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find two peer-reviewed journal articles on motivation in regards to avoidance and approach or the Flight-or-Fight response. In your synopsis, you will include:  Reference sources using APA format on a separate page.no plagiarism( show proof)

  • A summary of each of the journal articles
  • The main points discussed in each of the journal articles and how they relate to the week’s course and text readings
  • Your thoughts and perspectives regarding the concepts covered in each of the journal articles



When your fight-or-flight system is activated, you tend to perceive everything in your environment as a possible threat to your survival. Your fundamental physiologic response to the fight-or-flight situation is your body’s primitive, automatic, inborn response that prepares your body to fight or flee from the perceived attack, harm, or threat to your survival. Let’s discuss how this happens.

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Assume you have been working as a police officer for the last ten years. You still feel both anxiety and excitement when you enter a building during an active burglary. As soon as you enter a building, your fight-or-flight response gets activated; your nerve cells fire chemicals such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol into your bloodstream; and your respiratory rate increases.

Blood is directed away from your digestive tract to your muscles and limbs, which require extra energy and fuel for running and fighting. Your pupils dilate, and your awareness intensifies. Even your pain tolerance increases. It’s during these times that you become more prepared—physically and psychologically—for fighting or fleeing.

Avoidant and Approach Motivation.html

Avoidant and Approach Motivation

Kolb’s approach and avoidance motivation model holds that individuals use drugs for different reasons. Some use drugs to increase pleasurable feelings; others use drugs as an avoidance coping measure to avoid situations that induce stress.

Another example of avoidant and approach motivation is in performance.  Performance approach goals focus on attainment of competence relative to others. Performance avoidance goals focus on avoidance of incompetence relative to others.

Performance approach goals relate to positive motivational and achievement outcomes—for example, a person who is excited by the technological advances in our society, is more likely to be attracted to careers that allow him to capitalize on his love of technology. On the other hand, a person who is energized by being around people is going to seek people-oriented careers.

Performance avoidance tasks are often considered stressful. Therefore, an avoidance-oriented individual tries to avoid the stress these tasks cause by ruminating over their difficulty and attributing his or her failure to his or her lack of ability. For example, a person who believed she was a horrible writer is going to avoid careers and courses that require a great deal of writing. In contrast, when confronted by difficulty (or failure), mastery-oriented individuals persist; stay focused on their tasks, and strive to learn.

Most achievement goal theorists conceptualize both performance and mastery goals as the approach forms of motivation. Constructive thinkers see obstacles as learning experiences and tend not to let things bother them, while poorly constructive thinkers see obstacles as “huge mountains that they are unable to climb,” so they choose not to try. They are often overwhelmed by fear and anxiety and, therefore, avoid such tasks. This affects their self-esteem and confidence in trying new risk-taking learning behaviors in the future.

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