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Data can be qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative data are helpful to generate a hypothesis and gather information if little is known about an expected association. Focus groups, key informant interviews, and case studies are types of qualitative data collection methods used to identify common themes from which to build a hypothesis. Quantitative data collection and analysis are used to test a hypothesis and make comparisons to determine the direction and strength of a potential association. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is cross-sectional panel survey used to collect quantitative data on adult behaviors and risk factors. It is one of the largest U.S. health data collection efforts. The data can be used to analyze associations on a state or country level.

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For this assignment, use the “BRFSS Web-Enabled Analysis Tool” and the “Calculation Odds Ratio” worksheet. Refer to the “Odds Ratio Interpretation” document for assistance as needed.

You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

Rubic_Print_Format

Course CodeClass CodeAssignment TitleTotal Points
PUB-540PUB-540-O500Calculating Odds Ratio100.0
CriteriaPercentage1: Unsatisfactory (0.00%)2. Less Than Satisfactory (74.00%)3. Satisfactory (79.00%)4. Good (87.00%)5. Excellent (100.00%)CommentsPoints Earned
Criteria100.0%
Part 1: Table10.0%The table is not completed.N/AThe table is complete but incorrect values are placed in the cells.N/AThe is complete and accurate.
Part 1: Odds Ratio Calculation15.0%Odds ratio is not calculated or presented.Odds ratio is calculated but is not correct or is incomplete.Odds ratio is calculated and mostly correct but shows a slight misunderstanding.N/AOdds ratio is correct. Calculations are provided and correct.
Part 1: Odds Ratio Interpretation15.0%Odds ratio interpretation is not presented.Odds ratio interpretation and association among variables are presented but are not correct.Odds ratio interpretation is presented, but slight misunderstanding is apparent. The association between the variables is summarized but shows a slight misunderstanding.Odds ratio interpretation is presented and accurate. The association between the variables is adequate.Odds ratio interpretation is thoroughly presented and accurate. The association between the variables is accurate. An in-depth understanding of the odds ratio is apparent.
Part 2: Table10.0%The table is not completed.N/AThe table is complete but incorrect values are placed in the cells.N/AThe is complete and accurate.
Part 2: Odds Ratio Calculation15.0%Odds ratio is not calculated or presented.Odds ratio is calculated but is not correct or is incomplete.Odds ratio is calculated and mostly correct but shows a slight misunderstanding.N/AOdds ratio is correct. Calculations are provided and correct.
Part 2: Odds Ratio Interpretation15.0%Odds ratio interpretation is not presented.Odds ratio interpretation and association among variables are presented but are not correct.Odds ratio interpretation is presented, but slight misunderstanding is apparent. The association between the variables is summarized but shows a slight misunderstanding.Odds ratio interpretation is presented and accurate. The association between the variables is adequate.Odds ratio interpretation is thoroughly presented and accurate. The association between the variables is accurate. An in-depth understanding of the odds ratio is apparent.
Importance of Association to Public Health15.0%The public health importance of the association is not discussed.The public health importance of the association only partially discussed.The public health importance of the association is summarized. Some support is needed.The public health importance of the association is discussed. Minor detail is needed for accuracy or clarity.The public health importance of the association is discussed and well supported.
Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use)3.0%Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is employed.Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)2.0%Sources are not documented.Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.
Total Weightage100%

Odds Ratio Interpretation

1.0or(≈ 1.0)Means that the odds of exposure among cases is the same the odds of exposure among controlsThe exposure isnot associatedwith the disease
> 1.0Means that the odds of exposure among cases is greater than the odds of exposure among controls and positively associated with the outcomeThe exposure may bea risk factorfor the disease.
< 1.0Means that the odds of exposure among cases is lower than the odds of exposure among controls and negatively associated with the outcomeThe exposure may beprotectiveagainst the disease.

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Calculating Odds Ratio

Odds ratio is a measure of association used in epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between disease and exposure. In this exercise, you will calculate and interpret odds ratio using real-world examples.

Odds Ratio

In case control studies the odds ratio (OR) is the measure of the association between the frequency of an exposure and the frequency of an outcome. The OR is an indirect measure of risk in case control studies because incidence rates cannot be calculated.

The formula for odds ratio is: (A/C) ÷ (B/D) or (AD)/(BC).

Remember, data from an output source may not be ordered according to the table. Ensure that the output data corresponds to the table, or you will calculate incorrectly when you apply the formula.

Disease Status
Exposure StatusYesNoTotal
YesABA + B
NoCDC + D
TotalA+CB+DA+B+C+D

For this assignment:

1. Retrieve the “BRFSS Web-Enabled Analysis Tool” resource provided in the study materials.

0. Select “Cross Tabulation.”

0. Select “2015” for the year.

0. Select “Arizona” for the state.

0. Select “Alcohol Consumption: Binge drinkers (males having five or more drinks on one occasion, females having four or more drinks on one occasion)” for Step 2 Select Row.

0. Select “Chronic Health Conditions: Ever diagnosed with a depressive disorder, including depression, major depression, dysthymia, or minor depression” for Step 3 Select Column.

0. Skip Steps 4 and 5.

0. Select “Sample Size” for Step 6 Select Statistics and run the report for the cross tabulation.

Part 1

Using the data from the cross-tabulation results, calculate the odds ratio for depression among those exposed to binge drinking. Refer to the formula provided above.

Exposure StatusYesNoTotal
Yes
No
Total

1. Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer. Show all calculations.

2. Interpret the odds ratio. In your interpretation, describe the association between the variables and indicate whether there is a positive, negative, or no association.

Part 2

Use the study material, “BRFSS Web-Enabled Analysis Tool,” located on the CDC website, and run a report for two variables of interest to you.

Exposure StatusYesNoTotal
Yes
No
Total

1. Present or describe the formula you used to arrive at your answer.

2. Interpret the odds ratio. In your interpretation describe the association between the variables and indicate whether there is a positive, negative, or no association.

3. Discuss the public health importance of the association.

© 2020. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

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