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Prior to beginning work on this assignment, please review the article Blended Sentencing Laws and the Punitive Turn in Juvenile Justice(Schaefer and Uggen, 2016). In addition, please review resources included in your Week 3 Annotated Bibliography assignment. Finally, examine the Building a More Just Society (Links to an external site.)  https://iad.scorm.canvaslms.com/RusticiEngine/defaultui/player/modern.html?configuration=sconeID&preventRightClick=false&cc=en_US&ieCompatibilityMode=none&cache=20.1.9.169&playerConfUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fiad.scorm.canvaslms.com%2FRusticiEngine%2FPlayerConfiguration.jsp&package=ApiCourseId%7Cscone_prod.sha256_5cf1ef6215526f5510d4cf431cce5681ffe0ae5e3f4847f8ff8b67db01b85cee%21VersionId%7C0&registration=ApiRegistrationId%7Cscone_prod.assignment.27868870%21InstanceId%7C0&tracking=true&forceReview=false&RedirectOnExitUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fscone-prod.us-east-1.insops.net%2Fpackages%2F158695%2Flaunch_complete%3Flocale%3Den  case scenarios multimedia below.

The Final Paper

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You will prepare a four to six-page paper that addresses the questions below which relate to each of the three sections for the case of People v. Joey Juvenile. There are three sections for discussion with two sub-parts that need to be addressed within each section. The best way to present your paper will be with sub-headings which address each of the “Issue and Process Summaries” listed below.

Be sure to include at least three reliable/credible sources other than the textbook, at least one of which must be found in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library.  It is expected that you will draw resources from your Week 3 Annotated Bibliography assignment, but you may select other resources if you choose to do so.

Note: To access the University of Arizona Global Campus Library directly, click on the Writing Center and Library links in your left navigation. Watch the Database Search Tips (Links to an external site.) video for more and see Searching the University of Arizona Global Campus Library document for assignment-specific search tips.

Note: You are encouraged to integrate any feedback from your instructor and upload the assignment to your ePortfolio (Links to an external site.).

Background

You work as a paralegal in a public defender’s office. In a current criminal case, the public defender represents Joey Juvey, a juvenile, and plans to address criminal justice issues, constitutional principles, cultural sensitivity, and diversity awareness  in the criminal trial and hopes to promote social justice goals in local communities. This is a high-profile case, meaning that the press is reporting on every aspect of the charges on both local and national programs. You have been asked to assist the public defender in preparing theories for defense which not only best benefit the defendant but also highlight the societal issues inherent in the case. To this end, you will explore processes, issues  applications for criminology, and relevant critical perspectives toward the goal of building a more just society.

Your Task

The public defender believes that her defense of Joey Juvey highlights significant criminal justice issues that the public needs to be made aware of and address. The defense lawyer sees herself in a dual function in this case; she must defend her client to the best of her abilities while seizing the opportunity to educate the public about current, critical criminal justice issues. To provide context for the public defender’s public exposure and trial strategy.

Section No. 1: Juvenile Justice, Transfer to Adult Court and the 8th Amendment:  Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Case Description (also included in the multimedia content)

The State wants to transferJoey Juvey from the juvenile justice system to the adult criminal justice system for drug related charges. He is being held in juvenile detention pending trial. If convicted as an adult, Juvey could receive a prison sentence in an adult correctional facility. He grew up and still resides in a severely impoverished community.

The public defender will claim that the correctional facility conditions violate Eighth Amendment rights due to cruel and unusual punishment in the form of overcrowded and unsafe cell conditions. She argues that cell conditions are highly unsanitary and unacceptably crowded in violation of Juvey’s constitutional rights.

Issue and Process Summary

For these issues, examine the following:

  1. The impact of transferring Juvey from the juvenile justice system to the adult criminal justice system, and
  2. Issues in this case include cell conditions within the context of the Eighth Amendment. How will the court examine the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against “cruel and unusual punishment and apply it to Juvey’s case?


Section No. 2: Juvenile Justice and the 5th Amendment Right Against Self-Incrimination

When in custody, Juvey claims that law enforcement asked incriminating questions about the investigation. While his parents were present during the custodial interrogation, law enforcement did not communicate the right to remain silent in Joey or his parents’  primary language. Everyone agrees that his parents have no understanding of the English language. Think about how cultural sensitivity should impact procedures for officers assigned to communities with diverse languages.

Issue and Process Summary

For these issues, evaluate the following:

  1. Can the State prove that Juvey understood the waiver of his Miranda rights, and
  2. How should law enforcement interact with the public and the accused in multilingual communities.


Section No. 3: Racial Make Up of Juries

The defense attorney believes that the county court system systematically fails to summon non-Caucasians for jury trials in the jurisdiction where Juvey’s case could ultimately be tried. She wants to assert that the failure to summons minorities to jury service is a violation of constitutional rights and undermines the legitimacy of the trial process. The defense lawyer has data that shows while the community is comprised 42% Caucasian and 58% minority eligible jurors, but routinely over 80% of those issued a summons to appear for jury duty are Caucasian.

Please review the case summary of Batson v. Kentucky (Links to an external site.) (1985) and Foster v. Chatman (2016) available through the webpage link under the “Required Resources” section and consider how the United States Supreme Court addresses the issue of racial discrimination within the context of juror exclusion.

Issue and Process Summary

For these issues, discuss the following:

  1. fairness in jury pool and jury selection, and
  2. the impacts of juror exclusion by race.


The Building a More Just Society paper

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 7

Annotated Bibliography

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Benekos, P. J., & Merlo, A. V. (2019). A decade of change: Roper v. Simmons, defending childhood, and juvenile justice policy. Criminal Justice Policy Review30(1), 102-127.

According to this article, law implementation is the pursuit of several divisions of the court that operate in an established fashion to strengthen the code by identifying, cautioning, reconditioning, or correcting juveniles who offend the customs and standards governing that society. The article incorporates government authorities such as the mounties, tribunals, and improvements. Communication limits usually in ethnic imbalances in the workforce typically restrict the law implementation policy from operating as required. Because of underrepresentation, youthful individuals, including legacy spokesmen of decisive conversations, frequently neglect the opportunity of law implementation professions because they do not identify with dominant capacity patterns in the department that share their framework. Contracting guidelines for several bureaus that claim U.S. citizenship further feigns a provocation, anticipating a language-rich pond of applicants from appealing to conditions. The article also records that the expense and complexity of administration systems, plus various exams, additional alienates unless conditional proposed petitioners.

All code implementation positions at the district, province, and national phases develop as magistrates hold excellent language abilities. According to this article, some engagements delivered every day within the division that calls officers to interact in a language different from English cover the following. They attempt to approach associates at an event in an appropriate and promising approach to disperse anxiety and rebuild the confidence of the juveniles. Next is discussing with spectators or offenders’ houses and getting a genuine declaration. Third, reviewing the unlawful project and cooperating with associates beyond territories. Lastly, to instruct the citizens while forming trustful bonds through delivering presentations at institutions or society youths.

Akers R.L., Jennings W.G. (2019). The Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance. In: Krohn M., Hendrix N., Penly Hall G., Lizotte A. (eds) Handbook on Crime and Deviance. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20779-3_6

Criminology is usually acceded to be amongst the various departments of synecology. According to this article, it is the research of several perspectives of offense and transgressive habits, for example, its ideas, prognosis, and restriction. It additionally examines the policies, including civil and unusual designs at practice following juvenile delinquency. Criminology is an interdisciplinary arena, pulling from analysis conveyed in fields of anthropology, medicine, finance, and psychotherapy to justify unlawful conduct of the youths. It concentrates on numerous perspectives, including the foundations of youthful transgression, sorts of wickedness, and the appearance of sin. It further looks at the cultural and specific consequences of infringement, responses to juvenile scandals, and the consequence of youth delinquency.

This chapter helps courts and officers to uncover and appraise the causes of causes youthful crime, which in turn is essential towards crime mitigation strategies and leadership. The article further discusses and helps magistrates conjecture the mindset of youthful offenders. This chapter supports court experts to recognize the mindset of perpetrators, why they perform atrocities, and the determinants that influence them. The article further provides improvement to educate juvenile criminals as well as commanding and defeating childhood delinquency. Moreover, this report also suggests relevant projects for the restoration of teenage offenders. The article also discusses society extension craftsmanship. It states that operating in alliance expansion will accommodate civil innovation and enhance the essence of experience in various towns. In this presentation, a judge can be the bond connecting juveniles in society and legal forms. Obligation entails recognizing population obligations plus wants and encouraging general consciousness concerning widespread problems in the youthful society. Additional roles according to this article include adjusting systems and statements, raising plus distributing capitals generating approaches, and outlining plus organizing exhibitions to lower youth delinquency.

Feld, B. C. (2018). Punishing kids in juvenile and criminal courts. Crime and Justice47(1), 417-474.. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/695399

According to this article, tribunals fashioned only of one phyletic organization are constitutional in the United States Nation. While the phylogenetic distribution of panels is not delivered by authority, racial discrimination in the collection regarding jurymen is absolutely forbidden. The opening division discusses the investigation on tribunal prejudice, which confirms that foremen frequently present severer sentences of offenders from different phylogenic and ethnic societies and happen more reasonable to yield death penalties in cases concerning Latino or Black parties and White individuals.

According to the author of this article, selection systems that purposefully eliminate black personalities from tribunals weaken civil reliance on the integrity of the tribunal policy of legalization. The Court ruling a wrongful situation can begin an equal stability requirement based on the inequitable use of comprehensive difficulties at a respondent’s analysis. The 1875 Civil Rights Bill serves to stop community-based unfairness in tribunal participation. This act helps constitutional authorities and judicial analysts to review juror declaration manners and inclinations for two purposes. The first is to help decrease the abundance of fallacious interpretations that appear. Next, to ensure juvenile offenders obtain a civil action without prejudice.

Smith, H. P. (2021). The Role of Virtual Reality in Criminal Justice Pedagogy: An Examination of Mental Illness Occurring in Corrections. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511253.2021.1901948

According to the author of this article, jail congestion, wellness administration, racialism, gang action, privatization, and onslaughts, are quite difficulties that face penitentiaries. For this reason, several advocates are requesting guardhouse improvement. The writer indicates that millions of youths are presently remaining behind pubs in the U. S Nation. Due to these problems in cells, the youth get exposed to severe threats of pandemics and torture. Some even engage forced into homosexuality habits.

This article attempts to outline various reforms that need to be modified in the cells to improve those severe conditions faced by prisoners. It outlines reducing the tally of juveniles in provincial cells can help to lower these constraints. The author argues that state directors need to learn that prisons are less implemented to control pandemics. Therefore, it crucial to lessen the weight of a likely outbreak on cells. According to the article, two approaches to diminish jail overcrowding and other dilemmas include reducing charges or delivering more criminals.

Loeffler, E., & Bovaird, T. (2020). Assessing the impact of co-production on pathways to outcomes in public services: the case of policing and criminal justice. International Public Management Journal23(2), 205-223. https://doi.org/10/1080/10967394.2019/1668895

The author of this chapter states that mounties depend on critical reasoning when determining unlawful actions, whence to counter, including the time to arrest a juvenile criminal. Analysts and investigative directors further apply analytical meditation to assemble proof, determine a violation, and identify a defendant. The aim of critical thinking in the Criminal Justice System is to present consideration for every juvenile criminal. This involves condemning and sentencing the sinful and encouraging them to stop trespassing while defending the innocent youths.

This section outlines the influence of critical criminology as the technical prospect in criminology. The article provides that it centers on stimulating conventional perceptions and revealing erroneous assumptions regarding infringement and wicked regulation. The article tries to provide how prosecutors can employ interpretive reasoning to accumulate proof, determine a violation. It presents a genuine perspective in more critical circumstances, such as tumult restriction. The article further shows how sharp reasoning becomes fundamental in resolving a proper way to respond and preserve youthful moral values in society.

References

Akers R.L., Jennings W.G. (2019) The Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance. In: Krohn M., Hendrix N., Penly Hall G., Lizotte A. (eds) Handbook on Crime and Deviance. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20779-3_6

Benekos, P. J., & Merlo, A. V. (2019). A decade of change: Roper v. Simmons, defending childhood, and juvenile justice policy. Criminal Justice Policy Review30(1), 102-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887403416648734

Feld, B. C. (2018). Punishing kids in juvenile and criminal courts. Crime and Justice47(1), 417- 474.. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/695399

Loeffler, E., & Bovaird, T. (2020). Assessing the impact of co-production on pathways to outcomes in public services: the case of policing and criminal justice. International Public Management Journal23(2), 205-223. https://doi.org/10/1080/10967394.2019/1668895

Smith, H. P. (2021). The Role of Virtual Reality in Criminal Justice Pedagogy: An Examination of Mental Illness Occurring in Corrections. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511253.2021.1901948

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