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Project Part 5 – Final Report

You will submit a final report, written in Word (or similar word processing software), APA format based on your findings and submissions from parts 1-4. It is highly suggested you not submit this paper without first reviewing all the feedback from your instructor on submissions from weeks 1-6. Be sure to ask any questions you may have on your feedback.

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This final submission should be three paragraphs and summarize your entire project. It will be submitted through SafeAssign, Liberty’s Plagiarism software on BlackBoard. The project must be submitted in paragraph form and not just a list of the calculations from your project. Be sure your paragraphs flow (not just listing the answers to the questions, but complete sentences with transitions) and are written in third person. You are presenting your results to a nonstatistical audience, do not describe the calculations, describe your results. It should include the following:

  • Paragraph 1:

· Brief summary of the article, including the source

§ Link for article: https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student

Link for article

https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student

· Define the population, sample, and statistic for the study

· Statement of the two claims in the article that were tested in this project

· Null and alternative hypothesis for both tests run for this project (in words)

  • Paragraph 2 (address the claim about the mean):

· Summary of sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, quartiles, sample size)

· Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval

· Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, p-value, conclusion, interpretation)

  • Paragraph 3 (address the claim about the proportion):

· Summary of sample statistics (sample size, successes, proportion)

· Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval

· Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, p-value, conclusion, interpretation)

·  

Project Part 5 – Final Report

You will submit a final report, written in Word (or similar word processing software), APA format based on your findings and submissions from parts 1-4. It is highly suggested you not submit this paper without first reviewing all the feedback from your instructor on submissions from weeks 1-6. Be sure to ask any questions you may have on your feedback.

This final submission should be three paragraphs and summarize your entire project. It will be submitted through SafeAssign, Liberty’s Plagiarism software on BlackBoard. The project must be submitted in paragraph form and not just a list of the calculations from your project. Be sure your paragraphs flow (not just listing the answers to the questions, but complete sentences with transitions) and are written in third person. You are presenting your results to a nonstatistical audience, do not describe the calculations, describe your results. It should include the following:

· Paragraph 1:

. Brief summary of the article, including the source

1. Link for article:  https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student

Link for article

https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student

. Define the population, sample, and statistic for the study

. Statement of the two claims in the article that were tested in this project

. Null and alternative hypothesis for both tests run for this project (in words)

· Paragraph 2 (address the claim about the mean):

. Summary of sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, quartiles, sample size)

. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval

. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, p-value, conclusion, interpretation)

· Paragraph 3 (address the claim about the proportion):

. Summary of sample statistics (sample size, successes, proportion)

. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval

. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, p-value, conclusion, interpretation)

.

https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student

U.S. News Data: The Average Online Bachelor’s Student

See how your employment status and age align with those of students at ranked online colleges.

By Jordan Friedman

|

April 4, 2017, at 8:30 a.m.

Juggling a career with an education is a challenge.

In the past, working adults returning to college had to quit their jobs to pursue a full-time degree, or commute to a campus for classes at night or on weekends. Today, given the flexibility of online education, it’s no surprise that – as U.S. News data show – it’s those very working professionals who are drawn to the virtual classroom.

DISCOVER 

questions to ask about flexibility in online programs. ]

Various data submitted to U.S. News in an annual survey contribute to a detailed profile of the average student in ranked online bachelor’s programs who enrolled between July 2015 and June 2016.

(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)

Among the 227 online bachelor’s programs that provided student age data to U.S. News, the average was 32 years old. That’s significantly older than the traditional college student who’s fresh out of high school.

Career aspirations also remain the primary motivation for students to pursue an online degree, according to one 2016 survey by Aslanian Market Research and the Learning House. Online undergraduates at ranked programs are often several years out of high school, and a vast majority – 84 percent, on average – are employed when they enroll, according to data submitted to U.S. News by 69 online colleges.

LEARN WHY 

online learning offers some a second shot at college. ]

But for most online bachelor’s students, the online program isn’t their first attempt at college. Typically, they already have some college credit under their belts. Transferring credits into a program is common, and experts say it’s easier to do if your previous school has regional rather than national accreditation.

(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)

For many online undergraduates, online education provides a second chance at college. On average, 95 percent of new entrants at ranked online schools previously took college courses. It’s much rarer for an online student, the data suggest, to enroll full time in an online bachelor’s program straight out of high school, as they would for a traditional program.

While the average percentage of new students who enrolled in ranked programs as first-time students was 5 percent for the 2015-2016 school year, at most programs it’s an even smaller proportion, according to the data.

EXPLORE 

five tips to succeed in online courses. ]

Most of the time, the data illustrate, students in ranked online bachelor’s programs choose a health- or business-related major. Sixty-eight of the 220 ranked online colleges that submitted these data to U.S. News reported health and related professions as the most popular major, and 65 schools out of 220 indicated business.

(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)

Below are more data that help portray the typical student enrolled in a ranked online bachelor’s degree program, based on the averages among schools that submitted these data. A majority are female and based in the U.S. And, an average of 10 percent are veterans or active service members, though most schools reported even lower percentages.

(JORDAN FRIEDMAN/USN&WR)

Trying to fund your online education? Get tips and more in the U.S. News  Paying for Online Education  center.

Tags:  online education ,  education ,  colleges ,  students

Project PartDue DatePoints
Part 1 – Data Collection (Week 1)Week 110
Part 2 – Descriptive Statistics (Week 3)Week 325
Part 3 – Confidence Intervals (Week 5)Week 525
Part 4 – Hypothesis Testing (Week 6)Week 625
Part 5 – Final Report (Week 7)Week 775

Project Part 1 – Data Collection

To collect class data for our project, you will answer the following questions:

1. What was your age (in years) on the first day of our course?

2. What is your gender?

In addition, you will match the following terms from the study:

· Population

· Parameters

· Sample

· Statistics

Your instructor will compile the answers for the entire class and will send out an Excel sheet with all the data during week 2 so you can use the file in parts 2-5 of the project.

.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 1

Project Part 2 – Descriptive Statistics

This week you will calculate descriptive statistics for the first question, age. Your instructor will send you the “data sheet” with all the class data at the end of Week 2. This sheet will also provide space for you to do the following descriptive statistics under the  “week 3” tab :

You will submit the Excel sheet with the following information:

· Make a Frequency Distribution with 5 classes, also list the midpoints, relative frequency, and cumulative relative frequency

· Make a relative frequency ogive

. Don’t forget descriptive title and labels on x and y axis (ogive is not descriptive, what does the graph represent?)

· Make a frequency polygon

. Don’t forget a descriptive title and labels on x and y axis (polygon is not descriptive, what does the graph represent?)

· Calculate the mean

· Calculate the median

· Calculate the  sample  standard deviation (our data is sample from our class, not a population!)

· Calculate the Q1 and Q3 values

Project Part 3 – Confidence Intervals

Based on the class sample, you will create a 95% confidence interval for the mean age and the proportion of males in the population of all online college students.

Note:  The goal of the project is to practice making a confidence interval for a mean and proportion with real data. Do not worry about failed assumptions tests and do not make corrections for small sample size. Use primary methods described in text and used on homework.

Using the same excel sheet as last week,  answer the following in the “week 5” tab:

· For the average age, form a 95% confidence interval:

. What distribution should be used?

. What is the critical value?

. What is the error bound?

. What is the lower bound?

. What is the upper bound?

. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?

· For the proportion of males, form a 95% confidence interval:

. What distribution should be used?

. What is the critical value?

. What is the error bound?

. What is the lower bound?

. What is the upper bound?

. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?

Project Part 4 – Hypothesis Testing

Based on your sample, you will conduct a hypothesis test with  to test two of the claims of the above article.

Using the same excel sheet as last week,  answer the following in the “week 6” tab :

· Claim: the average age of online students is 32 years old. Can you prove it is not?

. What is the null hypothesis?

. What is the alternative hypothesis?

. What distribution should be used?

. What is the test statistic?

. What is the p-value?

. What is the conclusion?

. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?

· Claim: the proportion of males in online classes is 35%. Can you prove it is not?

. What is the null hypothesis?

. What is the alternative hypothesis?

. What distribution should be used?

. What is the test statistic?

. What is the p-value?

. What is the conclusion?

. How do we interpret the results, in context of our study?

Project Part 5 – Final Report

You will submit a final report, written in Word (or similar word processing software), based on your findings and submissions from parts 1-4. It is highly suggested you not submit this paper without first reviewing all the feedback from your instructor on submissions from weeks 1-6. Be sure to ask any questions you may have on your feedback.

This final submission should be three paragraphs and summarize your entire project. It will be submitted through SafeAssign, Liberty’s Plagiarism software on BlackBoard. The project must be submitted in paragraph form and not just a list of the calculations from your project. Be sure your paragraphs flow (not just listing the answers to the questions, but complete sentences with transitions) and are written in third person. You are presenting your results to a nonstatistical audience, do not describe the calculations, describe your results. It should include the following:

· Paragraph 1:

. Brief summary of the article, including the source

1. Link for article:  https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student

. Define the population, sample, and statistic for the study

. Statement of the two claims in the article that were tested in this project

. Null and alternative hypothesis for both tests run for this project (in words)

· Paragraph 2 (address the claim about the mean):

. Summary of sample statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, quartiles, sample size)

. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval

. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, p-value, conclusion, interpretation)

· Paragraph 3 (address the claim about the proportion):

. Summary of sample statistics (sample size, successes, proportion)

. Confidence interval, along with interpretation of the confidence interval

. Description of hypothesis test (alpha, test statistic, p-value, conclusion, interpretation)

Week 3

AgeGenderFor the following questions, use only the “age” column:
18F
18MPointsAge Frequency Distribution:Class Width9
19M
21FClass LimitsMidpointFreq.Relative FrequencyCumulative Relative Freq
22FLowHigh
23MLimits2182723100.37040.3704
25FFreq.228373370.25930.6296
26MMid.238474370.25930.8889
26FRF248575310.03700.9259
27FCF158676320.07411.0000
28M
31M2Mean34.19*Round to two decimals
31F2Median33.0*Round to one decimal
33M2Sample Standard deviation:11.87*Round to two decimals
35F2Q125.0*Round to one decimal
36M2Q342.0*Round to one decimal
37F
38F
40MOgive:3Ogive:Polygon:
41FPolygon3
42F
43M
44F
47FTotal:25
54M
58M
60F

Ogive27 37 47 57 67 0.37037037037037035 0.62962962962962954 0.88888888888888884 0.92592592592592582 0.99999999999999989

Age – Upper Class Limits

Cumulative Relative Frequency

Freqency PolygonFreq. 23 33 43 53 63 10 7 7 1 2

Age – Class Midpoints

Frequency

Week 5

Note: The goal of the project is to practice making a confidence interval for a mean and proportion with real data. Do not worry about failed assumptions tests and do not make corrections for small sample size. Use primary methods described in text and used on homework.AgeGender
18F
Points95% Confidence Interval for Average Age of Online College Students:21F
22F
Sample Mean:34.19Note: Calculation cells should list the numbers and operations used to get your answers. Do not put the generic formula and show all calculation steps.25F
Sample St. Dev:11.87Normal Distribution26F
1Sample Size:27T-Distribution27F
31F
2Distribution:T-Distribution35F
37F
2Critical Value:2.06*2 decimals38F
41F
2Margin of Error:4.70*2 decimalsCalculation:t(α/2) * s/√n = 2.06*(11.87/√27)42F
1Lower Bound:29.49*2 decimalsCalculation:μ – ME = 34.19 – 4.7044F
1Upper Bound:38.88*2 decimalsCalculation:μ + ME = 34.19 + 4.7047F
60F
Interpret (context)We can say with 95% confidence that the average age of online college students lies between 29.49 years and 38.88 years.18M
219M
23M
95% Confidence Interval for Proportion of Male Online College Students:26M
28M
1Sample Size:2731M
1Number of Males:1233M
2Male Proportion:0.4444Female Proportion0.5556*4 decimals36M
40M
2Distribution:Normal Distribution43M
54M
2Critical Value:1.96*2 decimals58M
2Margin of Error:0.1874*4 decimalsCalculation:z(α/2) * √{p*(1-p)/n} = 1.96*√{0.4444*(1-0.4444)/27}
1Lower Bound:0.2570*4 decimalsCalculation:μ – ME = 0.4444-0.1874
1Upper Bound:0.6319*4 decimalsCalculation:μ + ME = 0.4444+0.1875
Interpret (context)We can say with 95% confidence that the proportion of male online college students lies between 0.2570 and 0.6319.
2
25Total Points

Week 6

Note: The goal of the project is to practice conducting a hypothesis test for a mean and proportion with real data. Do not worry about failed assumptions tests. Use primary methods described in text and used on homework.Data for Hypothesis Test – IData for Hypothesis Test – II
AgeGenderAgeGender
For the following two hypothesis tests, use alpha = .05Gender18F18M
F18M19M
PointsClaim: The average age of online students is 32 years old. Can you prove it is not?M19M23M
M21F26M
1Ho:µ = 32Note: Calculation cells should list the numbers and operations used to get your answers. Do not put the generic formula and show all calculation steps.F22F28M
2Ha:µ ≠ 32F23M31M
M25F33M
Sample mean:34.185F26M36M
Sample St. Dev:11.871M26F40M
F27F43M
2Distribution:T-DistributionF28M54M
M31M58M
2Test Statistic:0.96*2 decimalsCalculation:tstatistic = (x ̅ – µ)/(σ/√n) = (34.185 – 32)/{11.871/√27}M31F18F
2p-value:0.3476*4 decimalsF33M21F
1Decision:Fail to Reject HoM35F22F
F36M25F
2Interpretation: (context)There is no evidence that the mean age of the online students is different from 32 years; t (df = 26) = 0.96, p-value = 0.3476, at α = 0.05 significance.M37F26F
F38F27F
F40M31F
Claim: The proportion of males in online classes is 35%. Can you prove it is not?M41F35F
F42F37F
1Ho:p = 0.35F43M38F
2Ha:p ≠ 0.35M44F41F
F47F42F
Sample Proportion Males0.4444Sample Proportion Females0.5556F54M44F
M58M47F
2Distribution:Normal DistributionM60F60F
F
3Test Statistic:1.03*2 decimalsCalculation:tstatistic = (p ̂-p)/√{p(1-p)/n} = (0.4444-0.35)/√{0.35*(1-0.35)/27}
2p-value:0.3035*4 decimals
1Decision:Fail to Reject Ho
2Interpretation: (context)There is no evidence that the proportion of males in online classes is different from 0.35, z = 1.03, p-value = 0.3035, at α = 0.05 significance.
25Total Points

Project Part 5 – Final Report

Final Report 3

Project Part 5 – Final Report

Name

Liberty University

MATH 201 – B11

Dr. xxxxx xxxxx

March 8, 2021

Summary

The null hypothesis: (claim about the mean)

The alternative hypothesis: (claim about the proportion)

References

https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/2017-04-04/us-news-data-the-average-online-bachelors-student.

Ferrão, M. E. (2020). Statistical Methods in Recent Higher Education Research. Journal of College Student Development61(3), 366-371.

Hazra, A. (2017). Using the confidence interval confidently. Journal of thoracic disease9(10), 4125.

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