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CLA 2 should be the continuation of your PA 1, CLA 1​ and PA 2.

Demographic variables are widely used by marketers to learn about their customers’ differences in terms of age, income, gender, generations…etc.  write a minimum of seven (7) pages APA formatted paper discussing the differences between generation Y (Gen Y) and generation Z (Gen Z) in terms of their shopping behavior, buying habits, and attitudes toward brands and companies. 

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Gen Y: Gen Y, or Millennials, were born between 1980 and 1994. They are currently between 25-39 years old.

  • Gen Y.1 = 25-29 years old (31 million people in U.S. as of April, 2020)
  • Gen Y.2 = 29-39 (42 million people in U.S. as of April, 2020 )

Gen Z: Gen Z is the newest generation to be named and were born between 1995 and 2015.

They are currently between 4-24 years old (nearly 74 million in the U.S.)

  • How would you use Hofstede Cultural Dimensions to learn about generation Y and Z  in different cultures?
  • Provide a brief comparison between Generational value to the Hofstede cultural dimension 

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6 pages follow the outline (attached) 

“Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Application to International Marketing Strategy and Consumer Behavior”

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Name and Number

Professor’s Name

Assignment Due

“Explain Hofstede Cultural Framework Application To International Marketing And Global Branding?”

Global business is expanding at a rapid pace. More businesses are getting involved in international trade. As a result, businesses must understand the various cultures that exist in the areas where they operate. Hofstede saw cultural differences as a potential source of business difficulty by impeding the successful development of connections (Al-Haddad & Galib, 020). The model includes crucial information on identifying and managing differences (Al-Haddad & Galib, 020). As a result, this paper will demonstrate “how the model can be applied in international marketing, global branding, and consumer behavior and discuss the effects of cultural influence.”

“Application to International marketing”

According to the study, “The model’s first dimension has several implications for international marketing strategy. For example, universalism, prevalent in individualistic cultures, encourages marketing executives to standardize their global marketing strategy, whereas collectivism does not. In this marketing process, the communication strategy changes following the consumers’ personal characteristics (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020).” On that note, managers must recognize that collectivists prefer indirect communication styles and, as such, must incorporate them into their marketing strategy. In a collectivist society, the self is an independent entity that attaches itself to the social context and forms social relationships (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020). Individual behavior, however, shifts from one to the other within an individualistic framework.

As a result, “the self-concept indicates implications caused by consumer behavior, which directly impacts the marketing strategy.”

Identity and image. Evidently, “Physical appearance is directly related to identity and self-esteem in Western culture (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020).” Furthermore, “this level of attractiveness is directly related to cultures characterized by low uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and low power distance (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020).” Unilever used this analogy as part of a global marketing campaign. To appeal to its Western customers, the company’s real beauty campaign emphasized inner beauty (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020). Therefore, “personal identity is an important factor that managers can include in their international marketing strategy.”

“Advertising”

“International marketing” can also be viewed through the lens of advertising, particularly when the Hofstede model is used. According to Huggins et al. (2020), “mental processes influence how consumers process information and, as a result, affect advertising style. Similarly, their social processes encompass the emotions and motivations they hold, influencing how advertising appeals to consumers (Huggins et al., 2020).” To address these processes, marketers will focus on communication and culture in cross-cultural advertising. In a global advertising strategy, the consumer becomes the success factor.

“Application in Globalization of Branding”

According to Hofstede’s framework, ‘the consumer is central to global branding strategy.” According to the authors, cultural values define a person’s self, identity, and personality. Individuals’ perceptions and thoughts are referred to as mental processes, whereas social processes are concerned with how people interact with one another (Chin, Rowley & Wang, 2021). Thus, the model emphasizes individualism.

Another significant finding is the personalities associated with global brands. According to Glauner (2021), strong global brands have the brand characteristic of friendliness in high uncertainty avoidance and low power distance cultures. In contrast, “prestige and trustworthiness were the brand characteristics attributed to strong brands in high power distance cultures.” This finding suggests that consumers frequently assign their personality preferences to global brands (Glauner, 2021). As a result, the power distance and uncertainty avoidance dimensions in global branding have significant implications.

Additionally, “use of the model in global branding is in the individualism/collectivism model.” According to Goularte and Zilber (2019), brand identity shifts in these two cultural contexts. Consistent characteristics, uniqueness, and distinctiveness are critical for global brands in individualistic cultures. On the other hand, “collectivistic cultures see brands as a component of a larger whole that connects the product to a reputable company (Goularte & Zilber, 2019). This provision explains why companies based in the United States display company logos and symbols less frequently than companies based in collectivist cultures, such as Brazil, focusing on customers.” As a result, the model’s first dimension provides valuable insight into consumer perceptions of brands, indicating their preferences for uniqueness and trust.

“Explain Hofstede Cultural Framework Application To Consumer Behavior?”

As stated, “Consumer behavior can be explained from various perspectives, such as product ownership, complaining behavior, decision making, innovation, and product usage, to name a few. The uncertainty avoidance dimension can help to explain differences in consumer behaviors when it comes to product usage and ownership (Lazányi, Holicza & Baimakova, 2017).” Therefore, “consumers in high uncertainty avoidance cultures have a passive attitude toward their health, causing them to focus on food purity, less exercise, and high medical care costs.” Low uncertainty avoidance cultural members, on the other hand, are more concerned with their health and, as a result, prioritize sports and high fitness levels. On the other hand, Masculinity is associated with high expenditures on expensive products (Lazányi, Holicza & Baimakova, 2017).

In terms of innovation adoption, “consumers who avoid uncertainty are less receptive to change.” This aversion to new products implies that such customers are unwilling to buy them. In terms of consumer behavior, “collectivists are less likely to complain about a product because they are loyal customers (Lazányi, Holicza & Baimakova, 2017).” However, retaining the same customer segment becomes difficult when this group of customers disregards a product. Lazányi Holicza, and Baimakova (2017) examine cultural relationships in the context of consumer behavior models, branding, and advertising strategies in their article. To explain the differences in cultural perspectives, the authors employ the Hofstede model. Furthermore, the article evaluates consumer behavior in terms of emotions, cognitive processes, and motivation.

Identify various conceptualizations of culture and acculturation. Notably, “The authors agree that there is a growing body of research on the influence of culture on consumer behavior.” These studies, however, do not take into account cultural differences and the uniqueness associated with multiple cultures (Mbah & Kuye, 2019). As a result, “the article proposes a novel approach to categorizing culture in various contexts.” The three approaches include “nationality, individual culture, and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.” Therefore, the paper explains the Hofstede framework and its application to consumer behavior.

Mbah and Kuye (2019) examine and compares cultural distance in East Asia using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. Kuye specifically observes the Mongolian cultural distance because the country is primarily made up of nomadic people. According to the author, the model has significant implications for researchers interested in exploring and understanding the cultural distance between countries. The study lays the groundwork for comparing cultures in different countries in this regard (Mbah & Kuye, 2019). This research will provide credible information that supports the requirements in the discussion in the professional assignment.

“Provide Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Influenced By Cultural Differences?”

From the research, “Diverse cultural settings incorporate various important customs, values, and traditions. Through their cultural orientations, organizations strive to create value for customers by identifying and meeting consumer needs (Rojo et al., 2020).” This is useful in marketing because “marketers try to communicate the meaning of their products in accordance with cultural requirements.” As a result, this enables organizations to meet the needs of their customers by taking into account different cultural perspectives.

Miscommunication, the creation of barriers, and dysfunctional adaptation behaviors are all disadvantages of cultural influences. According to Rojo et al. (2020), multiculturalism presents a variety of communication challenges. In diverse cultures, however, “dysfunctional adaptation behaviors may occur as individuals become unreceptive to new products or the innovation process.” Furthermore, “intercultural conflicts are common in these environments, making them unsuitable for conducting business (Rojo et al., 2020).” As a result, culture has a negative impact on organizations and business conduct.

Markets are rife with cultural differences. The impact is felt during the implementation of the strategies. One of the benefits of conducting business operations that are influenced by cultural differences is that the processes are user-friendly. As a result, “consumers can easily identify with the product and feel a sense of belonging to it, resulting in a positive image of the product (Rojo et al., 2020).” Furthermore, the product is tailored to meet the needs of the cultural setup, so there is a good chance of making a lot of money.

However, there are some drawbacks. For example, “a company may incur significant costs when producing products that cater to cultural differences (Rojo et al., 2020).” When a company cannot accommodate all cultural differences, it may be perceived as discriminatory and associated with a specific culture. This will harm the company’s reputation in the market.

“Based on Your Research and What you’ve learned from Hofstede Cultural Framework, Suggest a Possible Dissertation Topic?”

In contrast to Brazil, which practices some form of collectivism, America is largely an individualistic society. According to a study conducted by Zilber and Goularte (2018), Americans outperform other cultures in terms of individualism. Unlike in Brazil, “consumers in the United States are more quality and brand conscious because they live in a more individualistic cultural setting.” Furthermore, because of their masculine nature, consumers in the United States are more price-conscious. This contrasts with feminine culture in Brazil, where people are less price-conscious (Zilber & Goularte, 2018). As a result, these dimensions reveal significant differences in consumer behavior between these two countries. Moreover, “there are differences in elements of this dimension in Brazil and the USA within the construct of power distance and individualism/collectivism. Interpersonal distance frequently characterizes the feeling-good nature of individuals in the United States (Zilber & Goularte, 2018).”

Possible Research Topic

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“A possible future research area would involve explaining the relationship between different culture dimensions or approaches to culture on organizations’ performance across the world.”

References

Al-Haddad, H. B., & Galib, M. H. (2020). A Comparative Analysis of Mobile Marketing Adoption in the Light of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. International Journal of Online Marketing (IJOM), 10(3), 62-89.

Chin, T., Hu, Q., Rowley, C., & Wang, S. (2021). Business models in the Asia-Pacific: dynamic balancing of multiple cultures, innovation and value creation.

Glauner, F. (2021). Vices, Virtues, and Values: A Business Case on Family Enterprise and Its Philosophical Implications Implementing Humanistic Management Practices. Humanistic Management in Practice: Volume II, 97-115.

Goularte, A. D. C., & Zilber, S. N. (2019). The moderating role of cultural factors in the adoption of mobile banking in Brazil. International Journal of Innovation Science.

Huggins, K. A., White, D. W., Holloway, B. B., & Hansen, J. D. (2020). Customer gratitude in relationship marketing strategies: A cross-cultural e-tailing perspective. Journal of Consumer Marketing.

Lazányi, K., Holicza, P., & Baimakova, K. (2017). Different Cultures Different People. In Exploring the Influence of Personal Values and Cultures in the workplace (pp. 183-200). IGI Global.

Mbah, S. E., & Kuye, O. (2019). Cross-cultural Human Resource Management Practices: The Case of Nigeria, USA, and Japan. E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies, 8(2).

Rojo, J., Everett, B., Ramjan, L. M., Hunt, L., & Salamonson, Y. (2020). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as the explanatory framework for performance issues during clinical placement: A mixed-methods study. Nurse education today, 94, and 104581.

Zilber, S. N., & Goularte, A. (2018, July). The Moderating Role of Cultural Factors in the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Brazil. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 11859). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES 1

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES 8

Business and Cultures Values

Student’s Name

Institution affiliations

Business and Cultures Values

Culture involves the collective programming of the individual mind from their birth. Notably, collaborative programming induces numerous variances, which distinguishes the various groups of people from another. Thus, the entrant of the business operation in multiple environments requires a comprehensive analysis of the numerous aspects of the cultural trends in the nation. Therefore, the study of the artistic value of the people in the different countries is very effective. The artistic value reflects on the various ways in which people interact and live in the community. Therefore, there is a lot of distinction on the cultural significance of the people in the different nations. The organization establishing the business enterprise in the foreign countries should comprehensively examine the society’s cultural norms. The ideal enables the organization to understand better the market dynamics concerning the cultural norms and values in the country, hence enhancing efficient marketing strategy and identifying consumer behavior.

The dynamic of the cultural difference dimensional between Brazil and the U.S.A vary in various ways based on the Hofstede cultural dimensions. For instance, in the power distance dimension, Brazil reflects that the society believes that the individual in the hierarchy should be respected and inequalities among people are accepted. Thus, the distribution at the helm of power justifies the fact that the power holders favor more benefit in society than the less powerful society. In contrast, U.S.A has a lower power distance; thus, all the people in the nation feel equally entitled to the specific amount of power (Rojo et al. 2020). The ideal makes the decision-making dimension more consultative, making the people in the community relate with each other more equally regardless of the formal positions. Hence the cultural dimensions democratic to an extent. The individual who holds the inferior position has the mandate to question and challenge the individual in the superior work.

On the individualism, Hofstede cultural dimensions hold at 38 indicating, that people in the Brazil Nation are more integrated from birth. Hence, they have a strong, cohesive group primarily represented by the extended family. The aspects are relatively substantial as it provides the favorable business environment. Moreover, the extent of the trustworthy building is somewhat greater in society, especially for the individual within the extended family. Thus, it’s slightly irrational for the organizations to approach the individual they don’t understand well to conduct the business together. On the other hand, the individualism Hofstede cultural dimensions in the case of the U.S.A induce liberty and justice for all, which is emphasized through the aspects of equal right in the dynamic of the American society and government (Glauner, 2021). Thus, the hierarchy in the organization is articulated for convenience.

Moreover, the society is loosely knit where the community expects that the individual should look after themselves and their immediate families only. Furthermore, they hold that they should not at any cost depending on the authorities (Chin, et al.2021). Notably, the organizations have the tenancy of doing business with the people they don’t know well.

On masculinity, Hofstede cultural dimensions hold a scorecard of 49, which indicates the intermediate extent. Thus, the level of masculinity in the nation, which suggests that the government will be driven by competition, achievement, and success, is intermediate; hence the productivity in the government may be relative. Thus, with the medium score, its evidence that the productivity is at the average rate. On the other hand, the Hofstede cultural dimensions in the U.S.A stand at a scorecard of 62, indicating that the combination of the higher masculinity drives productivity forward (Lazányi, Holicza, & Baimakova, 2017). Therefore, the nation has the ease on the productivity culture as the result of the comprehensive competition, extensive organization achievement and success the ideal which creates a lot of dynamism in the society as the society believe in the possibility of doing much better

On the Uncertainty avoidance, Hofstede cultural dimensions, Brazil has a scorecard of 76, which indicates that the individual in the culture feels more threatened by the ambiguity of the unknown situation hence creating the belief and the institution they try to avoid. Thus, the individual in the society indicates the strong need and requirement for inducting the rules and the more effective elaborate legal system to enable better structuring of the life; thus, the individual obeys the rules however weak they are. Therefore in Brazil, the bureaucracy, law and regulations are crucial to making the nation safe to live in. On the other hand, Uncertainty avoidance Hofstede cultural dimensions in the U.S.A stand at the scorecard of 46 (Goularte, & Zilber, 2019). In this context, the perceived context in which most of the Americans find themselves impacts their behavior more than the culture could have done. Thus, there is the normality of adopting the new idea, innovation and willingness to try something different in the community. At some point, the people in the community do not need a lot of rules, and thus they are less emotionally impressive than the higher scoring cultural nations.

On the long-term orientation, Hofstede cultural dimensions, Brazil holds at 44, which is being intermediate? Then, the score indicates that the nation is in the average range in their preference to maintain their time-honoured traditions and norms while still viewing societal change (Zilber, & Goularte, 2018). On the other hand, the long-term orientation Hofstede cultural dimensions of the U.S.A stand at a score of 26. Most of the American people are reflected by the mentality. Thus they are prone in the analyses of the new information to identify its authenticity. Therefore, the culture does not make the most of the Americans pragmatic.

On the indulgence Hofstede cultural dimensions, Brazil has a higher score of 59, indicating that it’s a tolerant society as the individual in society exhibits the effective willingness to release their impulse and desires(Al-Haddad, & Galib, 2020). Notably, most of them pose good and positive altitudes hence tending towards optimism. On the other hand, the indulgence Hofstede cultural dimensions of the U.S.A stands at the score of 68. The score indicates that the culture is diluted as the contradicted altitude and behavior reflect it. The impulse and desire to collect the culture are impossible due to modern socialization.

The Hofstede cultural dimensions are comprehensively crucial for the organization to equip them to formulate an effective marketing strategy. For instance, through the information, it’s possible to identify the norm and values that the nation values through its people. The ideal will enable the organization to determine which product they should sell and study consumer behavior more easily (Huggins et al. 2020). Moreover, the information gathered allows the organization to choose how the nation can adopt the new products in the market. For instance, some countries like innovation and new ideas; thus, adopting the new product is relatively straightforward. The information gathering enables the organization to identify the hierarchy of the rule of law and leadership. The ideal will allow the organization to be more articulate on the effective measure which wills favorer their market entrant. The information allows the organization to study the do and dons of the consumer in the specific nation on the particular products in the market. Moreover, it makes it possible to identify how the product’s consumer can develop the royalty towards the specific product in the market dynamic.

Generally, the evolution of cultural values is relatively effective. The organization should ensure that they scrutinize the cultural aspect of the nation before they establish the business. Moreover, the organization should be more relevant to ensure that they adopt the norm and the artistic value of the country where they have selected, the organization to provide to enhance their conducive operations.

References

Al-Haddad, H. B., & Galib, M. H. (2020). A Comparative Analysis of Mobile Marketing Adoption in the Light of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. International Journal of Online Marketing (IJOM), 10(3), 62-89.

Chin, T., Hu, Q., Rowley, C., & Wang, S. (2021). Business models in the Asia-Pacific: dynamic balancing of multiple cultures, innovation and value creation.

Glauner, F. (2021). Vices, Virtues, and Values: A Business Case on Family Enterprise and Its Philosophical Implications Implementing Humanistic Management Practices. Humanistic Management in Practice: Volume II, 97-115.

Goularte, A. D. C., & Zilber, S. N. (2019). The moderating role of cultural factors in the adoption of mobile banking in Brazil. International Journal of Innovation Science.

Huggins, K. A., White, D. W., Holloway, B. B., & Hansen, J. D. (2020). Customer gratitude in relationship marketing strategies: A cross-cultural e-tailing perspective. Journal of Consumer Marketing.

Lazányi, K., Holicza, P., & Baimakova, K. (2017). Different Cultures Different People. In Exploring the Influence of Personal Values and Cultures in the workplace (pp. 183-200). IGI Global.

Mbah, S. E., & Kuye, O. (2019). Cross-cultural Human Resource Management Practices: The Case of Nigeria, USA and Japan. E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies, 8(2).

Rojo, J., Everett, B., Ramjan, L. M., Hunt, L., & Salamonson, Y. (2020). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as the explanatory framework for performance issues during clinical placement: A mixed-methods study. Nurse education today, 94, 104581.

Zilber, S. N., & Goularte, A. (2018, July). The Moderating Role of Cultural Factors in the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Brazil. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 11859). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES

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Business and Cultures Values

Student’s Name

Institution affiliations

BUSINESS AND CULTURES VALUES 1

Business and Cultures Values

Student’s Name

Institution affiliations

2

Hofstede Cultural Dimensions.

Name:

Affiliation:

Course:

Date:

Overview

In order to gain more insights and information regarding subjects, many researchers opt for a written dissertation that represents research projects. Typically, the Hofstede cultural dimension is a model analyzing four fundamental basic cultural values revolving around masculinity, individualism, femineity, and collectivism. Culture involves the individual’s communal indoctrination from birth. In particular, collaborative programming generates many differences that differentiate between the different groups of individuals. Thus, the beginner of the company activity in various settings needs a thorough study of the country’s many elements of cultural trends. Therefore, it is exceptionally beneficial to examine the creative worth of individuals in various nations.

The aesthetic value represents the many ways people connect and live in the community. The cultural importance of the people in the various countries is thus exceptionally distinguished. The organization establishing the company in other nations should thoroughly study the cultural norms of society. The ideal allows the organization, with the cultural norms and values in the country, to better comprehend the market dynamics, improve its marketing strategy, and identify customer behavior.

There is a significant growth in the number of businesses that have expanded in terms of global business endeavors. As a result, companies need to understand the various distinctions of cultures in the areas of their operations. According to Hofstede’s model, there is always a difference between the cultural wise and potential sources of business difficulty when impeding the successful connection development (Al-Haddad & Galib, 2020). Thus, the essence of this paper is to discuss a dissertation relating to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions by stating the problem, research questions, study limitations, as well as future study recommendations.

Discussion

Flora Chiang’s “A critical examination of Hofstede’s thesis and its application to international reward management” is a publication of discussion in this regard. In cross-cultural studies, Hofstede’s work on job-related cultural aspects was seen as a paradigm of analysis. This means that the Hofstede model has extensively been employed in international management (Chiang, 2005). The study thus begins within a unique manner that involves critiquing the Hofstede thesis.

The statement of the problem.

Cross-Border business often results in businesses directly confronting various political as well as social-economic paradigms and, most importantly, culture. Culture, according to the dissertation, is an essential and most significant factor influencing global operations. As a result, the most comprehensive typology is the one that was endorsed by Hofstede, where national culture is outlined into a set of quantifiable constructs (Rojo et al., 2020). However, despite the popularity behind the Hofstede model, most methodological and theoretical critics characterize this model.

When nations share comparable values on the dimension as recommended by Hofstede’s national culture, managerial techniques are expected to be transferred. Hofstede’s typology has been used to manage and motivate cross-cultural rewards in the workplace. Most studies, however, are not empirical. Prior research is likewise mostly oriented in the US. Thus, when additional nations are involved, the emphasis is usually on a specific cultural component or a certain working group (Chiang, 2005).

The conceptualization of national culture.

Culture is the echo of a person or organization’s most elementary consciously or unconsciously whispered conventions, principles, standards, and values. This entails a structure of values connecting a given group of but not others. Thus, culture can be learned through experiences and passes on to other groups (Lazányi et al. 2017). For Hofstede, culture encompasses other aspects such as values system and values within the structure of culture. However, cultural variations are frequently more visible at a macro level, i.e., by comparing cultures from various areas worldwide. For companies, attitudes and behavior, including communication, management, presentation, inspiration, and satisfaction, demonstrate and express the impacts of culture (Chiang, 2005).

Understanding culture framework.

It’s a tremendous challenge to develop a theory explaining how national cultures differ. Hofstede used many disciplines, including psychology, history, sociology, political sciences, economics, as well as anthropology, to achieve this. , he used a consistent survey tool to gather answers from 66 nations. A range of levels was taken from IBM, a single corporation (Chiang, 2005). Based on his results, Hofstede created a typology that differentiated international cultures in 4 bipolar aspects: distance of power, collectivity individualism, the masculinity-femininity, as well as avoidance of ambiguity.

Hofstede introduced a fifth dimension, Confucian dynamism. Hofstede has shown that a country has cultural characteristics and that these differences improve our knowledge of the ideals and conduct of labor. The national culture conceptualization offers global managers a checklist to grasp specific business issues. In other words, it is possible to utilize the Hofstede framework to anticipate how and why individuals act like themselves.

Research question and hypothesis

According to the dissertation, Hofstede’s work elaborated that culturally predisposed characteristics of a country occur and thus get revealed in various work relating to ethics and behaviors. As a result, this led to four hypotheses that the researcher developed. Hypothesis 1 indicates that people in masculine nations ought to produce a stronger preference in relation to financial rewards as well as individual-based presentation reward systems than the more feminine characterized cultures. This means that individualism leads to a loss of social integration as individuals will be more concerned about focusing on their interests.

This means that there will always be a conflict considering that in an employment environment, for instance, the involved individual’s relationship within an organization thus becomes contractual primarily; however, collectives tend to connect more to their organizations leading to moral commitment. Thus, the researcher argues for a collectiveness type of relation in an organization set up that alone doesn’t depict international culture as individualism also plays a significant role. The last hypothesis is higher power distant nations have a stronger preference for groups and non-performance founded rewards than those nations with lower power distance.

The other hypothesis is that people in various states would prompt stronger preferences for monetary rewards and personal-based presentation reward systems than in collective culture. This means that uncertainty tolerance influences reward preferences. This tolerance, in this case, encompasses uncertainty and ambiguity in different situations. E.g., higher uncertainty avoidance indicates the wiliness to engage in risks and accepting uncertain future market environments. The third hypothesis, individuals in Uncertainty avoidance nations, ought to produce a stronger predilection for fixed rewards and non-performance founded systems than those with a lower uncertainty avoidance. This indicates that society members access unequal power distribution. In superior-subordinate interactions, it is readily apparent to accept disparities in power distribution. Hierarchical organizational structures show that workers accept compensatory differences/inequalities based on ‘pre-determined reasons for non-performance.

Finding of the study

Besides culture, the worth or perceived value of a system of rewards can also be affected by sampling features such as age, sex, education, and position. Whereas comparable patterns appeared in incentive choice, substantial variations across countries were apparent. In contrast, to reward kinds, the reward system choices in the samples were fairly comparable. Multivariate analyses support a country’s similarities and variations in preference, reflected in the different aspects of recompence, i.e., systems, as well as criteria. Mixed findings sustenance convergence as well as divergence (Chiang, 2005).

Culture does not clarify the general strong or weak inclination for distinct incentives for achievement (organizationally). A robust and obvious connection amid performance and reward is essential to expectations. The more control an employee has over their performance in contrast to his company’s performance, the more value the incentive is given (Chiang, 2005). Workers’ fondness for specific performance benefits is thus partly because of a clear and direct connection between personal performance and incentive results instead of a merely cultural phenomenon.

Other variables, including corporate ideals, institutional practice, such as, mass redundancies, and wider economic circumstances, also impacted the priority given to customer interactions and work safety. This implies that numerous preferences and wants are learned rather than culturally motivated to respond to external constraints, for instance, job security. Thus, the desire for rewards is not fully driven by cultural values. A variety of contextual factors may instead cause them. Understanding employee incentive preferences is only relevant when these variables are taken into account. Hence, an integrated approach including a thorough evaluation of micro-and macro aspects in the research of global compensation organization is required.

Although the preferences for different kinds of incentives are similar and different, reward systems are very consistent. The strong and shared preference best shows this for incentive systems that rely on performance, competence, and skill above seniority. This result indicates that culture may affect system choice less directly dependent on human performance, skills, and competencies.

Limitation of the study

The responses of the study were all drawn from a single industry of banking. This means that other sectors were not considered such, which would lead to some bias inclined towards the banking industry. Additionally, the researchers decided to use the banks as they depended majorly on their prevalence in the economy as well as the industry characteristic of having a relative homogeneity in terms of functions and practices across countries.

On the other hand, four main countries were considered. This includes United Kingdom, Finland, China, and Canada. No country was included from Africa, and South America, which also would limit the finding of the researchers in terms of information and responses that would be given in more countries were involved. Additionally, the lack of incorporating many countries indicates that the research finding would be limited to those represented countries, which may differ from other countries with distinct cultures as the sampling countries used in this research.

Recommendations for future studies

There is a need for more research relating to culture and Hofstede’s model to understand what influences culture in international markets. Additionally, similar research should be done on other nations in the same banking industry to determine whether the results obtained in this research would be similar to results obtained in other countries.

Possible dissertation topics

Hofstede’s model on culture influence in nations within Africa. This topic is relevant as it would play a major role in eliminating some of the limitations of the research findings. This is because Africa is a different marketing environment. There is a need to understand the dynamics of culture in such a market environment, especially in banking, considering that most economies in Africa are struggling financially.

References

Al-Haddad, H. B., & Galib, M. H. (2020). A Comparative Analysis of Mobile Marketing Adoption in the Light of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. International Journal of Online Marketing (IJOM)10(3), 62-89.

Chiang, F. (2005). A critical examination of Hofstede’s thesis and its application to international reward management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management16(9), 1545-1563.

Lazányi, K., Holicza, P., & Baimakova, K. (2017). Different Cultures Different People. In Exploring the Influence of Personal Values and Cultures in the workplace (pp. 183-200). IGI Global.

Rojo, J., Everett, B., Ramjan, L. M., Hunt, L., & Salamonson, Y. (2020). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as the explanatory framework for performance issues during clinical placement: A mixed-methods study. Nurse education today94, 104581.

Running Head: WEEK FIVE DISCUSSION

Week Five Discussion

NAME OF THE STUDENT:

NAME OF THE TUTOR:

COURSE TITLE:

DATE:

The outcomes that are learned in this course are essential in making decisions that are related to business. The topics include the following;

(1) Research under business and its uses

(2) Methodologies of quantitative and qualitative research

(3) Focus on depth and group interview

(4) Problem statement definition and objectives of the study

(5) Conducting survey needed for the study and various considerations for the survey done

Business research and uses of such research

Research in business is conducted to ensure that the right information is acquired so that businesses can achieve methods in which they can improve their sales and gain more profits

It is essential as it helps the business to determine the type of customers they are going to encounter and it as well help in determining the type of market segment for a product they are going to introduce

Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies

Quantitative research methodology majorly deals with numbers within a statistic. Information needed for research is collected then presented using tools like charts after which the researcher will make decisions. It is important as a business can be in a position to determine the number of prospects.

Qualitative research methodology business uses this methodology as it is important in determining market and consumer insights (Bryman 2017). Helps the business to know the needs of the consumer and find a way to meet their demands. A business will be in a position to get the correct group for their products.it can be conducted using interviews.

Depth and focus group interview

Depth interview is conducted for a single person and the major aim is to get information about the product from that single customer.

A Focus group interview is based on a group of individuals and it aims at determining the needs of that group concerning the product (Guest, Namey, Taylor, Eley & McKenna 2017).

Problem statement definition and objectives of the study

A problem statement can be said to be an opportunity for a researcher to research something and aim at getting a working solution.

From what we see in the PA1 assignment the conducted research based on the six-pointers relating to a problem statement.

Objectives of the problem are the ideas generated from the problem that has been stated. It’s majorly concerned with determining the possible outcome of the study.

Conducting survey needed for the study

Surveys are conducted on selected topics such that they can determine the data needed for the research (Fulton 2018). For the data to be effective it must be conducted within the shortest period and should be easy to analyze. Any survey conducted should avoid biases and correct information should be attained.

From CLA1 we see that surveys are important as they can be conducted to attain the best information about customer’s needs. Surveys are essential as they ensure that the project is done successfully.

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REFERENCES:

Bryman, A. (2017). Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration. In Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research (pp. 57-78). Routledge.

Fulton, B. R. (2018). Organizations and survey research: Implementing response enhancing strategies and conducting nonresponse analyses. Sociological Methods & Research47(2), 240-276.

Guest, G., Namey, E., Taylor, J., Eley, N., & McKenna, K. (2017). Comparing focus groups and individual interviews: findings from a randomized study. International Journal of Social Research Methodology20(6), 693-708.

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