
is based in a poverty-stricken rural area with limited access to resources. The curriculum will
help in mitigating the problems associated with the obsolete curriculum that may arise in the
future. Before design a pilot curriculum, the stakeholders need to address the following questions
● The specific areas that need improvement
● What are the required resources per student
● Can the school afford the resources
● What learning theories will be adopted
● Will the learning theories apply to all the learners
● How will the curriculum cater for the learners with learning disabilities
● What are the anticipated learning outcomes
● How will the new curriculum help change the perception of the students about math
This program enables the stakeholders to determine how satisfied the students are with the old
curriculum and use it to develop the pilot curriculum. They will be able to identify the areas that
need improvement and facilitate the effective allocation of resources. This is achieved through
standardized tests which enable the teachers to identify the students that need specialized care
and areas where they need to allocate more time and resources. This eases the planning process
and increases the outcomes of the curriculum development. The benefits that will accrue to the
students are as follows ;
● Higher performance
This will be achieved through standardized testing. Taking part in the standardized tests will
enable the students to identify their areas of weakness that require improvement. They will then
communicate this to the teachers and stakeholders who will incorporate their needs into the new
curriculum. The students, with the help of the teachers, will begin working on their weaknesses
which will be enhanced with the inception of the new curriculum improving their performance.
The teachers will also be able to identify the students with learning disabilities before the onset
of the implementation of the curriculum and issue instructional goals to help increase their
● Increased Motivation
Students feel motivated when they are engaged in the curriculum development process. They
will be willing to change their perception about the discipline when they realize the
administration wants to address their concerns. One of the causative factors of the student’s
negative perception of mathematics is lack of motivation. This is achieved through issuing
test-based incentives where the students are given a target and rewarded when they achieve it.
The students are therefore motivated to work harder to qualify for the incentives increasing their
● Increased Learning Outcomes
Setting targets and rewarding students for achieving them increases their learning outcomes.
Once a student hits the set target, the bar is set higher and the number of incentives also
increased. The student’s learning outcomes will gradually increase over time as they strive to
reach their targets to attract the incentives. In the process, they will identify their weaknesses and
communicate them with the curriculum developer or their teachers who will ensure that the
inception of the new curriculum addresses their needs.
Instructional goals are the desired learning outcomes from the inception of the pilot curriculum.
The four instructional goals include; critical thinking, problem-solving, understanding the
mathematical language, and increased mathematical confidence
● Critical thinking
The first instructional goal for the curriculum is critical thinking that deviates from the old
approach of memorization to an advanced way of tackling numerical problems. Critical thinking
skills are important when solving math problems as it makes learning to be more significant and
purposeful (Toh & Chua, 5). It will enable the students to internalize the problems and take
predetermined steps without just guessing hence increasing their performance. The new
curriculum will issue guidelines on the activities that the students will be engaged in to improve
their performance. This includes issuing open-ended questions on areas such as addition and
subtraction of fractions and letting them attempt the problems before stepping in. The teachers
will also utilize tools such as Bloom’s Taxonomy and Maths300 to improve critical thinking
among the students. Given the economic nature of the Farrell district, the school will need to
apply for more funds from the state to implement these strategies which I believe will be useful
in improving the student’s learning outcomes
● Problem Solving
Problem-solving is another instructional goal that will improve the student’s learning outcomes.
The concept of problem-solving is based on the fact that math should be understood and not
memorized. Most of the 4th-grade students at Ferrell fail mathematics because they tackle it the
same way they handle other disciplines. Problem-solving enables the students to internalize the
problem, analyze it and be able to explain the procedure if given similar problems (Liljedahl &
Santos-Trigo, 6). This concept applies to the topics of measurement conversion and decimal
● Understanding the Mathematical Language
The other instructional goal for the new curriculum is to ensure the students comprehend the
mathematical language. Understanding math vocabulary is vital for achieving proficiency in the
discipline. The students can utilize critical thinking and problem-solving skills if they apprehend
math vocabulary. The pilot curriculum requires the teachers to start teaching math vocabulary
such as the different symbols, where and how to use them as early as grade one. The students
will be conversant with the symbols when they get to the 4th grade hence improving their
● Increased Confidence
Students who lack confidence will never attempt to answer mathematical questions in class.
They always keep their heads and avoid making eye contact whenever the teacher asks a
question. This is the leading cause of poor performance because the students fail to challenge
themselves hence retarding their learning process. A confident student strives to learn new ways
of solving math problems by attempting advanced problems. They are not afraid to make
mistakes which increases their math skills. To achieve this goal, the teachers should always
praise the students whenever they get a problem right, however simple it may be, and encourage
them to attempt advanced ones (Toh & Chua, 5). Also, the pilot curriculum requires the teachers
to listen to the student’s needs. They can utilize this to understand the student’s areas of
weakness and develop ways of boosting their confidence and improving their performance. This
can be done by issuing rewards whenever a shy student attempts to solve a question during class.
1. Stebbins, S., & Sauter, M. B. (2020, March 11). Making the grade?: In these school
districts, students are less likely to succeed. USA Today.
2. Farell Area School District. (2021). Farrell Area School District.
3. Pennsylvania State Board of Education. (2021). Regulations & Policy. State Board of
4. Sammons, L. (2018). Teaching students to communicate mathematically.
5. Toh, P. C., Chua, B. L., & Association of Mathematics Educators (Singapore). (2018).
Mathematics instruction: Goals, tasks, and activities.
6. Liljedahl, P., Santos-Trigo, M. (2019). Mathematical problem solving: Current themes,
trends and research.