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Daniel York

Daniel York

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Purpose Statement and Research Questions

Daniel L. York

Rawlings School of Divinity, Liberty University CLED 770

Author Note

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Daniel L. York

Email:  [email protected]

Relationship Between Research Questions and Purpose Statement

            For mixed-methods research as was utilized by Kiedis’ (2009) research questions (RQ) are typically designed to address a qualitative question, a quantitative question and a mixed methods question (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). “The mixed methods question represents what the researcher needs to know about the integration or combination of the quantitative and qualitative data” (p. 141).  Kiedis asked six questions posed with the intent of narrowing and focusing his purpose statement of understanding the relationship between leadership development models (LDMs) and four select outcome criteria for seminary graduates. Kiedis noted that his specific focus could impact how much his findings were applicable to other populations.  

Why did Kiedis develop his six questions?

           Kiedis (2009) developed RQ1 to establish a taxonomic classification necessary in identifying leadership development models. It addressed the “issue of extant leadership development models” (p. 200).  RQ2 set up an ANOVA to discover for potential relationships between the LDM and how long it took for a graduate to be hired. He addressed the leadership model specifically with the aim of discovering how seminary graduates benefited in terms of seminary and ministry employment. RQ3 utilized an ANOVA to compare scores from the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) with the LDMs. RQ4 used an ANOVA so Kiedis could discover if there was a meaningful relationship between the LDM selected and ministry satisfaction for the graduate. R5 used an ANOVA to find relationships between LDMs and seminary and ministry tenure. RQ6 was a mixed method question which utilized a MANOVA necessary for comparing the LDMs against ministry employment, leader effectiveness, satisfaction and tenure. Overall, by using these six questions, Kiedis crafted a framework that utilized quantitative and qualitative methods together to provide for accurate measurements.

What role did the research questions play in the data analysis?

            RQ1 enabled Kiedis (2009) to identify seven different leadership models utilized by seminaries: Applied, Apprentice, Classic, Distance Education, Extension Site, Hybrid and Partnership. Kiedis carefully explained how these different models were utilized in the hiring process of seminary graduates by providing a description, characteristics, example and for some challenges and reflections. RQ1 led to the development of the “taxonomic classification of leadership development models” added to the statistical analysis of graduates’ answers (p. 201).

RQ2 enabled Kiedis to discover if there was a relationship between the number of employers after graduation and the LDM. This question helped him discover that Applied and Classic models led to more hiring than the Apprentice model.  

RQ3 revealed that there was not a significant relationship between leader effectiveness and the LDM a graduate received.

RQ4 showed Kiedis there was no significant relationship between LDM and ministry satisfaction.

RQ5 helped Kiedis determine that the Apprentice model graduates had less employment history when compared to all the other models (except Partnership model) but overall there was no other significant discovered relationships.

RQ6 helped Kiedis examine the dependent variables: ministry employment, leadership effectiveness, satisfaction and tenure against an independent variable (type of model).


Creswell, J. W. & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed

methods approaches (5th Ed). Sage Publications, Inc.

Kiedis, T. L. (2009). A comparative analysis of leadership development models in post-

baccalaureate theological education. (Publication No. 3401812) [Doctoral dissertation,

The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary]. ProQuest LLC.

What is the relationship between the research questions and purpose statement?

The purpose statement provides a clear problem set that the researcher intends to investigate and the questions reflects the purpose statement in question format. This provides cohesion of the thought process between design, application, metrics, and findings of the subject matter of the research. Therefore, when people read the introduction, research concern, purpose, and questions there is a clear as connection from problem to the direction of the research. Thereby guiding the reader to what to look for and what questions need to be answered in the remaining document. The initial question was broad in that it “asks for an exploration of the central phenomenon or concept in a study (Creswell, 2017).” Then the research provides leading questions for the study to examine in specificity as associated questions delve into specifics the research should cover.

Why did the author develop this set of questions to achieve the research purpose?

The research developed these questions for several reasons. The first of which is to provide a broad perspective to the literature and how the question nests within the greater corpus of literature in the field. Then the research delves into the specificity of the research to carve out the nuance of the study but also the area to be measured.  This is partly to convey the “emerging design” (Creswell, 2017) that helps the researcher to define the why this phenomenon occurs. The identified issue is why does a specific model of development of leaders correlate with if at all to the outcomes derived from pre-selected assessment criteria.

What role did the research questions play in the data analysis?

The questions play several purposes: to provide exploration of the problem set, determine relationship to the phenomena to be research, and narrow the focus of the research answer. The questions provide guidance but also focus to the ultimate end state desired. The researcher cannot answer a question that was not asked in the initial question. Therefore, it focuses the efforts of the research and ultimately the answer. It does not shape the answer, but it does tell the researcher and reader if the target of the study did focus its efforts to addressing the research. Second, it should provide evidence of a relationship between the problem and/or phenomena. This happens when the answers establish the affective changes in person(s) studied. It also addresses the nature of influence a methodology and/or instrument has on the specific thing studied. This ultimately will determine the cause and/or relation the research intended to discover. In this specific case the researcher will discover the relationship between the leadership development model and employment, ministry effectiveness, ministry satisfaction, and tenure.


Creswell J. W. & Creswell J. D. (2017). Research Design. [Liberty University Online Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://libertyonline.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506386690/

Kiedis, T. L. (2009). A comparative analysis of leadership development models in post -baccalaureate theological education (Order No. 3401812). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global; Social Science Premium Collection. (205394512). http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fdissertations-theses%2Fcomparative-analysis-leadership-development%2Fdocview%2F205394512%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D12085

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