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Annotated Bibliography:  for discussion 5


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Module 5: Discussion

Christianity, Judaism, and Islam have some striking similarities. The three are guided by the holy books the bible, Quran, and the Hebrew Tanak for Judaism. They believe in the sovereignty of one true God, and consider polytheism as idolatry. Islam believes in one God Allah, Judaism – Yahweh, and Christians believe that one God is in three persons; father, son, and the Holy Spirit. Each of the three religions believes in the existence of a founder or patriarch whereby Christian resulted from the death and resurrection of Jesus. Muslims believe Mohammed was a prophet who restored the monotheistic worship, and Judaism believes Abraham was the patriarch whose call founded their faith.

The three religions seem to agree on the existence of Jesus only that Islam and Judaism do not agree to his divinity and resurrection. Additionally, the three religions depict massive similarities in attributes of generosity, kindness, charity, harmony, justice, and pilgrimage. In addition, they recognize and teach fasting sacrifice and forgiveness of sins. Historically Christianity emerged from Judaism while Islam is developed from a combination of both Christianity and Judaism. The three religions interchange significant cultural aspects

Byzantine Christians maintained their Christian value surviving a deferent empire after a major influence of Islam. They incorporated their Christian practices in their daily lives mostly the religious orthodoxy that is prevalent to date. The political leaders hold important religious positions in the church. In the 8th century, the Byzantine Christians incorporated unique religious practices that were borrowed from their culture. Byzantine Christians penetrated the education and literature o the Byzantine Empire. The empire initially held many aspects of the Roman system and culture but eventually transitioned to legalize Christianity. Most of their teachings were a mixer of Christianity and some pagan elements such as symbols in coins. Later on, a revolution occurred that termed objects as idolatry and refocused on the monotheism of the bible. The orthodox churches today are the survivors of Byzantine Christians.


Lewis, E. (2020). The Five Pillars of Islam (article) | Islam | Khan Academy. Khan Academy. Retrieved 12 July 2021, from /the-five-pillars-of-islam“>https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/introduction-cultures-religions-apah/islam-apah/a/the-five-pillars-of-islam.

Halsall, P. (2020). Medieval Sourcebook: Iconoclastic Council, 754. Sourcebooks.fordham.edu. Retrieved 12 July 2021, from https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/icono-cncl754.asp.

Annotated Bibliography: for discussion 5

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