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Myocardial damage occurs once myocardial infarction (MI) takes place, thus increasing the risk for heart failure (if the individual survives, following the MI). According to McCance (2019), “myocardial infarction causes the loss of some of the muscle cells needed to maintain cardiac output, thus increasing the risk of heart failure in survivors” (pg. 1019). MI most likely causes heart failure of the left ventricle (LV), specifically LV dysfunction. When LV dysfunction takes place, it can cause pulmonary vascular congestion, where systemic perfusion is reduced and symptoms such as dyspnea, pink frothy sputum, and edema occur. Factors that affect the severity of the LV include length of time coronary blood flow was interrupted, because interruption in blood flow could cause necrosis, and depending upon the level of necrosis would determine the severity of related failure. When ischemia is present, myocardial cells will release epinephrine and norepinephrine causing sympathetic and parasympathic abnormalities leading to aryhimias and heart failure. (McCance, 2019, pg. 1084)

DVT manifestions include swelling of the area, redness, and pain to the touch, however some DVTs are asymptomatic. DVT management includes prevention, such as taking a daily baby aspirin, exercise, wearing compression stockings, not sitting for more than four hours at a time, and ankle flexion exercises while sitting. Sometimes a DVT will go away on it’s own, however sometimes medication is necessary for dissolving the clot or even surgical removal interventions.

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Summary of some of the things I learned from the CDC DVT video include the following: trauma to the body such as surgery, bone fractures, pregnancy, giving birth, being over 65 years old, being overweight, having active cancer, history or family history of blood clots increases the risk of DVT. A DVT typically forms in the upper part of the leg between the knee and the pelvis. If the clot breaks off, it can travel to the lungs; a clot in the lungs is called a pulmonary embolism (PE) and can be fatal. The CDC estimates there are 350,000 – 900,000 new cases of DVT are diagnosed every year. Common signs of DVT or tenderness to the touch, new swelling, redness, and skin that is warm to the touch. Knowing symptoms of PE include chest pain (especially when taking deep breaths), feeling lightheaded, or coughing up blood. Everyone is at risk for DVT, so knowing the signs can be life saving.

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