You will submit a final report, written in Word (or similar word processing software), APA format based on your findings and submissions from parts 14. It is highly suggested you not submit this paper without first reviewing all the feedback from your instructor on submissions from weeks 16. Be sure to ask any questions you may have on your feedback.
This final submission should be three paragraphs and summarize your entire project. It will be submitted through SafeAssign, Liberty’s Plagiarism software on BlackBoard. The project must be submitted in paragraph form and not just a list of the calculations from your project. Be sure your paragraphs flow (not just listing the answers to the questions, but complete sentences with transitions) and are written in third person. You are presenting your results to a nonstatistical audience, do not describe the calculations, describe your results. It should include the following:
 Paragraph 1:
· Brief summary of the article, including the source
§ Link for article: https://www.usnews.com/highereducation/onlineeducation/articles/20170404/usnewsdatatheaverageonlinebachelorsstudent
Link for article
· Define the population, sample, and statistic for the study
· Statement of the two claims in the article that were tested in this project
· Null and alternative hypothesis for both tests run for this project (in words)
 Paragraph 2 (address the claim about the mean):
· Summary of sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, quartiles, sample size)
· Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval
· Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, pvalue, conclusion, interpretation)
 Paragraph 3 (address the claim about the proportion):
· Summary of sample statistics (sample size, successes, proportion)
· Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval
· Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, pvalue, conclusion, interpretation)
·
Project Part 5 – Final Report
You will submit a final report, written in Word (or similar word processing software), APA format based on your findings and submissions from parts 14. It is highly suggested you not submit this paper without first reviewing all the feedback from your instructor on submissions from weeks 16. Be sure to ask any questions you may have on your feedback.
This final submission should be three paragraphs and summarize your entire project. It will be submitted through SafeAssign, Liberty’s Plagiarism software on BlackBoard. The project must be submitted in paragraph form and not just a list of the calculations from your project. Be sure your paragraphs flow (not just listing the answers to the questions, but complete sentences with transitions) and are written in third person. You are presenting your results to a nonstatistical audience, do not describe the calculations, describe your results. It should include the following:
· Paragraph 1:
. Brief summary of the article, including the source
1. Link for article: https://www.usnews.com/highereducation/onlineeducation/articles/20170404/usnewsdatatheaverageonlinebachelorsstudent
Link for article
. Define the population, sample, and statistic for the study
. Statement of the two claims in the article that were tested in this project
. Null and alternative hypothesis for both tests run for this project (in words)
· Paragraph 2 (address the claim about the mean):
. Summary of sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, quartiles, sample size)
. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval
. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, pvalue, conclusion, interpretation)
· Paragraph 3 (address the claim about the proportion):
. Summary of sample statistics (sample size, successes, proportion)
. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval
. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, pvalue, conclusion, interpretation)
.
U.S. News Data: The Average Online Bachelor’s Student
See how your employment status and age align with those of students at ranked online colleges.
By Jordan Friedman

April 4, 2017, at 8:30 a.m.
Juggling a career with an education is a challenge.
In the past, working adults returning to college had to quit their jobs to pursue a fulltime degree, or commute to a campus for classes at night or on weekends. Today, given the flexibility of online education, it’s no surprise that – as U.S. News data show – it’s those very working professionals who are drawn to the virtual classroom.
[
DISCOVER
questions to ask about flexibility in online programs. ]
Various data submitted to U.S. News in an annual survey contribute to a detailed profile of the average student in ranked online bachelor’s programs who enrolled between July 2015 and June 2016.
(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)
Among the 227 online bachelor’s programs that provided student age data to U.S. News, the average was 32 years old. That’s significantly older than the traditional college student who’s fresh out of high school.
Career aspirations also remain the primary motivation for students to pursue an online degree, according to one 2016 survey by Aslanian Market Research and the Learning House. Online undergraduates at ranked programs are often several years out of high school, and a vast majority – 84 percent, on average – are employed when they enroll, according to data submitted to U.S. News by 69 online colleges.
[
LEARN WHY
online learning offers some a second shot at college. ]
But for most online bachelor’s students, the online program isn’t their first attempt at college. Typically, they already have some college credit under their belts. Transferring credits into a program is common, and experts say it’s easier to do if your previous school has regional rather than national accreditation.
(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)
For many online undergraduates, online education provides a second chance at college. On average, 95 percent of new entrants at ranked online schools previously took college courses. It’s much rarer for an online student, the data suggest, to enroll full time in an online bachelor’s program straight out of high school, as they would for a traditional program.
While the average percentage of new students who enrolled in ranked programs as firsttime students was 5 percent for the 20152016 school year, at most programs it’s an even smaller proportion, according to the data.
[
EXPLORE
five tips to succeed in online courses. ]
Most of the time, the data illustrate, students in ranked online bachelor’s programs choose a health or businessrelated major. Sixtyeight of the 220 ranked online colleges that submitted these data to U.S. News reported health and related professions as the most popular major, and 65 schools out of 220 indicated business.
(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)
Below are more data that help portray the typical student enrolled in a ranked online bachelor’s degree program, based on the averages among schools that submitted these data. A majority are female and based in the U.S. And, an average of 10 percent are veterans or active service members, though most schools reported even lower percentages.
(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)
Trying to fund your online education? Get tips and more in the U.S. News Paying for Online Education center.
Tags: online education , education , colleges , students
Project Part  Due Date  Points 
Part 1 – Data Collection (Week 1)  Week 1  10 
Part 2 – Descriptive Statistics (Week 3)  Week 3  25 
Part 3 – Confidence Intervals (Week 5)  Week 5  25 
Part 4 – Hypothesis Testing (Week 6)  Week 6  25 
Part 5 – Final Report (Week 7)  Week 7  75 
Project Part 1 – Data Collection
To collect class data for our project, you will answer the following questions:
1. What was your age (in years) on the first day of our course?
2. What is your gender?
In addition, you will match the following terms from the study:
· Population
· Parameters
· Sample
· Statistics
Your instructor will compile the answers for the entire class and will send out an Excel sheet with all the data during week 2 so you can use the file in parts 25 of the project.
.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 1
Project Part 2 – Descriptive Statistics
This week you will calculate descriptive statistics for the first question, age. Your instructor will send you the “data sheet” with all the class data at the end of Week 2. This sheet will also provide space for you to do the following descriptive statistics under the “week 3” tab :
You will submit the Excel sheet with the following information:
· Make a Frequency Distribution with 5 classes, also list the midpoints, relative frequency, and cumulative relative frequency
· Make a relative frequency ogive
. Don’t forget descriptive title and labels on x and y axis (ogive is not descriptive, what does the graph represent?)
· Make a frequency polygon
. Don’t forget a descriptive title and labels on x and y axis (polygon is not descriptive, what does the graph represent?)
· Calculate the mean
· Calculate the median
· Calculate the sample standard deviation (our data is sample from our class, not a population!)
· Calculate the Q1 and Q3 values
Project Part 3 – Confidence Intervals
Based on the class sample, you will create a 95% confidence interval for the mean age and the proportion of males in the population of all online college students.
Note: The goal of the project is to practice making a confidence interval for a mean and proportion with real data. Do not worry about failed assumptions tests and do not make corrections for small sample size. Use primary methods described in text and used on homework.
Using the same excel sheet as last week, answer the following in the “week 5” tab:
· For the average age, form a 95% confidence interval:
. What distribution should be used?
. What is the critical value?
. What is the error bound?
. What is the lower bound?
. What is the upper bound?
. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?
· For the proportion of males, form a 95% confidence interval:
. What distribution should be used?
. What is the critical value?
. What is the error bound?
. What is the lower bound?
. What is the upper bound?
. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?
Project Part 4 – Hypothesis Testing
Based on your sample, you will conduct a hypothesis test with to test two of the claims of the above article.
Using the same excel sheet as last week, answer the following in the “week 6” tab :
· Claim: the average age of online students is 32 years old. Can you prove it is not?
. What is the null hypothesis?
. What is the alternative hypothesis?
. What distribution should be used?
. What is the test statistic?
. What is the pvalue?
. What is the conclusion?
. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?
· Claim: the proportion of males in online classes is 35%. Can you prove it is not?
. What is the null hypothesis?
. What is the alternative hypothesis?
. What distribution should be used?
. What is the test statistic?
. What is the pvalue?
. What is the conclusion?
. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?
You will submit a final report, written in Word (or similar word processing software), based on your findings and submissions from parts 14. It is highly suggested you not submit this paper without first reviewing all the feedback from your instructor on submissions from weeks 16. Be sure to ask any questions you may have on your feedback.
This final submission should be three paragraphs and summarize your entire project. It will be submitted through SafeAssign, Liberty’s Plagiarism software on BlackBoard. The project must be submitted in paragraph form and not just a list of the calculations from your project. Be sure your paragraphs flow (not just listing the answers to the questions, but complete sentences with transitions) and are written in third person. You are presenting your results to a nonstatistical audience, do not describe the calculations, describe your results. It should include the following:
· Paragraph 1:
. Brief summary of the article, including the source
1. Link for article: https://www.usnews.com/highereducation/onlineeducation/articles/20170404/usnewsdatatheaverageonlinebachelorsstudent
. Define the population, sample, and statistic for the study
. Statement of the two claims in the article that were tested in this project
. Null and alternative hypothesis for both tests run for this project (in words)
· Paragraph 2 (address the claim about the mean):
. Summary of sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, quartiles, sample size)
. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval
. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, pvalue, conclusion, interpretation)
· Paragraph 3 (address the claim about the proportion):
. Summary of sample statistics (sample size, successes, proportion)
. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval
. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, pvalue, conclusion, interpretation)
Week 3
Age  Gender  For the following questions, use only the “age” column:  
18  F  
18  M  Points  Age Frequency Distribution:  Class Width  9  
19  M  
21  F  Class Limits  Midpoint  Freq.  Relative Frequency  Cumulative Relative Freq  
22  F  Low  High  
23  M  Limits  2  18  27  23  10  0.3704  0.3704  
25  F  Freq.  2  28  37  33  7  0.2593  0.6296  
26  M  Mid.  2  38  47  43  7  0.2593  0.8889  
26  F  RF  2  48  57  53  1  0.0370  0.9259  
27  F  CF  1  58  67  63  2  0.0741  1.0000  
28  M  
31  M  2  Mean  34.19  *Round to two decimals  
31  F  2  Median  33.0  *Round to one decimal  
33  M  2  Sample Standard deviation:  11.87  *Round to two decimals  
35  F  2  Q1  25.0  *Round to one decimal  
36  M  2  Q3  42.0  *Round to one decimal  
37  F  
38  F  
40  M  Ogive:  3  Ogive:  Polygon:  
41  F  Polygon  3  
42  F  
43  M  
44  F  
47  F  Total:  25  
54  M  
58  M  
60  F  
Ogive27 37 47 57 67 0.37037037037037035 0.62962962962962954 0.88888888888888884 0.92592592592592582 0.99999999999999989
Age – Upper Class Limits
Cumulative Relative Frequency
Freqency PolygonFreq. 23 33 43 53 63 10 7 7 1 2
Age – Class Midpoints
Frequency
Week 5
Note: The goal of the project is to practice making a confidence interval for a mean and proportion with real data. Do not worry about failed assumptions tests and do not make corrections for small sample size. Use primary methods described in text and used on homework.  Age  Gender  
18  F  
Points  95% Confidence Interval for Average Age of Online College Students:  21  F  
22  F  
Sample Mean:  34.19  Note: Calculation cells should list the numbers and operations used to get your answers. Do not put the generic formula and show all calculation steps.  25  F  
Sample St. Dev:  11.87  Normal Distribution  26  F  
1  Sample Size:  27  TDistribution  27  F  
31  F  
2  Distribution:  TDistribution  35  F  
37  F  
2  Critical Value:  2.06  *2 decimals  38  F  
41  F  
2  Margin of Error:  4.70  *2 decimals  Calculation:  t(α/2) * s/√n = 2.06*(11.87/√27)  42  F  
1  Lower Bound:  29.49  *2 decimals  Calculation:  μ – ME = 34.19 – 4.70  44  F  
1  Upper Bound:  38.88  *2 decimals  Calculation:  μ + ME = 34.19 + 4.70  47  F  
60  F  
Interpret (context)  We can say with 95% confidence that the average age of online college students lies between 29.49 years and 38.88 years.  18  M  
2  19  M  
23  M  
95% Confidence Interval for Proportion of Male Online College Students:  26  M  
28  M  
1  Sample Size:  27  31  M  
1  Number of Males:  12  33  M  
2  Male Proportion:  0.4444  Female Proportion  0.5556  *4 decimals  36  M  
40  M  
2  Distribution:  Normal Distribution  43  M  
54  M  
2  Critical Value:  1.96  *2 decimals  58  M  
2  Margin of Error:  0.1874  *4 decimals  Calculation:  z(α/2) * √{p*(1p)/n} = 1.96*√{0.4444*(10.4444)/27}  
1  Lower Bound:  0.2570  *4 decimals  Calculation:  μ – ME = 0.44440.1874  
1  Upper Bound:  0.6319  *4 decimals  Calculation:  μ + ME = 0.4444+0.1875  
Interpret (context)  We can say with 95% confidence that the proportion of male online college students lies between 0.2570 and 0.6319.  
2  
25  Total Points  
Week 6
Note: The goal of the project is to practice conducting a hypothesis test for a mean and proportion with real data. Do not worry about failed assumptions tests. Use primary methods described in text and used on homework.  Data for Hypothesis Test – I  Data for Hypothesis Test – II  
Age  Gender  Age  Gender  
For the following two hypothesis tests, use alpha = .05  Gender  18  F  18  M  
F  18  M  19  M  
Points  Claim: The average age of online students is 32 years old. Can you prove it is not?  M  19  M  23  M  
M  21  F  26  M  
1  Ho:  µ = 32  Note: Calculation cells should list the numbers and operations used to get your answers. Do not put the generic formula and show all calculation steps.  F  22  F  28  M  
2  Ha:  µ ≠ 32  F  23  M  31  M  
M  25  F  33  M  
Sample mean:  34.185  F  26  M  36  M  
Sample St. Dev:  11.871  M  26  F  40  M  
F  27  F  43  M  
2  Distribution:  TDistribution  F  28  M  54  M  
M  31  M  58  M  
2  Test Statistic:  0.96  *2 decimals  Calculation:  tstatistic = (x ̅ – µ)/(σ/√n) = (34.185 – 32)/{11.871/√27}  M  31  F  18  F  
2  pvalue:  0.3476  *4 decimals  F  33  M  21  F  
1  Decision:  Fail to Reject Ho  M  35  F  22  F  
F  36  M  25  F  
2  Interpretation: (context)  There is no evidence that the mean age of the online students is different from 32 years; t (df = 26) = 0.96, pvalue = 0.3476, at α = 0.05 significance.  M  37  F  26  F  
F  38  F  27  F  
F  40  M  31  F  
Claim: The proportion of males in online classes is 35%. Can you prove it is not?  M  41  F  35  F  
F  42  F  37  F  
1  Ho:  p = 0.35  F  43  M  38  F  
2  Ha:  p ≠ 0.35  M  44  F  41  F  
F  47  F  42  F  
Sample Proportion Males  0.4444  Sample Proportion Females  0.5556  F  54  M  44  F  
M  58  M  47  F  
2  Distribution:  Normal Distribution  M  60  F  60  F  
F  
3  Test Statistic:  1.03  *2 decimals  Calculation:  tstatistic = (p ̂p)/√{p(1p)/n} = (0.44440.35)/√{0.35*(10.35)/27}  
2  pvalue:  0.3035  *4 decimals  
1  Decision:  Fail to Reject Ho  
2  Interpretation: (context)  There is no evidence that the proportion of males in online classes is different from 0.35, z = 1.03, pvalue = 0.3035, at α = 0.05 significance.  
25  Total Points 
Project Part 5 – Final Report
Final Report 3
Project Part 5 – Final Report
Name
Liberty University
MATH 201 – B11
Dr. xxxxx xxxxx
March 8, 2021
Summary
The null hypothesis: (claim about the mean)
The alternative hypothesis: (claim about the proportion)
References
Ferrão, M. E. (2020). Statistical Methods in Recent Higher Education Research. Journal of College Student Development, 61(3), 366371.
Hazra, A. (2017). Using the confidence interval confidently. Journal of thoracic disease, 9(10), 4125.