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Reading for discussion 1

Davis, K., Stremikis, K. Squires, D., & Schoen, C. (2014, June). Mirror, mirror on the wall, 2014 update: How the U.S. health care system compares internationally. The Common Wealth Fund Executive Summary. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/fund-reports/2014/jun/mirror-mirror

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Fred, H.L. (2016). Cutting the cost of health care. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 43(1), 4-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4810583/

Voices from Oxford. (2013, February 14). Comparing British and U.S. healthcare systems.  Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUSU6OsNxQk (9:48)

Discussion 1

Compare the U.S. healthcare system to other developed countries in terms of quality, access, value for money and equity. Please explain your answers.

Cite your source(s) and respond to the response below.

The United States lags behind many of its developed counterparts as it relates to the cost of services and the vast number of uninsured citizens. Their is a lack of a single payer system, like in Canada and Germany, and there  is an open marketplace and strong competition from  private insurance companies. In terms of wait time for specialized surgeries and diagnostic procedures, the wait time is longer in Canada than in the US. For instance ,in 1997 Canada’s 53 MRIs meant one for every 572,000 citizens (contrast that figure to 2046 MRIs in the U.S., one for every 130,800 Americans). Access to open heart surgery and organ transplantation is also restricted.That same year the 245 CT scanners in Canada meant one for every 123,500 citizens. The United States had 3667 CT scanners, one for every 73,000 Americans (Henderson 487).

The advanced state of technology is the greatest strength of the U.S. health care system. Premature babies for example, face relatively good chance of surviving if they are born in the United States because of the state of technology. A relatively high life expectancy after age 80 is another reflection of the advanced state of health care technology in the United States. People 80 years and older in the U.S. tend to live longer than their counterparts in most other countries because of the abundance of advanced medical technology. Also the United States continues to be the world leader in pharmaceutical innovation. These products save, extend and improve the quality of lives.Unfortunately, the U.S. health care system is not without weaknesses. Its most glaring weakness is exemplified by the fact that more than 42 million people are without health insurance. The lack of health insurance creates medical access problems and subjects a family’s income to their  health status. The inability to successfully control costs is another major weakness of the U.S. health care system. The growth of health care costs continues unabated, although the pace has slowed in recent years mostly due to the influence of managed – care organizations. Whether managed care can continue to slow the growth of health care costs remains questionable. Eliminating the weaknesses while maintaining the strengths is a challenge faced by any plan for changing the U.S. health care system (Ridic ,et al, 2012).

Variations exist in terms of financing, provider payment mechanisms, and the role of government, including the degree of centralization. The United States stands out as the country with the highest expenditures on health care. It would appear that systems that ration their care by government provision or government insurance incur lower per – capita costs. On the other hand, in the largely private system in the United States, waiting times tend to be shorter than in rationed systems, a conclusion that follows simply from theory as well as from observation. Americans have been more dissatisfied with their health system than Canadians or Germans have been with theirs. Many characterize the main gap in the American system as the problem of the uninsured – more than 40 million people. While this does not mean that they go entirely without care, the uninsured consume only half as much health care on average as the insured.Among three countries, ( The US, Canada and Germany the United States is by far the biggest spender in absolute per capita terms. It is also the biggest spender as a share of GDP. Germany manages to provide a health system that delivers universal health insurance while avoiding queues that often trouble government systems. However, costs per capita have been increasing faster than the incomes per capita, a problem leading to strenuous reforms in the 1990s (Ridic, et al, 2012).

References:

Ridic, G., Gleason, S., & Ridic, O. (2012). Comparisons of health care systems in the United States, Germany and Canada. Materia socio-medica24(2), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2012.24.112-120

Henderson WJ. Health Economics and Policy. South – Western Publishing; 2002.  

Reading for discussion 2

Belbey, J. (2014). How healthcare can use social media effectively and compliantly. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/joannabelbey/2015/01/21/how-healthcare-can-use-social-media-effectively-and-compliantly/2/#69b67af969b0

Coco, Roberto. (2014). Reprogenetics: preimplantational genetics diagnosis. Genetics and Molecular Biology37(1, Suppl. 1), 271-284. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572014000200013.

Pollack, A. (2014, July). Fertility clinics scan for the strongest embryo. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/12/health/fertility-clinics-scan-for-the-strongest-embryo.html

Reprogenetics. (2017). Preimplantation Genetics Aimed at Helping Patients Make Informed Choices. Retrieved from http://reprogenetics.com/preimplantation-genetics-aimed-at-helping-patients-make-informed-choices/

Discussion 2

In 200-300 words.  What is Reprogenetics? Do you believe that the field of reprogenetics is ethical? Why or why not? What legal issues may the genetics laboratory face by parents who request reprogenetic services?

I am looking to see your response to the question using a crisp, succinct, well considered approach. 

Cite your source(s) and respond to the response below in 200-300 words.

Reprogenetics is the field of research and application that includes the making, manipulation, use and or storages of embryos and gametes  (Silver, 2000). There’s many ways I can discuss this question. I can see it from a neutral stand point. I also see why it would come off as something that isn’t considered ethical. With my presuppositions in tact coming from a christian worldview it seems that we are playing the part of the creator. That is a vague and empty argument but I can go deeper in to that if required. I am stating that just based on emotion and based on the ideologies I carry around. I understand why it would be considered unethical because parents can get the qualities they desire in the children. This can disrupt that natural process with features that are changed which can be viewed as unethical (Coco, 2013). Assuring parents for the desired feature they want in the child can create legal battles that I can see as troublesome (Bentwich et al., 2019).

References:

Silver L. M. (2000). Reprogenetics: third millennium speculation. The consequences for humanity when reproductive biology and genetics are combined. EMBO reports1(5), 375–378. https://doi.org/10.1093/embo-reports/kvd096

Coco R. (2014). Reprogenetics: Preimplantational genetics diagnosis. Genetics and molecular biology37(1 Suppl), 271–284. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1415-47572014000200013

Bentwich, M. B., Mashiach-Eizenberg, M. M.-E., borovecki, A. B., & simonstein, F. S. (2019, November 27). Reprogenetics, reproductive risks and cultural awareness: what may we learn from Israeli and Croatian medical students? Bmc. https://bmcmedethics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12910-019-0427-1

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