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Essay 1 – Evolutionary Psychology 

Evolutionary psychology has had a significant influence on the discipline of psychology but some take issue with its foundational assumptions.

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·  Describe your worldview.  Some of the constructs from the BWVI are relevant and may help you think through your worldview. 

·  Is evolutionary psychology compatible with your worldview? 

·  What are the strengths and weaknesses of evolutionary psychology

Essay Instructions:   

In General Psychology, you will write several essays throughout the term.  For each essay you will answer a question about the week’s topic(s), writing in a way that is engaging and furthers discussion on the topic. Use the guidelines below to write a substantive essay:

1.  Each essay must include at least 400 words. 

2.  While meeting the word count is important, it is possible to write an essay that is long enough, but not substantive enough to earn full credit.  The second criteria of a good essay is including a clear and substantial answer to the prompt.  When preparing your essay, ask yourself, 

·  Does my essay answer the question or questions being posed? 

·  Does it clearly answer all parts of the question, supported by course materials?

3.  When answering the essay question, it is important to use concepts, research, and/or theories from the week’s material to support your thoughts.  A good essay will:

·  Offer a thoughtful response on the topic being discussed, and 

·  Demonstrate a thorough understanding of the topic by using material from the resources provided for that week in your answer. Using anecdotes or personal experiences are not as substantial or scholarly as using research and/or theory to advance the discussion.

4.  A good essay offers something new and fresh. 

·  Avoid simply answering the question with a simple response or reiteration of what the textbook says. 

·  Present information in a way that advances thought on the topic and shows a clear understanding of and reflection on the material.  

·  Demonstrate your knowledge by presenting facts.

·  Demonstrate your understanding by providing practical application.

·  This does not mean that you write and write and write, but rather that you present a thought-filled and reflective essay that addresses the question being asked in a way that demonstrates a true depth of understanding of the week’s material.  

5.  A good essay is written in a scholarly way. Each essay:

·  Is free of grammatical and spelling errors,

·  Uses current APA format (Student Standards),

·  Includes in-text citations and a reference section,

·  Includes an APA-formatted title page,

·  Demonstrates a solid understanding of course concepts by using scholarly sources rather than personal experience or anecdotes.

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NOTE You may revisit this report and re-take the assessment, up to a total of 4 times, at a later date.

YOUR BIBLICAL WORLDVIEW

Ontology Cosmology Eschatology Axiology Praxeology Epistemology

Established Established Established Established Established Established

72 90 90 71 86 81

For each of the six worldview categories above you will see an indicator of ESTABLISHED (showing a higher degree of alignment), BUILDING (a medium degree of

alignment), or DEVELOPING (a lower degree of alignment).

Assessment taken on May. 14, 2021

ABOUT THIS REPORT

This graphic represents your score in each of the constructs identi[ed as most directly related to the foundations of a Biblical worldview. Each of these areas is necessary for an individual to have a fully-developed worldview.

Keep in mind, this is not a measure of your spirituality or behavior. However, it does show whether what you believe to be true, or not true, is consistent with the truths presented in the Bible. Lower scores show less alignment and higher scores show higher alignment. This assessment is also not an indication of salvation, but is a measurement of whether what you believe to be true is consistent with the historically accepted interpretation of the Bible. Let’s take a closer look at your score and some suggestions for further study and reeection.

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Ontology Ontology is primarily concerned with the nature of reality and is typi[ed by the question ‘what is?’ Different ontological approaches look at how we understand the physical and social world, and its nature. Are there multiple realities and what are my assumptions about them? Or how can I know something exists? This area of study helps us to ask the questions related to our understanding of the world and realism and idealism.

Your score indicates a high level of alignment with the construct of Ontology, or how we understand reality, in a Biblical worldview. This means that when asked questions about the nature of the world and what we can know about it, your beliefs are signi[cantly consistent with what is historically recognized as Biblical.

You might be asking, ‘What are some of the Scriptural references in this area of what is real? (Ontology)?’ Look no further. Below is a list of speci[c verses foundational to studying Ontology from a Biblical standpoint:

Genesis 3:6, 17 Romans 2:15 Romans 3 Romans 5:12-19 2 Corinthians 5:19-21 Romans 10:13-17

The nature of reality, and how we can know what is real is a very challenging philosophical concept to understand. However, for any worldview to be viable, it must be able to address this questions of existence and reality. Each of us operates with a set of beliefs about reality that guide our actions, even if we don’t realize that they are there and even if we can’t articulate them. For example, we operate our daily lives with the belief that what we are experiencing is real, and not just a [gment of our imagination or a dream. Is that a conscious decision that we make, to choose to believe that? Did we decide to believe that after looking at all the evidence? Likely, we just assume that what we are experiencing is reality, and this reeects a part of our worldview. The Bible provides us with an understanding of why we operate in such a way. As we see in the verses mentioned above, such as Romans 2:15, we have an understanding about reality and how the world operates that is “written on our hearts.” The Bible provides an explanation for the assumptions that we have about the world in which we operate.

Cosmology Cosmology is primarily concerned with how things originated. This is both scienti[c and non-scienti[c. This area deals with beliefs about the beginnings of the universe and creation of humanity. How did we come to exist and why? Are there likely alternatives for the origin of the universe and humanity? This area of study helps us to ask the questions related to the process of how things began.

Your score indicates a high level of alignment with the construct of Cosmology, or the study of origins, in a Biblical worldview. This means that when asked questions about how the Universe came into existence, or why is the world is the way that it is, your beliefs are signi[cantly consistent with what is historically recognized as Biblical.

You might be asking, ‘What are some of the Scriptural references in this area of where did everything come from? (Cosmology)?’ Look no further. Below is a list of speci[c verses foundational to studying Cosmology from a Biblical standpoint:

I Timothy 1:17 Genesis 1:1-31 Genesis 1:26 Genesis 3:6-8 Romans 5:12-19 John 1:2-3

Cosmology is related to answering the questions related to origins, and “why is there something instead of nothing?” How that question is answered is based on the worldview of the individual. Again, we live with a belief about this question, even if we haven’t articulated it. Do we live as if the universe was created by alien masters who formed us using complicated machinery and who will return again someday? Probably not, but if we believed that, it would affect how we lived, right? Ask yourself, what do I believe about the origin of the universe, and am I living a life that is truly consistent with that belief? If the universe began as a collection of material and energy with no moral value or ultimate purpose to existence, from what am I [nding my own purpose? If the universe was not established with a purpose, how can I establish a purpose for myself, and why do I even desire a purpose? The Bible teaches us that the universe was created by God, with a purpose, and that we are a part of that purpose. This gives meaning to the existence of the universe and to us.

Eschatology Eschatology is primarily concerned with having a belief regarding where the universe in general, and humanity speci[cally, are headed. Are we moving toward a greater level of goodness, or are we headed for lower and lower levels of depravity? Are there multiple futures or is there one pre-determined future? This area of study helps us to ask the questions related to the potential future outcomes of our actions.

Your score indicates a high level of alignment with the construct of Eschatology, or prediction of the future, in a Biblical worldview. This means that when asked questions about the future or how you determine where humanity is headed, your beliefs are signi[cantly consistent with what is historically recognized as Biblical.

You might be asking, ‘What are some of the Scriptural references in this area of where are we going? (Eschatology)?’ Look no further. Below is a list of speci[c verses foundational to studying eschatology from a Biblical standpoint:

Acts 17.31 2 Corinthians 5:10 Romans 4:10-12 Matthew 25:31-46 Revelation 21:27 John 5:25-29 Hebrews 12:23

When it comes to eschatology, the practical question that we all have to ask ourselves is, what can I know about the future that will allow me to make better decisions about the present? This question has a real effect on our present situation. If we are going toward a meaningless and chaotic future, then we lose the ability to see how our decisions now make any difference. If everything is moving towards nothingness, then why worry about anything but temporary and immediate grati[cation?

When we save money or engage in self-sacri[ce for the bene[t of others, we are envisioning a future that has meaning, and where our decisions make a difference. What the Bible teaches us is that not only do our actions have meaning in the future of our life here on earth, but they will have rami[cations for eternity. This gives weight and meaning to our everyday decisions, that helps us to understand that there is more beyond what we currently see and know. While the Bible does use some imagery in the book of Revelation that makes for challenging interpretive issues, that is not all that the Bible has to say about the future of humanity. The Bible teaches us that our decisions here, during our time on earth, have eternal consequences, and that should give us hope, but also opportunity for

Axiology Axiology is primarily concerned with good and evil. The answer, or designation of what you perceive to be good and what you perceive to evil, gives you direction and purpose, providing the foundation to determine how you should live. How you determine what is valuable to you relies on your understanding of good. This area of study helps us to ask the questions related to what is preferable or desirable.

Your score indicates a high level of alignment with the construct of Axiology, or how we determine what is good and what is evil, in a Biblical worldview. This means that when asked questions about the value of good or evil or how you determine where humanity is headed, your beliefs are signi[cantly consistent with what is historically recognized as Biblical.

You might be asking, ‘What are some of the Scriptural references in this area of determining what is good and what is evil? (Axiology)?’ Look no further. Below is a list of speci[c verses foundational to studying Axiology from a Biblical standpoint:

2 Timothy 3:15-16 1 Thessalonians 2:13 Psalm 145:17 Deuteronomy 30:19 Romans 8:7-8 Romans 7:14-25

Axiology is the study of how we can know what is good, and what is evil. How do we separate those things that we believe to be good for ourselves and others, and how do we de[ne what is undesirable or evil. Is there even a true and objective good and evil? The Biblical manner of understanding this is that God is the source of goodness, and that disobedience or rebellion against God is evil. We are to seek out that which is of God, and we are to avoid those things that are not consistent with His nature or the truth He has given us. We can know good and evil through a couple of different means. God has given us a natural law that is “written on our hearts”, a “general revelation” of Him and His will. He has also given us the Bible, which He provided to us through holy men who were inspired by the Holy Spirit, this falls under a “special revelation”, and allows us to understand the speci[cs about God and Christ. These revelations work together to help us know good and evil.

Praxeology Praxeology is primarily concerned with how we should act and what is guiding our actions. The practical-ness of this area of study helps us implement plans of action, (based on our values), that answer practical problems we are facing. What are the guidelines I use to determine what I should do in a given moment? This is where you see the application of your preferences and choices. This area is concerned with solving problems in a practical way, based on the already chosen values.

Your score indicates a high level of alignment with the construct of Praxeology, or theory of action, in a Biblical worldview. This means that when asked questions about how humanity should act, or solve problems, your beliefs are signi[cantly consistent with what is historically recognized as Biblical.

You might be asking, ‘What are some of the Scriptural references in this area of how should we act? (Praxeology)?’ Look no further. Below is a list of speci[c verses foundational to studying Praxeology from a Biblical standpoint:

Exodus 20 1 John 2:3, 5 Colossians 3:15-17 Deuteronomy 10:4 Matt 22:37-40 Romans 2:14-15 1 John 1:1, 14

Praxeology is a worthy addition to worldview, as it is a study of the way we take the larger values of axiology and give them practical application. It helps to answer the question of how we should act, now that we have determined what is good and what is evil via our axiology? How do we put together a plan of action for our lives that will help us to move forward and be successful in the framework of the values we have been given. Praxeology is important for a cohesive worldview, as it takes the worldview out of the realm of philosophy and provides concrete action for our lives. For the Biblical worldview, it is in this construct that we see some of the speci[cs for how we can direct our lives, such as the 10 commandments. These are speci[c guidelines for how we are to move forward and act in our lives. We can also see the Biblical mandates in the New Testament regarding how we are to treat our neighbor as well as spread the Gospel.

Epistemology Epistemology is a dihcult construct to understand… philosophers have been debating if we can know and how we can know since Socrates and Theaetetus debated it somewhere around 370BC. And that’s just the earliest argument we know about. The interesting thing about epistemology, and what has contributed to the debate, is that it is inherently grounded in faith. There is no way to prove the validity of our own logic and reason, we must simply believe and assume them to be true in order to move forward in understanding the world around us.

Your score indicates a high level of alignment with the construct of Knowledge in a Biblical worldview. This means that when asked questions about the source of knowledge or how you determine what is or isn’t true, your beliefs are signi[cantly consistent with what is historically recognized as Biblical.

You might be asking, ‘What are some of the Scriptural references in this area of Knowledge (epistemology)?’ Look no further. Below is a list of speci[c verses foundational to studying epistemology from a Biblical standpoint:

Psalms 92 Psalm 90:2 Isaiah 45:5-6 Ephesians 1:11 Romans 11:36 Exodus 34:6-7

Epistemology is similar to Ontology, in that it is concerned with how we know what we know, and the method we use to obtain further knowledge. We believe that our use of logic and reason is valid, but how can we prove that logic is objectively valid, meaning that it accurately reeects objective truth? If we tried to use logic to support our belief in logic, that is circular. We can’t prove logic is objectively true, so we assume it to be true and use it to formulate a system of understanding about our lives. However, we have to look at that assumption carefully. Logic assumes an order to the universe, and that there is a system in place that we can use to guide further understanding of our world. However, is it safe to assume that the universe is ordered, and can each worldview account for that order? If the universe is a result of a chaotic beginning, can order come from chaos? How would that be possible? Simply saying that the universe is ordered may explain what IS true, but it doesn’t account for WHY it is true. The Bible puts forth the belief that our universe is ordered by an orderly, sovereign, creator, and that creator has given us the tools to increase our understanding of the world.

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