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Preparation material

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Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Text 1: A Brief Guide to Health and Safety in the Workplace

· Text 2: Failure to communicate? Company offers lessons on overcoming language barriers in the workplace

· Text 3: Workplace diversity

· Text 4: Liverpool’s Rhian Brewster: ‘When I’m racially abused, I just want to be left alone’

· Text 5: Breaking cultural barriers through sports

· Text 6: Cartoons

· Text 7: “Time for Love”

· Text 8: “The Painting”

Discussion of the topic

In your preparation material, you are asked to read the texts included and reflect on a discussion about diversity in English-speaking countries.

The discussion in the preparation material explores cultural diversity in English-speaking countries in different contexts. In this context, diversity refers to when a community such as a country includes people of many cultural and racial backgrounds: immigrants, people of different skin colours, religions, or sexual orientation.

Be mindful that cultural diversity can develop in different areas such as arts, sports, local communities, or the job market. In each area, cultural diversity has its benefits and challenges.

In the workplace, regulations and good practices should bring people of different cultural backgrounds together, provided that both employers and employees respect them. But challenges can arise because of different level of English language knowledge between employees. The preparation material also talks about other potential challenges for people who belong to minorities in English speaking countries. They can also be targets of discrimination, sexual harassment, and suffer exploitation.

You can also reflect on the following aspects which are not mentioned in the preparation material:

Supporters of cultural diversity (sometimes referred to as multiculturalism) say that culturally diverse societies are more creative, give people more freedom, and can become more economically developed because they bring together different ideas and influences. One success story of cultural diversity has been the creation of the United States, which at its origins was formed by migrants with different cultural backgrounds from across the world.

However, some people tend to focus on the challenges of cultural diversity. These people argue that cultural diversity threatens national identities or that it leads to more racial tensions and prejudices rather than integration and cooperation. For example, the Brexit vote has been viewed as a failure of cultural diversity in Britain as a number of Britons voted to leave the EU because they wanted fewer immigrants in their country (among other reasons).

Text 1: A Brief Guide to Health and Safety in the Workplace

Text 1 is a non-fiction text which provides a list of duties, rights, and responsibilities for both employers and employees. 

The text also includes two Simpsons comic cartoons. The first image shows a man explaining to three employees how to carry boxes correctly; two employees do it correctly while the other does it wrong and hurts himself. The second cartoon shows a man talking about safety responsibilities in the workplace, but the three employees are either asleep or not paying attention.

The first list includes employers’ duties. Among others, the list mentions: making sure workplaces are not life-threatening; taking measures to minimize risks in the workplace; implementing good work practices that reduce health risks but also avoid harmful behaviour such as discrimination and bullying; and offering employees all the safety information and equipment they need.

The second list includes employees’ rights and responsibilities. Some of the rights are: having access to a safe and healthy work environment; the right to leave work in case of safety issues; and access to training.

Employees’ responsibilities include: respecting safety guidelines; following hygiene rules; and reporting any illness or potential safety risk.

Text 2: Failure to communicate? Company offers lessons on overcoming language barriers in the workplace

Text 2 is a non-fiction text, an adapted version of an article written by Anthony Salamone. The text explores ways to overcome language barriers in the workplace.

The writer looks at the example of a company who has employees from different countries around the world. To deal with the potential language challenges created by a multi-ethnic work environment, the company uses pictures and simple instructions.

Another way to deal with language barriers is to offer employees English-language training. The article includes the example of a trainer who teaches basic work-related English to company employees. According to the trainer, such courses help increase productivity, reduce the risk of accidents, and encourage employees to stay with a company.

Text 3: Workplace diversity

Text 3 is an image that describes what workplace diversity is and how it can benefit Australian employers.

According to the text, workplace diversity refers to having employees from different backgrounds and providing everyone with a chance to get employed or promoted.

Statistics show that 30% of Australian organizations employ Aboriginals, 26% employ people with disabilities, and 66% employ people from different cultural backgrounds.

According to the text, workplace diversity has a number of benefits for employers such as having access to a bigger number of potential employees, more flexible work practices, improved reputation, and better morale among employees.

Text 4: Liverpool’s Rhian Brewster: ‘When I’m racially abused, I just want to be left alone’

Text 4 is an adapted version of an article by Daniel Taylor. The text explores racial discrimination in sports.

The article conveys the details of an interview with Rhian Brewster, a top Liverpool player in the Under 17 category. In the interview, Brewster speaks up against racial discrimination, encouraged by his parents and the football club.

He recalls a team-mate being called names by players in Spain’s Under 17 team, but also how he was the target of bullying and racism while playing with the Russian team Spartak Moscow. As punishment for Brewster being insulted, UEFA demanded that Spartak Moscow’s next game be played with 500 empty seats where an “Equal Game” banner would be shown. Brewster argues that such reprisals are not good enough and that UEFA is doing very little to prevent discrimination in sports.

The young footballer explains how he tries to detach from a situation in which he is discriminated against. Furthermore, Brewster appreciates the fact that he has not encountered racism in his own team and attributes this to the fact that the team is ethnically diverse, unlike teams in other countries.

Text 5: Breaking cultural barriers through sports

Text 5 is a non-fiction text about young immigrants in Canada being able to get involved in sports.

According to the text, Newcomer Programs help young immigrants to integrate in their community via sports activities. According to the director of the Newcomer Programs, Lisa Bamford, this initiative is not only about access to sports but also about tackling the language and cultural barriers. She explains that young newcomers to Canada face many challenges in terms of making friends and adapting to the new country. 

Bamford describes how immigrants are unfamiliar with winter sports, which are a big part of Canadian culture. As such, they cannot easily connect with locals who usually talk about sports like ice hockey.

Through the program, young people get access to sports equipment and can try out a variety of sports. The program also covers registration fees and transportation to the sports location.

The program also has benefits for parents as they get involved with sports through their children. At the same time, those in the program can later become mentors for new generations of immigrants. Bamford believes sports are a great way of bringing together people from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Text 6: Cartoons

Text 6 includes three black and white cartoons about speaking English.

Cartoon A shows a man asking people to say ‘Yes’ if they think English should be the official language of the US. The people answer ‘Yes’ in their native languages.

Cartoon B shows two English-speaking hikers walking into a nuclear waste area. The hikers are warned by a sign written in French, which they don’t understand. One of them argues that if the sign is not written in English it is not important.

Cartoon C shows a group of people talking about the English language. One of them argues that immigrants should learn English because this is what people should do when they go to a new country – learn the language of the land. One person starts speaking Cherokee (a language spoken by Native Americans) and no one understands her. 

Text 7: “Time for Love”

Text 7 is a free-verse poem by contemporary artist and poet Sean Lìonadh.

The poem follows a lyrical speaker who walks hand in hand with another boy. Some people smile at them, but others frown upon their action of being open about their sexual orientation.

The lyrical speaker thinks about how to say goodbye to his friend: thorough a kiss on the cheek, a hug, or a kiss on the mouth. He fears kissing his partner in public will make people who consider themselves normal judge him. He gives two examples of normal people such as the couple who will forever be changed by a miscarriage or the old man who buys used underwear from the internet.

The speaker concludes normality is a fantasy. However, he knows that people will still be disgusted and argue that they don’t want to see gay people kissing in front of their children. He also thinks about how religion is used as an argument against being gay, becoming an instrument of hate rather than love.

The poem ends with the speaker admitting he is scared, trying to find the courage to kiss his partner goodbye, thinking about what it means to be human without fear of being judged.

The text includes a link to a video of the poem, in which the characters kiss in the end.

Text 8: “The Painting”

Text 8 is a fiction text written by Bruce Chatwin. “The Painting” is a chapter from the book The Songlines which combines fiction and nonfiction. The action of the book is set during a trip to Australia in which the main character has various conversations with Aboriginals.

“The Painting” follows Winston Japurula, an artist who recently finished a painting and is waiting for the representative of the Aboriginal Arts Bureau to come and buy it.

When the art dealer, Mrs Houston comes, she asks Winston to bring out the painting. She requested the painting to be themed white, and she is impressed by the work, thinking about where she will exhibit it. However, she also scolds Winston for not using a type of paint she bought and for the painting having a tear.

Mrs Houston then asks Winston to tell her the story of the painting, a story she needs to sell it. She pushes Winston until they come up with a story about an old man walking on salt-pans and taking a mild plant narcotic. She transforms the story into one about the Ancestral man.

The two negotiate the price. Mrs Huston paid a 200 dollar advance for it. Given that the painting needs restoring and that she paid 500 dollars for Winston’s previous painting, she offers to give him another 300 dollars. She also wants to take a new photo of Winston for the exhibition.

Winston refuses and demands more money. After saying nothing for a while, he demands 6,000 dollars. Mrs Huston is shocked by the huge difference and cannot understand why the painter asks so much. Winston reveals that he knows she is selling one of his paintings in Adelaide for 7,000 dollars.

You can read a more in-depth summary and analysis of the story in our focused  study guide for “The Painting” .

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B. 

1A

Text 6 of the preparation material has three cartoons about English as a world language.

Write a short text in which you explain and give your opinion on the views expressed in two of the cartoons.

1B

On the next page you will find two conversations between Fred and John and their employer at their work placement. Both of these young men want to be accepted for an apprenticeship, but only one place is available.

Read the conversations and write a short text about which of the two young men you would give the apprenticeship to. Compare both the language they use and their attitudes in your answer.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Diversity in English-speaking countries”.

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D.

2A

In the preparation material you have read about some of the benefits and challenges of diversity.

Create a text discussing the challenges and positive experiences that people who are in a minority in English-speaking countries may encounter. In your text, you may refer to the preparation material and/or a film or literary text you have studied.

Give your text a suitable title.

2B

Create a text about health and safety in the profession you are aiming for and how diversity in the workplace can affect safety and the work environment. You should include these points:

· Information about the profession you are aiming for

· An explanation of important health and safety rules and routines in your profession

· An explanation of how diversity in the workplace can affect safety and the work environment

· Your thoughts about diversity in the workplace

Give your text a suitable title.

2C

“On the sports field or on the stage, there is no black or white, no gay or straight, no rich or poor, just the joy of being out there doing your best”.

Using this statement as your starting point, create a text discussing diversity in sports and culture. Use examples from English-speaking countries and ideas from the preparation material in your text.

Give your text a suitable title.

2D

Create a text discussing prejudice against minorities in English-speaking countries. Use “Time for Love” (Text 7) or “The Painting” (Text 8) from the preparation material and another text or film you have worked with during your course in your discussion.

Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Text 1: Selection of six texts

· Text 2: Various opinions about lowering the voting age from 18 to 16

· Text 3: Vocational students

· Text 4: “To recruit enough big-rig drivers, the government would give keys to teens”

· Text 5: “Teen Drivers Risk Death with Young Passengers”

· Text 6: The Grand Apizza conflict

· Text 7: Exchange of emails

· Text 8: “How old is old enough? Legal age limits in English-speaking countries”

· Text 9 – Extract from the novel Slam by Nick Hornby (adapted)

Discussion of the topic

The preparation material for Engelsk fellesfag høst 2019 begins with a presentation of the topic “Old Enough”. It explains that teenagers have access to more activities and opportunities as they get older, but also have to take on more responsibilities. The topic of how old is old enough for different activities and responsibilities is a concern for governments, society, and for the individual.

While the texts in the preparation material provide you with different perspectives on how old is old enough for various activities, the presentation also encourages you to learn about other activities with age restrictions through your own research.

The presentation also states that the preparation material includes texts from various genres and encourages you to consider how these texts relate to your work during the English course.  

Text 1: Selection of six texts

Text 1 is a selection of six different texts that present examples of contexts in which the idea of being old enough has been discussed. Each text is accompanied by a picture which represents either people that the texts refer to, or the context discussed in the text.

Old enough to be President (Ireland)? speaks about a referendum that was held in Ireland in 2015 to decide whether the minimum age of the President should be lowered from 35 to 21. The text includes an opinion in favor of lowering the voting age, and it also informs us that the proposal of lowering the age limit was not passed.

Old enough to be President (USA)? informs us that the minimum age required to be President in the US is 35. It includes a picture of Alexandra Ocasio-Cortez who is 29 years old and is the youngest woman ever elected to US Congress.

Old enough to be a soldier? features a quote from journalist Alan Greenblatt, who says that 18 is a good age to recruit soldiers because people are fearless at that age. It then quotes a spokesperson from Child Soldiers International, who argues that the Army takes advantage of  young people with limited options in life by recruiting them to dangerous roles. 

Old enough to drive? is another quote by journalist Alan Greenblatt, who believes that letting young people drive is good for society in a way that is not equivalent to lowering the drinking age.

Old enough to buy alcohol? is a quote by Will Fulton, who enumerates some of the things that 18-year-olds are allowed to do in the US, such as voting, driving, and fighting for their country. He suggests it is therefore ironic that 18-year-olds are not allowed to drink alcohol.

Old enough to be convicted? includes a quote by journalist Neal Conan, who points out that 18-year-olds cannot legally drink or rent a car, but that, in many states, 10-year-olds can be tried as adults for murder.

Text 2: Various opinions about lowering the voting age from 18 to 16

Text 2 is a compilation of six texts on the idea of lowering the voting age from 18 to 16. Each of the texts is presented in a circle and most of them refer to the United Kingdom. 

The text on the upper left corner presents the opinion of two social scientists who believe that 16-year-olds are not mature enough to vote, because their brains are not fully developed. The text on the upper right is a quote by The Earl of Listowel. He suggests that young people spend a lot of time online, and may be particularly vulnerable to attempts at online manipulation.

The text on the middle-left is a quote by Scottish Liberal Democrat leader Willie Rennie, who argues that many issues would benefit from the perspective of 16- and 17-year-olds. The text on the middle-right is a quote by Scottish Labour politician Lewis Macdonald, who declares that the reason behind extending the right to vote is the knowledge that democracy works.

The text on the lower-left is a quote by university academic David Davenport, who is concerned that lowering the voting age might mean giving power to the people who are the least politically informed. and experienced, as well as unprepared to make long-term judgments. He suggests that this would negatively affect voter turnout and results. The text on the lower-right is a quote by Professor David Runciman, who points out that young people are not well represented, because the minimum voting age is 18, but there is no upper age limit on voting.

Text 3: Vocational students

Text 3 states that vocational students typically begin to work at an earlier age than other young people. It adds that some people argue that they are too young to take on such responsibilities.

The text includes six images of young people working in different industries, such as food preparation, construction, electrical engineering, healthcare, and various factory industries. The text also includes a link to a website that contains statistics and stories about young people being injured at work, as well as advice for preventing such injuries.

Text 4: “To recruit enough big-rig drivers, the government would give keys to teens”

Text 4 is an adapted version of an article written by Chris Arnold of National Public Radio. The text includes a picture of Eric Pennucci, an employee of a Boston trucking firm, with an explanation noting that he does not agree with 18-year-olds driving tractor-trailers. In the US, the law requires that tractor-trailer drivers must be at least 21 years old to drive a tractor-trailer across state borders. The federal government wants to lower the age from 21 to 18.

Jackie Gillian, is quoted saying that allowing younger people to drive big trucks will result in more crashes, deaths, and injuries. Eric Pennucci explains that being a trucker is a high-stress job and that truck drivers should be experienced and calm under pressure. He suggests that his company does not hire drivers under 21 for safety reasons. The text ends by saying that some trucking companies have difficulties finding drivers, so they are willing to hire 18-year-olds.

Text 5: “Teen Drivers Risk Death with Young Passengers”

Text 5 is an infographic subtitled “A 16- or 17-year-old driver’s risk of being killed in a crash increases when there are young passengers in the vehicle”.

The infographic explains that a 16- or 17-year-old driver’s risk of being killed in a crash quadruples when three or more passengers under 21 are also in the car. The risk doubles with two young passengers, and increases by 44% with one young passenger. In contrast, the risk of a 16- or 17-year-old driver being killed in a crash decreases by 62% when an adult over 35 is in the car.

Thus, the infographic advices that it is much better for new drivers to gain driving experience with their parents, rather than drive around with other young people. 

Text 6: The Grand Apizza conflict

This is a fictional text written by Utdanningsdirektoratet. It is based on two articles that detail the conflict between the Nuzzo family and Connecticut state officials. The Nuzzos are accused by state officials of violating child labor laws by allowing their children to work in the family’s pizzeria. 

The letter is written from the perspective of Michael Nuzzo, the 13-year-old grandson of the man who first opened Grand Apizza 70 years before. Michael and his siblings are the third generation working at the pizzeria. Michael seems upset that a government official came and forbid them from working there.  

Michael explains that he goes to school and does all his homework, and that he only works at Grand Apizza in the weekend. He also says that he enjoys the work and sees it as an opportunity for bonding with his father and grandfather. Michael also speaks about his younger brother and sister, who also help at the restaurant. Michael believes that this is good for them. He says that working at there teaches them responsibility, good manners, and hygiene. He ends his statement by saying that he hopes that the government will leave his family alone.

Text 7: Exchange of emails

This text is an exchange of emails between Betty Simpson, an 11-year-old girl, and an unnamed Communications Manager at PEGI, an organization that places age restrictions on video games.

In the first email, Betty argues against the age restriction on the game Fortnite, which requires players to be over 12. Betty is upset that she is too young to play the game. She argues that video game violence is less severe than the violence she has come across in cartoons and books. She asks whether the company tests the games on children or whether adults make all the decisions.

The second email is a formal reply from the Communications Manager at PEGI to Betty, which begins by saying that PEGI appreciates feedback. It explains why Fortnite has received its rating, assuring Betty that all video games are evaluated by both industry actors and PEGI. The message continues with information on PEGI, which is the recognized European video game content rating system.

Text 8: “How old is old enough? Legal age limits in English-speaking countries”

Text 8 is a table that lists the legal age limits for different activities in various English-speaking countries. The countries listed in the table are England, Scotland, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, Nigeria, and South Africa. The activities listed in the table are “To vote”, “To run for office”, “To drive”, “To join the military”, “To buy alcohol”, “To have criminal responsibility”, and “To work”.

Text 9 – Extract from the novel Slam by Nick Hornby (adapted)

The text begins with a brief summary explaining the story presented in the extract. Sam, a 16-year-old skater and student, who is expecting a baby with his girlfriend Alicia, tells his story.

In the first section, Sam says that it was his fault more than hers, because he didn’t tell Alicia that the condom had come off, so they did not use other forms of contraception afterwards.  

In the second section, Sam is skating when his mother appears, yelling at him for not having his mobile phone switched on while his girlfriend is pregnant. The mother then announces that Alicia is in labor. Sam hurries to Alicia’s house.

In the third section, Rufus, Sam’s child, is born and the next day Sam moves in with Alicia. He has never been away from home except on holidays, and he feels overwhelmed.

In the final section, we view a scene from Sam, Alicia and Rufus’ life together, a few days after Rufus’ birth. Sam changes the baby’s diaper and sings him to sleep. Sam thinks about how he and Alicia often fight, but also notes that the baby distracts them. He believes he is doing OK as a dad.

Later, Sam and Alicia argue. Alicia angrily accuses Sam of thinking only about himself, and argues that she also had plans for her own life which are now ruined. He replies that he knows she was going to have a life, as she had told him she wanted to be a model.

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B. 

1A

In text 7 of the preparation material you have read two emails: one from 11-year-old Betty to the Communications Manager of Pan European Game Information (PEGI) and the other, which is the Communications Manager’s reply to Betty. PEGI has been criticized for not listening or responding to the opinions of young people. You have been asked to help.

Write a short text to the Communications Manager giving her advice about how she should change her email to Betty. Refer to both the language and content of the emails in your advice.

1B

The text below was written by Aaron on the Quora website*, asking for advice about what to say to his friend.

Write a short reply to Aaron, giving advice about what he could say to his friend and how he should say it

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Old enough?” Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D. 

2A

Create a literary text about a young person who thinks that he or she is old enough. Your text must:

· be set in an English-speaking country

· explore ideas about being old enough in a particular situation

· mention one or more facts or opinions from the preparation material

· be titled “Old enough”

2B

Vocational students typically enter working life earlier than other young people. Some people argue that teenagers are not old enough to take on the responsibility of, for example, building someone’s bathroom, installing a company’s electrical wiring or looking after the welfare of somebody’s child or grandparent.

Create a text about whether or not teenagers are ready for the responsibilities of working life. In your text:

· briefly introduce the profession you have chosen to write about

· explain some of the responsibilities and challenges that young apprentices and workers have in this profession

· suggest what can be done at school and at work to help young people deal with these challenges and responsibilities

· discuss whether you think teenagers are ready for the responsibilities of the profession you have chosen

Texts 3, 4 and 6 in the preparation material may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

2C

In the preparation material you have read different opinions about being old enough to take on the responsibilities of, for example, driving, voting or working.

Create a text discussing how old is “old enough” for specific activities and responsibilities. Your text must:

· specify which activities you are writing about

· focus on one or more English-speaking countries

· discuss which age limit/s should apply and why

· use information from the preparation material

All of the texts in the preparation material may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

2D

In text 9 of the preparation material you have read about the challenges and responsibilities that Sam takes on as he becomes a teen father.

Create a text discussing a character who takes on responsibility at a young age. The character you discuss may be from the extract from Slam or from another text or film you have worked with during your course. In your text:

· introduce the character you are going to discuss

· explore the challenges that the character faces when taking on these responsibilities

· present and discuss the character’s thoughts and feelings while taking on this challenge or responsibility

· discuss how the text may affect readers’ understanding of what it means to be “old enough”

Give your text a suitable title.

Further help

Preparation material

The preparation material in the exam on the role of entertainment comprises ten sources, including pictures, fiction and non-fiction texts, and statistics. 

In what follows, we will give you some points for a discussion of the topic and present all of the different texts/sources in the preparation booklet.

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Task 1: Pictures

· Text 2: Computers and the Internet

· Text 3: 6 Things We Could All Learn from Reality TV Shows

· Text 4: Why is Entertainment so Entertaining?

· Text 5: Excerpt from Brave New World

· Text 6: Get hooked on a great show to improve your English

· Text 7: Valleyspeak and vocal fry

· Text 8: Time spent on television – new trends

· Text 9: Research News

· Text 10: Can TV Still Tackle Real Issues?

· Preparing for the exam

Discussion of the topic

The role of entertainment is presented broadly in the introductory page in your preparation booklet. This introduction to the topic notes: “Entertainment can focus on and encourage us to think about social relations, politics, history, education and working life. It can also serve different functions and play different roles.” (p. 4, ll. 4-6)

Consequently, the role of entertainment is not only to help people enjoy themselves or to make them relax and feel good. Entertainment also influences people’s education and raises awareness about socio-political issues.

In addition to this, the introduction notes that entertainment can help build better social relationships: “Entertainment therefore can function as a sort of “social glue”. For hundreds – or even thousands – of years, people have come together to enjoy different forms of entertainment.” (p. 4, ll. 8-9)

Finally, the text compares entertainment to a tool: it can have both advantages and disadvantages, depending on how we use it. Entertainment can foster social bonding and better language skills, but too much entertainment can become a distraction from work and study.  

We encourage you to reflect on your experience with entertainment. You could ask yourself a few questions, such as the following:

· Have you ever connected with someone over a certain type of entertainment?

· Has entertainment helped you improve your language skills?

· Have you ever been distracted from school activities by a certain type entertainment?

Task 1: Pictures

The first source in the preparation booklet comprises four pictures showing different types of entertainment.

Picture 1 shows people in a bar watching a football game on TV. The two flags displayed – of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland—suggest the people are Irish.

Picture 2 shows a ballet scene with a female dancer and a male dancer. 

Picture 3 shows a singer on stage.

Picture 4 illustrates actors on stage in front of an audience at the Globe Theatre in London (Shakespeare’s theatre)

Text 2: Computers and the Internet

Text 2 is a non-fiction text, informing readers of some of the advantages and disadvantages of computers and the Internet. The text begins with an introductory paragraph and continues with bulleted lists of positive and negatives aspects of computers and the internet.

Some of the advantages of computers and the internet are: the increase of online social contact, developing computer literacy and learning, access to more information, and individualised learning.

Some of the disadvantages presented in the text are: less real-life socialisation and more isolation, poor language learning, a longer learning process, questionable information and less time for quality reading.

Text 3: 6 Things We Could All Learn from Reality TV Shows

Text 3 comprises extracts from various blogs (non-fiction texts) which present positive aspects of reality TV Shows. The texts express personal, subjective opinions, and present the potential positives of reality television.

According to bloggers, such TV shows encourage people to face their fears and to take risks, to prepare for unexpected challenges in life, to work in teams and individually, to accept negative feedback, and to stay calm in tense situations.

Text 4: Why is Entertainment so Entertaining?

Text 4 represents an adapted version of an article by Peter G Stromberg on the anthropological reasons behind why people are attracted to entertaining activities.

The author’s arguments are based on scientific research. According to various studies, human beings have always been attracted to stories and storytelling. Modern entertainment taps into this anthropological need with new advanced digital tools.

The article also notes that people’s attraction to stories is typical for our species and is the result of our capacity to imagine and understand what others are doing; of our capacity to transport ourselves into others’ stories.

Text 5: Excerpt from Brave New World

Text 5 is an explained extract from the novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. The introductory paragraphs (non-fiction) present the novel and the context from which the excerpt is taken.

The actual extract (fiction) deals with freedom of speech and conformism. It presents a discussion between two characters, Bernard and Helmholz. The latter, who is a teacher, tells the former he was given a warning by the school principal for composing a poem and using it as an example in one of his classes. He was supposed to use a pre-approved example from the government’s propaganda. His students reported Helmholz whose poem was about loneliness (something everyone in society is encouraged to avoid). Now Helmholz feels like he wants to write even more.

Text 6: Get hooked on a great show to improve your English

Text 6 is a blog entry from the web page Ethan’s Blog. The non-fiction text recommends that those studying English start watching English-language TV shows.

The author recommends that students start by watching English-language TV shows with subtitles in their native language, then switch gradually to English subtitles, and then to watching with no subtitles at all.

To support the idea that English-language TV shows help people to learn English, the author gives the example of people from Scandinavia and Holland, who are good English speakers and who claim to have learned the language because in their respective countries English-language TV shows are not dubbed in their native language but shown with subtitles.

Text 7: Valleyspeak and vocal fry

Text 7 is a non-fiction text explaining two language developments, Valleyspeak and vocal fry.

Valleyspeak refers to the way youngsters (particularly girls) speak including unnecessary words in their sentences. Typical such words are “like”, “whatever”, “way”, “as if!”, “super”, “totally”, and “tubular” (ll. 9-10).

This type of syntax developed in the San Fernando Valley in the US, and as a result is called Valleyspeak. Another feature of this way of speaking is that words are pronounced with a high-pitched tone towards the end of the sentence, which makes affirmative sentences sound like interrogative ones.

Vocal fry is another language change where people (particularly women) lower their voices in a guttural way to make their tone seem stronger and tougher.

The text ends by noting that these language phenomena are also illustrated in certain movies and TV shows which, knowingly or not, promote and popularise these ways of speaking.

Text 8: Time spent on television – new trends

Text 8 includes a graph and several statistics on the time people spend watching television.

According to the graph. Americans spend the most time watching TV per day, followed by Australians, Italians, and Poles. Swedish and Chinese people spend the least time watching TV.

The statistics presented support the graph, but they also show that most TV viewers in developed countries are moving away from linear TV (watching a program when it is broadcast) and prefer to watch reruns on the Internet.  This is particularly true in Britain.

Text 9: Research News

Text 9 presents the results of a study conducted in Norway on the use of English and Norwegian by teenagers.

The study found that some Norwegian students scored better at reading tests in English than in their native language. Subsequent interviews with the students revealed that they prefer using English in their free time (through playing interactive games and watching films and TV-series) leading thus to better scores in English.

Text 10: Can TV Still Tackle Real Issues?

Text 10 is an adapted version of an article by Michael Schneider. The article discusses the role of TV series in creating a debate around various social issues.

Evidence and opinions presented in the article show that TV series used to tackle multiple controversial issues in society (gun control, racial discrimination, abortion, etc.) in the 1980s and 1990s. Now, there is a tendency for TV shows to specialise, or to look at more fantastical issues rather than real-life problems. Instead of one TV show tackling more issues, there is a TV show for each issue.

Furthermore, the article notes that consumers’ preferences for comedy and humour push broadcasters to orient their programs towards subjects and genres which appeal most to the public.

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B.

1A

A film company is making a documentary series for TV about working life. They are planning to make an episode about the profession you are aiming for. The episode should be informative and entertaining. Give the producers advice on which skills and procedures they should include in the episode. You should also give reasons why this advice would be relevant for the episode.

1B

An American friend is going for an important interview and left the message below on your voicemail. Your friend is from California and you can hear both Valleyspeak and vocal fry in her voice. Because she was speaking so excitedly, you had to listen to the voicemail twice to get all the details.

Based on the language used in the voicemail, write what advice you would give your American friend so that she sounds more professional. You should also give reasons why you would give this advice to your friend.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “The role of entertainment”.

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D.

2A

It is not easy to balance your time between entertainment and learning. Create a text in which you discuss how to combine schoolwork and entertainment. Use relevant texts from the preparation material and your own experience to support your views.

Your text should include:

· A presentation of your education programme and its demands

· A presentation of the kind of entertainment you spend most time on

· How this entertainment can distract you from your schoolwork

· How entertainment may help you in your schoolwork

· A reflection on how time spent on entertainment and schoolwork can be balanced

Give your text a suitable title.

2B

Create a text where you discuss the quote above and reflect on how such literature and films might still be entertaining even though they make you angry or upset. Choose a literary text and a film you have studied in your English course to illustrate your points.

Your text should include:

· A brief presentation of the literary text and the film

· A discussion of some uncomfortable effects your chosen text and film may have on their audience

· A discussion of how literature and films might still be important for the audience to read and watch even though they make you angry or upset.

· A reflection on how literature and films might still be entertaining even though they make you angry or upset.

Give your text a suitable title.

2C

Entertainment can teach you about different countries and cultures. Create a text in which you describe and discuss what you have learnt about an English-speaking country or culture from films, graphic novels, literature or other types of English-language entertainment.

Give your text a suitable title.

2D

Easy access to English-language entertainment can be an advantage to learners of the English language. Create a text in which you describe, discuss and evaluate the role entertainment can play when learning a language.

Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Here, we will present all the eight sources in the preparation booklet. We will provide an overview of genres, the content, and the most important points that can help you in a discussion about being a good worker and a good citizen.

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Text 1: “Ways of being a good citizen”

· Text 2: “What makes a good worker?”

· Text 3: “What makes good language learners?”

· Text 4: “What does it mean to be a good citizen and live a good life?”

· Text 5: “Being a good citizen; an indigenous experience”

· Text 6: “Sing Our Own Song” (2015)

· Text 7: “ Standing up for what you believe is right”

· Text 8: “How to be good”

Discussion of the topic

In the preparation booklet, you are asked to think about and discuss the topic of being a good worker and a good citizen in English-speaking countries. An overview of the topic is presented in the introductory page of the preparation booklet.

The meaning of being a good worker or a good citizen will depend on the context, such as national or religious culture or whether we are at work or at school. Being in different contexts – many of which are presented in the preparation material – also means that people will have different expectations of us. For example, teachers or employers will have different expectations regarding being a good worker or a good citizen compared to our friends or local community.

In what follows, we will help you discuss this topic by addressing the eight sources presented in your preparation booklet.

Text 1: “Ways of being a good citizen”

Text 1 contains six pictures accompanied by explanations regarding ways of being a good citizen.

Picture 1 depicts a young woman being granted the title “Employee of the month”, who most likely worked hard and paid her taxes.

Picture 2 presents a sketch of Bob Dylan, the songwriter who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2016. In his case, being a good citizen is related to speaking out for a cause through lyrics and literature.

Picture 3 presents a group of people volunteering in an American soup kitchen. In their case, being a good citizen is connected to helping others out of good will and without a hidden purpose.

Picture 4 depicts two NFL athletes refusing to stand up and sing the national anthem. The focus of the picture is African-American athlete Colin Kaepernick, who refused to sing the US national anthem because of his belief that the US oppresses people of colour.

Picture 5 depicts actor Leonardo DiCaprio raising awareness on climate change during the second annual gala for his foundation, held in Saint Tropez. For DiCaprio, being a good citizen means being an activist on climate change and raising awareness on important issues, such as reducing carbon emissions.

Picture 6 presents singer Buffy Saint-Marie, for whom being a good citizen means speaking out through music. The folk singer’s music was banned from radios in the 1960s and the 1970s because of her political activism.

As you have seen, all the six pictures depicted in Text 1 present different ways in which people prove they are good citizens. The six pictures depict different categories of people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds and the different ways in which they managed to become good citizens through their work or gestures. The images also suggest that what makes a good citizen is different in different contexts.

Text 2: “What makes a good worker?”

Text 2 is an article about the top ten qualities of a good employee. According to the article, a good worker should have initiative and good communication skills, proving that they are responsible and able to communicate in a variety of situations. Furthermore, a good worker should also be hard-working and a team player, skills which are sought after by many companies. Furthermore, a good worker should have effective learning skills and the willingness to help others. This means people should be willing to learn and also to establish connections with their co-workers. Finally, the text indicates that a good worker aims to be honest, ethical, polite and disciplined.

Note that the article is addressed to both experienced workers and beginners in the workplace. Also, the text suggests that the top ten skills a good worker should have are the qualities that most companies search for in an employee.

Text 3: “What makes good language learners?”

Text 3 is a list of the six most important aspects that define good language learners. According to the text, good language learners focus on the things they are learning about and they are not afraid to make mistakes, as mistakes can be constructive. Also, good language learners are realistic about the time and effort involved in learning, but also independent and aware that only being present in the classroom is not enough. Finally, good language learners are organised and understand the importance of communication both inside and outside the classroom, as well as striving for accuracy.

Overall, Text 3 suggests that these six theories about being good language learners should help people learn faster and more efficiently. An important analytical element you might want to focus on is the repetition of the same sequence of words at the beginning of each of the six points.

Text 4: “What does it mean to be a good citizen and live a good life?”

This source consists of a text written by a student in response to an exam task in which the student was asked to consider what it means to be a good citizen and live a good life.

The student’s text begins with a reflection on the complexity of the question, which has been analysed over the years by philosophers, politicians, or religious leaders. One fragment deals with the opinions of the ancient philosophers Epicurus and Socrates, who mainly believed that people can lead good lives if they give up their desires and carefully examines their lives. The following fragment deals with the opinions of the Pope, who believes that a good life is given by working and having dignity. The next fragment deals with the opinions of politicians Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump. While the first believes that citizens should be treated equally, the latter believes that winning is what gives one a good life. The student’s text ends with the statement that being a good citizen and living a good life cannot be defined according to only one perspective, but that it should be assessed individually.

An important analytical element in the text is the extensive use of quotations from people belonging to different eras and backgrounds. Note that although most of the text consists of quotations, the student who wrote the text remains detached and objective, rather than offering a personal opinion.

Text 5: “Being a good citizen; an indigenous experience”

Text 5 is an article related to an Aboriginal man’s struggle with being a good citizen. The text focuses on painter Albert Namatjira, an Aboriginal man in Australia, who was a member of the Arrernte people. The man’s culture dictated that one should share everything with his family and community.

Although Albert Namatjira gained popularity among white Australians because of his painting skills – including the honour of meeting the Queen – his Aboriginal identity prevented him from buying a cattle station or even a property of his own. After he and his wife were finally granted Australian citizenship, their community still suffered because of laws that prevented Aboriginals from gaining citizenship or basic rights, such as being supplied with alcohol. Although Namatjira had the benefits of citizenship, he couldn’t share them with his people according to their customs because Australian law forbade it.

After a member of the Arrernte community killed his wife while drunk, Albert Namatjira was arrested and imprisoned because he had allowed the man access to alcohol. After a short time, he was released from prison but died because of a heart attack.

Text 5 also contains a poem about Namatjira written by Oodgeroo Noonuccal. The poem praises Namatjira’s talent and pride for his community and blames the white people for refusing to understand Namatjira’s culture and for breaking his spirit.

An important analytical element you might want to consider in Oodgeroo Noonucal’s poem is the direct address to Namatjira and the rhetorical question in the last stanza.

Text 6: “Sing Our Own Song” (2015)

Text 6 consists of the lyrics of the song “Sing Our Own Song”, sung by Buffy Saint-Marie.

The lyrics present the singer’s address to her fellow Native-Americans, whom she invites to take a stand against the white man’s supremacy and to gather the courage to sing about their culture and history. The lyrics invoke the Native-Americans’ forefathers, who died for their freedom, but also hint at the white man’s greed and need for war.

Important analytical elements you should pay attention to here are the repetition and the allusions to warfare and events that broke the Native-American spirit.

Text 7: “ Standing up for what you believe is right”

Text 7 consists of three short paragraphs related to different people who took a stand for their rights. All paragraphs are accompanied by relevant pictures.

Paragraph 1 deals with Edward Snowden, the whistle-blower who revealed secret NSA practices in the US. As a consequence, he is currently living in exile in Russia.

Paragraph 2 presents the situation of platinum miners in South Africa, who went on strike to demand higher payment. During the strike, many miners were killed or injured by police.

Paragraph 3 presents the situation of Native Americans in North Dakota, who protested for access to clean water and for their desire to preserve their sacred burial grounds from the “Dakota Access Pipeline”.

Text 8: “How to be good”

Text 8 consists of two extracts from Nick Hornby’s novel “How to be good”.

The first extract presents Katie, a mother of two, who addresses the reader and explains the challenges of being a good person. Katie says that she has always wanted to become a doctor because this job is a way of doing good. Katie also says that she is a good person, despite the fact that she is cheating on her husband with a man named Stephen.

The second extract presents a discussion around the dinner table. After Katie invites one of her mentally ill patients, Brian, for dinner, her daughter proposes that the man should move in with the family for ever. Brian agrees, as he is lonely and does not have anybody in the world, but Katie is reluctant to give a definitive answer. She knows that inviting Brian to move in for good is wrong, but she also thinks about doing good things for the people who do not have love, friends, family, or health. Eventually, Katie asks her daughter to postpone the conversation, but Brian says that he does not have anything better to do than wait for an answer.

When you read the text, we advise you to focus on analytical elements such as the theme of morality and the theme of helping others.

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B. 

1A

The text below was posted on youthadvice.net by sixteen-year-old Alex, looking for advice. Write a brief response to Alex, offering advice. Use ideas from texts 2 and 3 in the preparation material in your response.

1B

Text 4 on page 8 in the preparation material is a student response to the task, “Write a short text that looks at the question of what it means to be a good citizen and live a good life”. Below is another response to the same task. Comment briefly on these two responses by comparing language, structure, and content.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Being a good worker and a good citizen in English-speaking countries”.

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D.

2A

Create a text in which you discuss what being a good worker means in the profession you are aiming for.

Your text should include:

· A presentation of the profession you are aiming for

· A description of knowledge and skills needed to be a good worker

· A discussion of behaviour and the attitude needed to be a good worker

· An explanation of necessary equipment and/or procedures for doing a good job and creating a safe workplace

Give your text a suitable title.

2B

In text 8 in your preparation material, Katie faces some challenges when she tries to be a good citizen.

Create a text in which you discuss the challenges Katie faces and compare them with the challenges faced by another character in an English-language novel, short story or film. Use examples from both to support your answer.

Give your text a suitable title.

2C

Create a text in which you present and discuss how indigenous people experience and have experienced trying to be good citizens in English-speaking countries. Use examples from the preparation material and other texts or films by or about indigenous people in English-speaking countries to illustrate your points.

Give your text a suitable title.

2D

The preparation material gives different examples of people who are standing up for what they believe is right.

Create a text in which you present and discuss ways in which people try to change society. Use the preparation material and other texts or films about issues in English speaking countries to illustrate your points.

Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Overview of the topic

· Text 1: Compilation of seven texts

· Text 2: Just do it! (writing to persuade)

· Text 3: Sustainability campaigns

· Text 4: Dear White People

· Text 5: Wing$

· Text 6: I Chose To Look The Other Way

· Text 7: Health and Safety at work: National Safety Council USA, 2018

· Text 8: Letter of Recommendation for Nabila Jones

Overview of the topic

Nike launched their first “Just Do It” campaign in 1988, in which they encouraged young people to play a sport or speak out. In 2018 they organised an anniversary campaign encouraging young people to follow their dreams.  The campaign was so influential that the slogan became a common saying, describing leaving one’s comfort zone to pursue one’s passions.

The texts in the material focus on the “just do it” attitude, but also on similar concepts such as breaking the mould (=rejecting traditional norms and beliefs) or speaking out for a cause.

Whether it is about rejecting traditional norms, taking action to support a cause, or following one’s dreams, all the texts in the preparation material convey ideas about improving the world in both great and small ways.

Text 1: Compilation of seven texts

Text 1 is a compilation of seven different texts, A to G, which represent messages and examples of people who have spoken out for a certain cause. Each text is accompanied by a picture of the person in question.

Text A is a Facebook post from movie star and UN Ambassador Emma Watson, who calls on Londoners to donate their unwanted clothes to charity instead of throwing them away. She mentions that about 23% of clothes in London are not used and she reminds readers about the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals and the need for more responsible consumption.

Text B is a quote from a speech delivered by entrepreneur Steve Jobs at Stanford University. Jobs argues that people should listen to their inner voice and follow their true desires instead of letting dogma and other people’s opinions influence them.

Text C presents Watene Campbell, a young man from New Zealand, who often speaks out for the Maori youth about environmental challenges. Campbell argues that people should think more about the future instead of pursuing selfish interests. He says that he wants to protect the environment so that Maori future generations can connect with nature. He also advocates for equal opportunities for Maori people.  

Text D presents Harper Nielsen, an Australian girl who refused to stand during the national anthem in school. Nielsen argues that the anthem is based on racist ideas which disregard the importance of  the Aboriginal people . The anthem focuses on white people and  Australia  being a young country without taking into account Aboriginals who have been living there for thousands of years. Harper argued that she should not be forced to leave the classroom for acting according to her beliefs.

Text E is by David Hogg, a survivor of a high school shooting in the US who speaks out against gun violence at a 2018 rally. Hogg argues that politicians who say they have no power over the National Rifle Association, who only send condolences to victims’ families, or who are backed by the NRA, should prepare to leave their offices because the people will not accept this anymore. He says the movement he supports will not stop until all Americans can live without fear of gun violence.

Text F shows Femi Oluwele, co-founder of the anti-Brexit group Our Future, Our Choice. Oluwele argues that the old people who voted for  Brexit  will be gone by the time Brexit comes into effect and that it is the young generation who will suffer the consequences of leaving the EU. He adds that young people will be struggling to get jobs, raise a family, and pay a mortgage in the post-Brexit economy. 

Text G presents Lindsey Scott, an African-American model and programmer. Scott was the first African-American model for Calvin Klein.  She also created the app Educate!, which lets young people in Uganda find sponsors for their studies. Scott’s initiative came after discovering that Uganda has the youngest population in the world and the highest poverty rate among youths.

Text 2: Just do it! (writing to persuade)

Text 2 is titled “Just do it! (writing to persuade)” and includes eight guidelines on how to be persuasive in writing. The text mentions using repetition for emphasis, rhetorical questions to encourage reflection, using direct address and personal pronouns, and including examples to make a point. Other guidelines are to argue against opposing views, to highlight your own argument, to use dramatic language and phrases that trigger an emotional response. Also, the text advises using lists of three points in various situations.

Text 3: Sustainability campaigns

Text 3 includes three images related to the environment, detailing how individuals can help protect the planet.

The first image is titled “Save the Earth! Do Something” and includes a number of ways in which individuals can contribute to helping the environment.

Under the “You Matter” section, the actions people can take include voting, researching, and planting a tree.

Under the “Reduce. Reuse. Recycle.” section, the recommended actions are using canvas shopping bags, printing on both sides of a page, and using aluminium bottles instead of plastic ones.

Under the “Food” section, people are encouraged to eat locally produced food and reduce meat consumption.

Under the “Green Energy” section, the poster recommends using the sun more and opening the windows, turning off the light and using florescent light bulbs.

Under the “At Home” section, people are encouraged to turn off water while brushing their teeth, to turn off the computer at night, and to use washing machines programmes with cold water.

Under the “Transportation” section, the poster recommends using public transport, walking, or carpooling, and travelling less by aeroplane.

The second image is a statistic about meat consumption in the US. Americans consume about 10 million burgers every year. If 30% of the beef used in burgers were replaced with mushrooms, this would have three major positive effects on the environment. It would reduce emissions equivalent to those created by 2.3 million cars, it would preserve as much water as is used by 2.6 million Americans every year, and it would reduce the need for agricultural land demand by a surface area larger than that of Maryland.

The third image is titled “Ways to Reduce Your Single-Use Plastic”. The text mentions that there are over 5 trillion pieces of plastic in the ocean and this number increases by 8 million every year, posing a threat to marine life. The image shows various alternatives to single use plastic such as re-usable bottles, travel coffee mugs, eco-friendly decorations, giving up plastic straws and using matches instead of a lighter. These are items that can replace plastic-based ones that people encounter in their everyday activities such as: plastic bottles, bags, straws, cups, balloons, etc.

Text 4: Dear White People

Text 4 is a poem performed on stage by a fictional character named Reggie in the Netflix series Dear White People after he was held at gun point by an officer from campus security. The text includes a poster of the TV series and a screenshot.

The poem starts with the famous lines from the US Declaration of Independence which talks about guaranteed equal rights. However, the speaker argues that such rights do not apply to black people who are often threatened with guns for speaking their minds. The bullets take their freedom, life, and dreams away only because of white people’s racism. 

The speaker lists three real-life black people who have been innocent victims of gun violence by the police and adds his own name to the list. He then reveals that the only thing that saved him from the bullet was showing his student ID to the campus officer. The poem ends by re-affirming that rights like liberty, life, and the pursuit of happiness do not apply to everyone and are not self-evident.

Engelsk

Black Lives Matter

Topic Guide

Black Lives Matter

You can find more information about police discrimination against black people in our in-depth topic guide about the Black Lives Matter movement. 

Text 5: Wing$

Text 5 includes the lyrics of the rap song “Wing$” by Macklemore and Ryan Lewis and a few pictures of Macklemore with various captions.

The captions on the pictures mention that Macklemore is a white rapper who sings about racial discrimination and speaks out against drug use, and a straight man who supports same sex marriage. Lewis also buys cheap clothes although he is worth about 5 million dollars.

The song “Wing$” is a rant against consumerism. The singer talks about his first pair of sport shoes that his mother bought him and his dream to play basketball.  More expensive branded sports shoes followed, and soon the singer became more interested in shoes than in his dream of playing basketball. The branded pairs of shoes made him feel special, but the singer also realised that sometimes they do not bring happiness – a friend of his brother even got killed over a pair of shoes. The singer wanted to be someone important like his sports idols and wanted to be a typical case of American success.

The chorus talks about following one’s dreams the wrong way by indulging in consumerism until the original dreams are lost.

The song continues with arguments against consumerism as the singer talks about how society teaches people to equate consumption with success, and to spend a lot of money. People start to define themselves by the things they have, but the singer has decided to put an end to it.

The chorus repeats and the song ends with singer resuming that he started to be a consumer through the things he wore at school until he became defined by it, but now he realises that a pair of shoes does not mean anything regardless of its brand or price.

Text 6: I Chose To Look The Other Way

Text 6 is a poem titled “I Chose To Look The Other Way” and is written by Don Merrell. 

The poem talks about the potentially fatal consequences of ignoring safety rules at work. The speaker recounts how he chose to look the other way when a co-worker ignored some safety risks, although he was there and could have said or done something.

He did not do anything because he had previously also ignored the safety risks. However, that day his co-worker died because of ignoring the safety risks. Now the speaker feels guilty when he sees the man’s wife because he knows he could have helped prevent his death.

The poem ends by advising people to speak out whenever they see others taking risks because they could save their lives.

Text 7: Health and Safety at work: National Safety Council USA, 2018

Text 7 is titled “Health and Safety at work: National Safety Council USA, 2018” and includes several facts and statistics about workplace injuries.

According to US data, every seven seconds an employee has a work-related injury. This leads to 510 people being injured per hour, 12,300 per day, 86,500 per week, and 4.5 million per year.

Work-related injuries led to 104 million lost production days in 2016.  The most common work-related injuries are sprains, soreness, and cuts. The top three workplace injury events that lead to production loss are related to overexertion (34%), contact with objects and equipment (25%), and slips or falls (25%).

To avoid injuries related to overexertion, the text recommends avoiding bending and twisting while lifting things and to take frequent breaks. To avoid injuries caused by contact with objects and equipment, it is advisable to store heavy objects in an accessible place, wear proper equipment, and be mindful of when objects and equipment are being moved near one’s work area. To avoid slips or falls, it is recommended that workers place ladders on stable surfaces and maintain good housekeeping practices.

Text 8: Letter of Recommendation for Nabila Jones

Text 8 is a letter of recommendation written by an employer for a person named Nabila Jones. The letter is written by Heath McHealthy, the Director of North Shore Nursing Home, following Nabila’s student work placement at the nursing home.

The letter praises Nabila for performing a variety of duties along with the other employees, and for the fact that she worked by the motto “just do it” by taking on task and duties that were not necessarily required of her as a student. The letter mentions Nabila being skilled with patients and learning things about them to make them comfortable around her.

The letter ends with the director recommending Nabila for future jobs, including at the nursing home, and expressing his availability for further references.

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B. 

1A

Study text 3 in the preparation material and use some of the information to write a short text to persuade young people to do what they can to make a difference. Use some of the techniques in text 2 of the preparation material to help you persuade your readers.

The title of your text is “Just do it!”

1B

Write a short text that will encourage readers to help create a safe working environment for themselves and their colleagues. Use some of the techniques in text 2 to help you persuade your readers.

You may use both text 6 and text 7 from the preparation material as inspiration for your short text.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Just do it! Speak out! Break the mould!”

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D.

2A

Create a literary text about a young person who takes a stand or breaks the mould.

You may choose to write any type of literary text. Your text must:

· include at least one young person from an English-speaking country.

· explore themes such as taking a stand, breaking the mould, or just doing it

· be titled “Just do it!”

2B

Create a text to inspire students to learn as much as they can and connect with colleagues while on work placement. In your text:

· briefly introduce your educational programme

· explain why work placement is important in terms of practical learning

· discuss how and why you should connect with colleagues and clients/customers during your work placement

· discuss the importance of both being independent and part of a team

· conclude by convincing your readers to “just do it” while on work placement

Texts 2 and 8 may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

2C

Powerful texts often focus on a person who dares to “just do it” by breaking the mould or standing up for themselves, others or a cause.

Create a text discussing a powerful text (this could also be a film) you have worked with this year and compare it to one of the texts from the preparation material.

In your text:

· introduce the two texts you will be discussing

· compare the two texts in terms of the message conveyed

· explain and compare what makes the texts powerful

· discuss how a character’s or person’s “just do it” attitude affects readers

Texts 1 a-g, 4, 5 and 6 are all suitable choices for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

2D

You have learnt about current issues in English-speaking countries during your course and while preparing for this exam.

Create a text about a current issue in an English-speaking country and how young people are raising their voice to address the issue.

In your text:

· introduce the issue you have chosen

· explain how the issue is being addressed and by whom

· discuss the challenges young people may face when they decide to “Just do it!” and speak out

· discuss roles young people can have in terms of working with this issue

Texts 1 a-g, 3, 4 and 5 may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title

Preparation material

For dealing with the topic of social control in English-speaking countries, your preparation material includes seven texts and asks you to reflect and discuss on issues relevant to the topic. In what follows, we will first present each of the materials and then provide you with some ideas for a discussion on the topic.

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Outlines

· Discussion of the topic

· Preparing for the exam

Outlines

Text 1: What is social control?

Text 1 is an informative material on social control compiled from two different websites, Wikipedia and About.com.

According to these sources, social control refers to the way our behaviour is regulated by societies. By behavior we understand also norms, beliefs and attitudes regarding all types of topics.

Social control can be attained either via informal means which we broadly define as socialization or by formal means which refer to official laws and regulations designed to sanction what is deemed as inappropriate behaviour.

Text 2: Workers at home for elderly cite abuse and neglect of patients

Text 2 is a news article written by Margot O’Neil and published in the Australian publication ABC Net, on August 13, 2013.

The article presents a growing issue in developed countries like Australia and the UK; the neglect and abuse of elderly patients in care facilities, caused by fact that such facilities are understaffed.

The article focuses on the declarations of Lynette Dickens, who is a specialist in palliative healthcare, and Sophie Curtis, an experienced nurse. According to the two of them, neglect of elderly patients happens because there is a shortage of both qualified and unqualified personnel in such facilities. Furthermore, those running such facilities try to cover up the shortages of the system and tend to dismiss any employee who complains. 

The article also gives the example of a recent scandal in the UK which uncovered similar issues to those in the Australian system of care for the elderly.

Text 3: New truck driving regulations to take effect

Text 3 is news article published on the website of the American media outlet Fox8 Morning News, on June 24, 2013, and written by Carter Coyle.

The article covers the new regulations instituted by the US Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, designed to curb the number of accidents caused by truck drivers’ fatigue. According to the new rules, truck drivers will only be allowed to drive 70 hours per week, down from 82, and they are supposed to take at least a 34 hours break in between 70 working hours’ cycles. Furthermore, they are supposed to take 30 minutes breaks every 8 hours.

The article also quotes a truck driving company owner from Greensboro, Robert Cayton. The business owner welcomes the new regulations, but he draws attention to the fact that they will lead to lower salaries for the truck drivers and more employees in the transportation companies.

Text 4: Gay Marriage and Government

Text 4 is comprised of a short informative paragraph and a caricature published on About.com during the debate about gay marriages in the US.

According to the introductory information, the US Supreme Court has ruled in 2015 that states cannot ban same-sex marriages.

The caricature is made of two images. In the first one, a man dressed in white affirms proudly that “Government shouldn’t tell us what to believe!”, while the second image continues the man’s speech while pointing towards a gay-couple: “It should tell them!!!”

Text 5: Justine Sacco, PR executive fired over racist tweet, ‘ashamed’

Text 5 is an adapted article from the British publication The Guardian, written by Ed Pilkington and published on December 22, 2013.

The article covers the case of Justine Sacco, a PR at IAC, who has been fired after tweeting a discriminatory message on her flight to Cape Town, South Africa, in which clearly implied that only Africans get AIDS.

The woman had since the apologised for the tweet and acknowledged it was both racist and insensitive. Sacco had posted the tweet during her flight to visit her father in South Africa and by the time her plane landed, her tweet had already gone viral around the world.

Immediately after, the woman was fired by her company, because her statements were deemed hateful. However, the company also mentioned that Sacco had been an exemplary employee until that point.

Text 6: Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)

Text 6 is a short biographical text about Irish author, Oscar Wilde, retrieved from Wikipedia.

According to the biography, Oscar Wilde had been arrested at the height of his fame, because he was discovered to have a homosexual affair with another man, Lord Alfred Douglas. Wilde was sentenced to two years of forced labour after which he left the UK and lived in France until his death. He was buried in France, but his corpse had been moved from one cemetery to another. His grave has become a sightseeing objective, with many fans of the author coming to leave lipstick marks on the funerary stone. This eventually pushed authorities to add a glass protection to the tomb.

Text 7: Naming and shaming as social control

Text 7 offers a list of articles extracts from British newspapers which show how social control is exercised by the media. The extracts include the names, ages and locations of several offenders, people who have been fined for speeding, for minor thefts, assault or drunk driving.

Discussion of the topic

The texts in you preparation material offer you various perspectives on social control in English-speaking countries. They deal with social control in the workplace, such as in palliative-care or PR industry (texts 2 and 5), with what social control is (text 1), or with official and informal forms of social control.

In your discussion of this topic, you are asked to think about when and where social control might be necessary, and when it might be unreasonable or even cruel.

Social control is usually necessary to regulate behaviours so that society becomes functional and can further develop.

At a professional level, some forms of social control are often considered necessary because they help maintain and create a constructive environment which aims at both the development of the employees and the company. 

Additionally, depending on the type of profession and trade, social control might be necessary because the given job/industry requires a lot of responsibility and can affect a lot of people (such as in the medical field, in the security field or even the automotive industry).

But social control is also deemed necessary in general social situations, in order to avoid conflicts and hurting others. For instance, when in formal occasions, one is expected to behave respectfully or even dress appropriately, not to offend others.

Nevertheless, social control has also certain disadvantages and it might become unreasonable or even cruel. This is because societies change and certain norms, rules, standards and regulations become obsolete. Take, for instance, the social control imposed by traditional societies on women or homosexual relationships.

By pressuring women into marrying a certain type of person, by not allowing them to pursue higher education or even to work (as the context was before the Women Rights Movement), their liberties were unreasonable limited, making them dependant on men.

Other examples of cruel and unreasonable social control have been enforced during slavery in the US and even after its abolition during the segregation period, when whites and blacks were supposed to live in separate communities.

However, you can also consider simpler examples. For instance, a certain degree of social control over the behaviours and attitudes of minors by their parents is usually considered acceptable and desirable. However, when the social control of parents expands well into the adult years of their offspring, than we tend to consider it unreasonable.

These were only a few suggestions which can get you started on a discussion of the topic of social control in the English-speaking countries. We strongly encourage you to think of more examples of your own and reflect on the topic deeper.

Task 1 Short answer Answer either 1A or 1B 1A The preparation material gives examples of how violations of norms and rules can make newspaper headlines. Create a short text showing what kinds of breaches of norms and rules you may find in the profession or trade you are aiming for. Do you think any of these breaches could become newspaper headlines? 1B The two news articles below are about the same type of crime: joyriding*. Create a short text in which you briefly comment on the differences in language, content and the journalists’ attitudes. Task 2 Long answer The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Social control in English-speaking countries”. Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D 2A Literary characters often choose to violate social norms or break laws, often for very good reasons. Create a text in which you compare two such characters and discuss the choices they make. The characters must be from English-language novels, films, plays or short stories you have studied. Give your text a suitable title. 2B Create an informative text in which you present some of the standards of behaviour in your future trade or profession and discuss why they are important and how they are enforced. Your text should include:

· a short presentation of the profession you are aiming for

· a description of its most important norms and professional standards

· a discussion of why these norms and professional standards are important

· a discussion of what the workplace can do if they find out that important norms and professional standards are not being followed

Give your text a suitable title. 2C Text 5 in the preparation material tells the story of Justine Sacco, who was fired because of a racist tweet. Create a text in which you present the main points in the news article in text 5 and discuss the consequences actions in somebody’s private life can have for their professional life. Refer to at least one other relevant example from English-speaking countries in your text. Give your text a suitable title. 2D Sometimes people find a particular type of social control unreasonable or unjust and try to find ways of opposing or changing it. Create a text in which you present and discuss one or more cases from one or more English-speaking countries where social control has been opposed or is being opposed. Your text should include:

· a presentation of one or more cases where social control (norms, rules and values) has been or is being opposed

· a description of the type of opposition

· a discussion of whether the opposition led to change or if you think it will lead to change

· reflection on the human costs of opposing social control

Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion on the topic

· Text 1: “How to apply for an apprenticeship”

· Text 2: Vocational education’s global gap

· Text 3: Pictures: “Winning and losing”

· Text 4:  Being bullied over ginger hair made me, says Ed Sheeran: Award-winning musician talks of name-calling at school

· Text 5: Edited transcript of sportscaster Dale Hansen on the anthem protests in the NFL (National Football League)

· Text 6: Donald Trump’s remarks about NFL (National Football League) players taking a knee

· Text 7: Advertisements

· Text 8: Instagram, sex and mental health; winners and losers in the age of the hashtag

· Text 9: Excerpt from the novel Divergent

Discussion on the topic

The preparation booklet includes 9 texts that you can use as inspiration to explore the topic of winning and losing in English-speaking countries and complete your assignments. In what follows, we will give you some ideas for the discussion of the topic and we will outline each of the texts so that you can get an overview of the topic.

The discussion revolves around winning and losing in English-speaking countries. According to your preparation material, the meaning of winning or losing can have different interpretations. Sometimes, losing can turn into a success thanks to new opportunities or a change in expectations. Other times, winning might not be as rewarding as one thinks.

In English-speaking countries, society mostly values competition instead of cooperation. This is noticeable in most areas of life, including sports, education,  or politics. At the same time, English-speaking societies are also very diverse regarding cultural and social aspects.

A competitive culture has both advantages and disadvantages. Competition can motivate people, but it can also lead to conflicts. That is why one of the challenges in these societies is to find a balance between competition and cooperation.

Text 1: “How to apply for an apprenticeship”

Text 1 is an adapted version of the article “How to apply for an apprenticeship” by Andrew Fennel.

The author describes an apprenticeship as learning a trade while being paid. He argues that an apprenticeship offers important work experience, but that to get such a position, candidates should know how to promote themselves to potential employers. Fennel considers the key factors for getting an apprenticeship to be qualifications, skills, career ambitions, and experience.

The text also includes a picture with key words such as: vocational education, qualifications, tutorials, e-learning, career development, jobs, practical apprenticeship, employment, talents, vocation, etc.

Text 2: Vocational education’s global gap

Text 2 is titled “Vocational education’s global gap” and explores the issue of career and education choices in various countries. The text argues that while most people think vocational education is important, academic education still has a higher status in society.

However, there is an increasing need for vocational education because of youth unemployment and a lack of skilled workers in the job market in many countries. A 2015 report confirms this, as well as the fact that people tend to see vocational education as less valuable than academic education.

In India, the work force will increase by 32% in the next 20 years, leading to many young people needing jobs. However, only 2.3% of the workforce currently has a formal vocational education. This suggests that to maintain economic growth, India will have to invest more in vocational education. This is challenging because many parents are university-focused when it comes to their children’s education.

In South Africa, the unemployment rate among young people is 54%, while businesses complain about the shortage of skilled workers. The authorities plan to create 2.5 million spots in vocational colleges over the next 20 years. However, the report argues that there is a mismatch between the skills people are trained in and what skills are actually needed on the job market.

In the UK, there is a plan to recognise vocational education and create 3 million apprenticeships. However, right now very few young Britons are studying vocational subjects at an international standard.

The CEO of the City and Guilds Group which issued the reports argues that people need to change their prejudices about vocational education and to start promoting it, if countries want to have competitive economies.

The text includes two images. The first image is that of two hands holding a message shaped like a piece of a jigsaw puzzle that says ‘vocational’. In the background, the word ‘training’ is repeated. The second image shows a group of skilled workers depicted as colourful individuals. Above them is an assembly line of students sitting at desks, who are depicted in black and white and look almost identical.

Text 3: Pictures: “Winning and losing”

Text 3 includes various pictures showing aspects of winning and losing in English-speaking countries.

The first picture shows  Donald Trump  and Hilary Clinton with the caption “Here are 2016’s most famous winner and loser.” Trump and Clinton ran for US President in 2016, with Trump winning the elections despite most predictions suggesting that Trump had a low chance of succeeding.

The second picture shows two men wearing football shirts with the English flag painted on their faces, looking disappointed. The caption reads “England fans downbeat after loss.” The picture was presumably taken at a football game in which the England team failed to win.

The third picture shows eight athletes with disabilities looking professional and proud. The caption reads: “Paralympians have helped to change our definition of winning and losing by achieving excellence in their chosen sport.” The picture suggests that disabled athletes are able to achieve the highest standards in sport, just like able-bodied athletes.

The fourth picture shows New Zealand’s national women’s rugby team celebrating victory through a traditional dance. The caption reads: “The Black Ferns of New Zealand, celebrating winning the 2017 Women’s World Rugby Cup, by performing a traditional Haka, a Maori war dance.”

The fifth picture shows golfers who are playing despite the fact that a forest behind them is on fire. The picture was taken in 2017 at the Beacon Rock Golf Course in the state of Washington. The caption reads: “These golfers are determined to find out who will win their game of golf. Forest fires worsened by climate change mean that we all may be on the losing side.” The text raises awareness about climate change and people’s indifference to it.

The sixth picture shows an expensive car and a man in an improvised bicycle cart at a set of traffic lights. The caption reads: “Rich and poor exist side-by-side in cities all over the English-speaking world.” The picture is intended to raise awareness about income gaps in English-speaking societies.

Text 4:  Being bullied over ginger hair made me, says Ed Sheeran: Award-winning musician talks of name-calling at school

Text 4 is an adaptation of an article by Laura Cox. The material focuses on musician Ed Sheeran who was bullied in school because he wore glasses, and had a stutter and ginger hair. Recalling these aspects of his life, the musician thinks they are what contributed to him becoming famous. He thinks he outgrew his background.

At the same time, having ginger hair now works to his advantage because it makes his audience more likely to remember him. Sheeran also recalls seeing his childhood bullies again later in life. When he looks at them, he thinks they have not achieved anything great in life.

Ed Sheeran is now a well-known musician in the English-speaking world, collaborating with famous artists and winning awards for his music.

The text includes two pictures of Ed Sheeran, one of him as a child wearing glasses and one of him performing on stage with his guitar.

Text 5: Edited transcript of sportscaster Dale Hansen on the anthem protests in the NFL (National Football League)

Text 5 is an edited transcript of sportscaster Dale Hansen on the anthem protests in the NFL (National Football League).

Dale Hansen describes how when NFL player Colin Kaepernick kneeled during the national anthem as an act of protest. However, the incident turned into a scandal when President Donald Trump got involved and made offensive remarks about other players who did the same.

Hansen argues that the fact that Donald Trump claimed he did not support these types of protest shows that he is biased. He makes analogies with what would have happened if similar protests had not taken place during the civil rights movement.

Hansen claims that NFL players’ protests are not a sign of disrespect, but a way to draw attention to how African Americans are discriminated against in US society.

Hansen mentions white Americans hanging Nazi flags or Confederate flags as being an issue of greater concern than the NFL players’ protests, despite Trump’s single-minded focus on the latter. He also mentions that Americans use the national flag in many circumstances that might suggest disrespect. Hansen ends by reminding people that the US Constitution grants everyone freedom of speech, but that it does not compel anyone to stand during the national anthem.

Text 6: Donald Trump’s remarks about NFL (National Football League) players taking a knee

Text 6 conveys some of Donald Trump’s remarks about NFL players kneeling during the national anthem as a sign of protest. Trump argues that NFL owners should take players who kneel out of the field and fire them because they disrespect the American flag. He argues that owners who would do that would become the most popular in the country.

Trump argues that NFL ratings are down because everyone is more interested in Donald Trump, and also that the game is getting less interesting, because the rules are more restrictive. He claims the protests are damaging to NFL ratings. He also argues that the way to stop the protests is for viewers to walk out of the stadium if they see a player kneeling during the national anthem.

Text 7: Advertisements

Text 7 includes two advertisements. The first one shows a registered nurse named Sally. The main message reads: “We can hold a life in our hands, but we can’t ask for our partner’s hand.” Below it is also written: “We’re doing our jobs. Tell our politicians to do theirs at equalitycampaign.org.au.” The final message is “Marriage equality. It’s only fair.”, next to a map of Australia with the rainbow flag and the word “equality”.

The advertisement is part of a gay rights campaign from 2017 advocating for gay marriage to become legal in Australia. Same-sex marriage was approved in Australia in December 2017. The law was passed after a postal survey showed that over 66% of Australians support same-sex marriage.

The second advertisement informs the public that companies Paddy Power and Stonewall have sent a pair of rainbow laces to professional football players for the players to show the world their support for gay players. The ad encourages players not to discriminate against co-players because of their sexual orientation and to openly support them as teammates. The advertisement is from a 2015 campaign targeting homophobia in the UK.

Text 8: Instagram, sex and mental health; winners and losers in the age of the hashtag

Text 8 begins by describing how American high school movies since the 1970s have influenced ideas about success and failure in high school, although real life is more complex. Now, typical ideas about how people should look and act are being challenged by social media and mass media.

While social media can have a negative impact on people’s self-esteem, it can also be a platform for making more voices heard. The article gives examples of Instagram accounts that challenge mainstream ideas about being fit and healthy, or which mock celebrity posing.

The text gives the example of Tasmanian comedian Luke McGregor. He stars in a documentary series about sex, making the topic less taboo and opening up people to the topic by talking about his own anxieties and frustrations.

McGregor also openly admits that he sometimes feels confused, which is not surprising given that many Australian men struggle with depression. Australia also has a very high suicide rate among men. This is why charity organisations try to change the dominant macho culture which makes men feel they cannot express their feelings.

The text ends by arguing that social media can create winners. They are people who challenge traditional norms of identity and behaviour and move society forward.

Text 9: Excerpt from the novel Divergent

Text 9 is an excerpt from the dystopian novel Divergent by Veronika Roth. The text explores themes like courage and bullying.

The characters in the excerpt are being trained to throw knives. The strongest of them, Al, is the only one who is still unable to hit his target.

Eric, the leader of the group, begins to scold and shame Al for being unable to hit his target. When he fails again, Eric continues to mock Al and sends him to collect his knife while the other keep throwing at the board. Al is afraid he will get hurt by the knives being thrown. Even though he usually obeys Eric, Al refuses this time.

Eric clears the ring and makes Al stand close to the board, asking trainer Four to throw knives at him. But Four challenges Eric, arguing that it is not necessary. The narrator Tris also asks Eric to stop bullying Al, and she ends up taking Al’s place at the board. Tris is told that she cannot flinch, or Al will have to take her place. Four starts throwing knives at the board, each time closer to Tris. Eventually, the last knife touches the girl’s ear. Since she did not flinch, Eric is satisfied and leaves, saying he will keep his eye on her.

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B

1A

You have just discovered that there are plans to shut down your education programme at your school.

Create a text that could be used to inspire students to protest against these plans, explaining why shutting down the programme is a bad idea.

1B

Write a short text in which you explain the messages of the two advertisements in text 7 in the preparation material.

Compare how language and visual elements are used in the two advertisements to communicate their message.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Winning and losing in the English-speaking world”.

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D.

2A

Texts 5 and 6 in the preparation material provide two opposing views about recent events in the USA. Dale Hansen defends NFL players’ right to “take a knee” during the national anthem, while President Trump criticises them for doing this.

Create a text in which you discuss the texts.

You should:

· explain the issues raised

· discuss the views expressed in the texts

· compare the language of the texts

Give your text a suitable title.

2B

A company in the UK is offering apprenticeships or traineeships to young people from Scandinavia. They have apprenticeships and traineeships in every vocational area. There will be a lot of competition for the positions so you will have to sell yourself well to win the company over.

Create a text that could win you one of these apprenticeships or traineeships.

You should include information about:

· which traineeship or apprenticeship you are aiming for

· how your education and training have prepared you for an apprenticeship/traineeship

· situations during your work placement that have given you valuable experience

· why you are the best person for the apprenticeship/traineeship

Give your text a suitable title.

2C

You have studied cultural and social conditions affecting people in English-speaking countries during your course and while working with the preparation material.

Create a text about one of these cultural or social conditions that you have studied and discuss who the winners and losers appear to be. You should refer to texts from the preparation material and/or sources that you have worked with during your course.

Give your text a suitable title.

2D

In the extract from “Divergent” by Veronica Roth (text 9 in the preparation material) several characters compete for power and authority.

Create a text discussing the way these characters behave towards each other as they try to be winners in the extract you have read. Then compare these characters’ behaviour with the behaviour of the characters in another English-language text or film who are also struggling in a situation where winning is important.

Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Your exam set comes with preparation material that you should use as inspiration when you answer the questions on the topic of living in English-speaking countries. In what follows, we will give you some points on the topic and outline the nine texts in your preparation material.

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Text 1: Norwegian vocational students on exchange programmes abroad

· Text 2: Six reasons why you should study and take part of your apprenticeship training abroad

· Text 3: What Millennials Want In The Workplace (And Why You Should Start Giving It To Them)

· Text 4: Millennials are struggling at work because their parents “gave them medals for coming last”

· Text 5: “Everyone has problems, don’t they?”

· Text 6: Northern Ireland power-sharing talks 

· Text 7: Everyone Knows This Is Somewhere

· Text 8: Facts and Figures about Young People in some English-speaking Countries

· Text 9: Popular: Vintage Wisdom from a Modern Geek

Discussion of the topic

Your exam set is focused on the topic of living in English-speaking countries. 

The preparation material explores points like the importance of having experience abroad, education and work in English-speaking countries, as well as issues like prejudice, discrimination, economic inequality, violence, etc.

As stated in the preparation material, English language becomes one of the key factors that joins the “400 million people living in English-speaking countries” (p. 4, l. 1). Reflect on the fact that English has become a lingua franca (the language people from different countries communicate in) and the importance of having good language skills for those who want to study, train, or work abroad.

The texts in the preparation material also show that living in English speaking countries is a personal experience and is influenced by people’s background and circumstances. While a young person going for studies abroad might have a very positive experience in an English-speaking country, gaining new skills and making new friends, a migrant might have a completely different experience struggling to find a job and being discriminated against. This implies that one should not make generalisations about what it is like to live in an English-speaking country.

In what follows, we will provide summaries of each of the texts in your preparation material.

Text 1: Norwegian vocational students on exchange programmes abroad

Text 1 describes the experience of Silje Steffensen, a student undergoing vocational training in sales and servicing. Silje spent three months on an internship abroad in England, which she believes expanded her horizons and will give her an advantage when she looks for a job.

Text 2: Six reasons why you should study and take part of your apprenticeship training abroad

Text 2 provides a list of reasons why students should do part of their studies or apprenticeships abroad.

The reasons include meeting new people, gaining work experience, changing their perspective on Norway, learning to solve problems and be independent, as well as increasing their prospects of getting a good job back in Norway.

Text 3: What Millennials Want In The Workplace (And Why You Should Start Giving It To Them)

Text 3 is an extract from an article which describes what millennials want from their jobs. Considering that by 2020, millennials will make up about 40% of the working force in the US, the writer argues that employers should pay attention to what they want at work.

According to a study cited by the text, most millennials want to make the world a better place, and they like working independently or under a boss who is more like a mentor. They also want flexible schedules and prefer collaboration over competitiveness. The writer recommends that companies find ways to accommodate the values that millennials have, because they will benefit from attracting the best workers to their companies.

Text 4: Millennials are struggling at work because their parents “gave them medals for coming last”

Text 4 is an article extract in which the author argues that millennials are self-entitled and frustrate their employers, but that this is because of their upbringing. The author cites motivational speaker Simon Sinek who claims that millennials have low self-esteem because of poor parenting and social media. Their parents constantly told them they were special, and this has made them unprepared for the realities of adult life. Therefore, millennials cannot accept negative feedback at work, for example.

Citing Sinek again, the author describes how social media is addictive and makes people feel insecure as well as impatient. Sinek’s message is that professional and emotional success as well as self-confidence take time to build, but have immense rewards.

Text 5: “Everyone has problems, don’t they?”

Text 5 comprises various testimonials of young people regarding issues they are facing while growing up in the UK.

Alexandra McKenzie recalls how, growing up, she was taught that her possibilities are limitless. However, when the economic crisis came, this belief was changed as students began to struggle to find employment or paid internships. She argues governments should make sure there are jobs for higher education graduates.

Hassnain Khan describes how a boy at his school ran away from home after being bullied. He states that he is bullied as well and wishes that people would be kinder to each other.

Samia Meah talks about being homeless, but instead of living on the street, she and her friends are forced to live in temporary cheap accommodation with strangers. She claims that other people like her are usually victims of violence, neglect, or are in this situation because of immigration. She also claims that such people can overcome their situation and be good at what they do, even if they did not get a fair start in life.

Sarah Kigozi is a 16-year-old girl who must take care of both her sick mother and her autistic brother. She also acts as a translator for them as she is the only one who speaks English. She wants to become a psychologist and to build schools in less developed countries.

Lee McConville talks about politicians being unaware of what it is like to grow up in a deprived environment. He recalls how he was surrounded by drugs, prostitution, and crime when he was growing up.

Dan Tait writes about being almost killed by another student because he is gay. He argues that older generations and schools need guidance on how to deal with homophobia.

Text 6: Northern Ireland power-sharing talks 

Text 6 includes four opinions about the failure of power-sharing talks in Northern Ireland in 2017.

A 78-year old teacher of Irish from Belfast argues that Sinn Fein should not give in or the Irish will lose their unique identity.

A 14-year old from Belfast states that she is scared the conflict in Northern Ireland will resume if the talks fail.

A 25-year old from Derry claims Northern Ireland should join the Republic of Ireland so that they could stay in the EU once the UK leaves the union.

A 42-year old from Omagh believes Sinn Fein is playing a political game that is threatening ordinary Irish people who need access to good education and good jobs.

Text 7: Everyone Knows This Is Somewhere

Text 7 is an extract from an article. The author describes how he ended up in New York after growing up on a remote farm in North Dakota. The writer claims that people assume that because he is an outsider to New York, he can better describe the city and his experience must be interesting.

He describes how in North Dakota, people leave their car engines running because no-one will steal their car but that this would never happen in New York.

The writer claims he came to New York because he wanted to be cool, but that he realised that he cannot afford to be cool and mocks some allegedly cool people he saw in the city.

He believes New York is full of attractive people, but that New Yorkers do not know how other Americans live, and that other Americans are similarly confused about New Yorkers. However, contrary to common opinion, New Yorkers are friendly and helpful. The writer suspects it is because most New Yorkers are not originally from New York.

While living in New York, the writer also noticed that people often shared typical New York experiences, such as having a mouse in their apartment. The writer ends by claiming that although New York is sometimes stressful and expensive, it is also a great place to live in, and he would not live anywhere else.

Text 8: Facts and Figures about Young People in some English-speaking Countries

Text 8 includes some statistics about young people in English-speaking countries.

The first graph shows that since the early 1990s, teen pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion rates in the US have been dropping and reached an all-time low in 2011.

The second set of statistics reveal that 1 in 4 Australians between 16 and 24 years old has a mental disorder, and that young women are more likely to have anxiety or affective disorders than young men. The top three issues young Australians are concerned with are study issues, stress, and body image.

The third statistic shows unemployment levels for 16-24 year olds according to ethnicity. It shows that black young people are significantly more likely to be unemployed compared to other ethnicities.

The last statistic reveals that the literacy rate in India is significantly higher for young men than for young women.

Text 9: Popular: Vintage Wisdom from a Modern Geek

Text 10 is an excerpt from the introductory section of a book by Maya van Wagenen.

The narrator starts by describing a series of humiliating school experiences such as being called names or laughed at in the gym locker room. She then lists the types of school groups according to popularity. At the top are the volleyball girls, at the bottom are the people who are completely ignored, which includes social outcasts and teachers. The narrator belongs to the social outcasts group together with her friend Kenzie.

She claims that guides on how to become popular have been around since the 1950s. She recalls how her dad once bought an old book, “Betty Cornell’s Teen-Age Popularity Guide”, which gave tips on how to be popular.

When Maya stumbles upon it, she does not have high expectations. However, when her mother suggests that she follow the book’s advice, Betty Cornell’s words remind her that she does care about being popular and liked. The narrator announces that she knows the book will change her life.

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B.

1A

In which English-speaking country would you most like to take part of your education and training? Write a short text in which you explain why you would want to live and attend school and training in this country. Use ideas from the preparation material in your text.

1B

Your friend from India has asked you to help her with an e-mail she is sending to her school principal complaining about her school. You can see the first version of her e-mail below. Write a short text in which you give her some advice about how to make it more formal. Use examples from the e-mail.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Living in English-speaking countries”.

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D.

2A

Create a text informing a group of English-speaking visitors about the profession or trade you are aiming for. Inform them about:

· The profession or trade you are aiming for

· The education or training that is required

· The importance of this profession or trade in society

· What skills are important in this profession or trade, and why

· What employers are looking for in a good employee, and why

Give your text a suitable title.

2B

During your course you have studied social and cultural issues in English-speaking countries. Create a text in which you discuss one of these issues and how it affects young people. Use the information in the preparation material and/or other sources to support your text. Give your text a suitable title.

2C

Literature and films give us insight into other views and ideas about life, thereby broadening our understanding of the world. Create a text in which you present two characters from Englishlanguage literary texts or films. Discuss the ways in which they have broadened your understanding of at least two of the following points:

· people

· society

· relationships

· love and happiness or pain and grief

Give your text a suitable title.

2D

In text 6 of the preparation material you can read about different people’s views about a news story in Northern Ireland. Consider a recent news story from an English-speaking country that you have discussed during your course. How might people of different ages, genders or backgrounds react to this story?

Create a text that discusses your chosen news story from the point of view of one or more of the people pictured below. You are free to choose where this person may be from and what their life situation may be.

Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Text 1a: Play like a girl

· Text 1b: Mana Wahine (the power, authority, and strength of women)

· Text 2a: Why you should choose a university education

· Text 2b: The benefits of vocational education 

· Text 3: Extract from The Hate U Give 

· Text 4: Opposing views on cultural and social issues in English-speaking countries

· Text 5a: Greta Thunberg’s speech at the UN Climate Action Summit 2019

· Text 5b: Responses to Greta Thunberg’s speech 

· Text 6: “The Last Bee” – A poem by Brian Bilston

· Text 7: The importance of using a sock; getting a message across when the law forbids it 

· Text 8: Getting your message across

Discussion of the topic

The preparation material for Engelsk fellesfag vår 2020 begins with a presentation of the topic “Getting your message across”. It explains that getting your message across can be challenging, and that those who succeed in communicating effectively use vocabulary and persuasive techniques that appeal to their audience. Getting your message across is important in day-to-day life, and young people especially might be criticized both for what they say and for how they say it. 

While the texts in the preparation material provide you with different examples connected to the topic of getting your message across, the presentation also encourages you to do your own research and learn more about perspectives that might interest you. The presentation also states that the preparation material includes different types of texts and encourages you to consider how these texts relate to your work during the English course. 

Text 1a: Play like a girl

Text 1a is a speech made by Billie Jean King, a famous tennis player and women’s sports advocate, at the opening of the Women’s National Basketball Allstar game. 

King addresses the little girls in her audience, telling them to look to female athletes to find inspiration and persevere against society’s limitations. King also suggests that, in today’s world, little girls can become whatever they want and inspire the next generation. She explains that all that they have to do is play like a girl. 

The text also includes a link where you can listen to King delivering her speech.

Text 1b: Mana Wahine (the power, authority, and strength of women)

Text 1b presents another version of the speech in Text 1a, this time delivered by Portia Woodman, a member of the New Zealand women’s rugby team the Black Ferns. Woodman’s most notable change in the speech can be found at the end, where she uses Maori words to remind little girls about the power, authority, and strength of being a woman. 

Text 1b also includes a picture of Portia Woodman playing rugby, and a link where you can listen to her delivering her speech. 

Text 2a: Why you should choose a university education

Text 2a explains that some people look down upon vocational education programs. It includes a text that encourages readers to apply for a university education program, claiming that vocational professions are dirty, dangerous, less economically secure, less stylish, and give people a lower social status than professions that require a university education. 

Text 2b: The benefits of vocational education 

The text states that many parents in Australia want their children to go to university because they believe a university education will give them a better future. The text is combined with infographics with data from the National Centre for Vocational Education Research and Graduate Careers Australia. The infographics show that people with vocational training have a bigger starting and median salary than those who received a university degree. 

The text also includes an estimation of the type of education that future jobs need, showing that 90% of them will need vocational rather than  university education. Finally, the text includes statistics that show the percentage of advertised jobs filled by qualified candidates in construction trades, automotive trades, food trades, and building. It also encourages readers to take up vocational training by showing them that jobs in vocational fields are available. 

Text 3: Extract from The Hate U Give 

The text is an extract from a novel by Angie Thomas. Starr, a black teenage girl who witnessed her friend, Khalil, being killed by a police officer, gives a TV interview about Khalil’s shooting. Starr’s dialogue with the interviewer is mixed with her reflections. 

Starr first speaks about Khalil and her relationship to him. She also speaks about Khalil’s personality, pointing out that he was just a kid. Starr then gives the interviewer her opinion on the people who focus on the fact that Khalil might have sold drugs. She states that Khalil would sell drugs to protect his mother, who was a drug addict, and that he was not a gang member. She also suggests that the media made it seem like Khalil deserved to die if he was a drug dealer and gang member. 

Starr then describes how Khalil was killed, and how the police officer pointed his gun at her until the other officers arrived. When speaking about her feelings towards police officers, Starr mentions that her uncle is a police officer, and adds that she is tired of police officers assuming things about black people. The interviewer then asks Starr what she would say to the police officer who killed Khalil. Starr says she would ask him whether he wished he had killed her as well. 

The text also includes a link for the trailer of the film based on the novel. 

Text 4: Opposing views on cultural and social issues in English-speaking countries

Text 4 is a selection of brief texts showing opposing views on several topics. 

A1) March for our lives

The text is an adapted fragment from a speech given by Emma Gonzalez, a student at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, on 17th of February, 2018. She presents several arguments made by politicians who are against stricter gun control laws, and who criticized her and other young people who advocate for this issue. After each of these arguments, Gonzalez repeats the phrase, “We call BS”, as an expression of disagreement. Gonzalez’s statement ends with a call to action to the audience to register to vote, contact their local politicians, and make their opinions heard.

A2) Protecting our children 

The text is a speech given by Wayne LaPierre, the executive director of the National Rifle Association, in December 2012, a week after the shooting at Sandy Hook School. LaPierre argues that the NRA must speak for the safety of children in the US. He mentions that the NRA was the target of anger, but that no one has answered the question of how children can be protected from now on. He then argues against Gun-Free School Zones legislation, suggesting that it tells killers they can do maximum damage in schools. 

B1) Go vegan

The text features two quotes. The first one is by researcher Joseph Poore, who states that a vegan diet is the biggest way to reduce greenhouse gases, global acidification, land use, and water use. The text also informs readers that Poore became vegan after his first year of research. 

The second quote is by Isabella Hood, a 15-year-old from New Zealand. Writing to The Guardian newspaper in support of veganism as the only sustainable choice, she mentions that animal agriculture is the leading cause of CO2 emissions, deforestation, and pollution of waters, and that world hunger could be solved if everyone went vegan. 

The text also includes an infographic showing that meat production is responsible with the levelling of 80% of Amazonian rain forest, wasting 15 trillion gallons of water per year, producing 130 times as much waste as that of the entire US population, and the killing of 59 billion animals every year. 

B2) Eat local food

The text is by Emma Henderson for The Independent (UK). Henderson states that the number of vegans has increased over the past 10 years, but that people need to ask where their food comes from. She then gives a few examples of imported fruits and where they come from. Henderson argues that eating locally produced meat is better for the environment than eating imported fruit. The text is accompanied by an infographic describing 10 reasons to buy locally grown food. 

C1) The “Vote Leave” campaign bus

The text discusses the Brexit “Vote Leave” campaign’s claim that the UK is sending the EU £350 million a week. A photograph is included to show that this claim was written on a red bus, alongside the proposition that the money could be instead used to fund the UK’s National Health Service. The bus also shows the slogans “Vote Leave” and “Let’s take back control”. The claim about the £350 million a week given to the EU was criticized by journalists and others as incorrect. The head of UK Statistics Authority said the claim was misleading and undermined trust in official statistics. 

C2) The “Is It Worth It?” bus

In 2018, a group called “Brexit: Is it worth it?” organized their own bus to raise awareness that leaving the EU will cost the UK £2,000 million a week. However, Channel 4 Fact Checker said that this figure is an estimate of the potential future loss. The text concludes that it is unclear whether this statistic is correct or not. The text includes a picture the group’s red bus with writing that informs viewers that Brexit will cost the UK £2,000 million a week according to a governmental report, the rhetorical question “Is it worth it?’, and a link to the organization’s website. 

D1) Electric cars saving the planet

The text speaks about cars as the cause of air pollution in cities such as Los Angeles, London, and Sydney. It argues that electric cars can make a difference in air quality and help reduce health problems caused by polluted air. The text also argues that electric cars allow people to have freedom and independence without being responsible for pollution. It also includes a 2019 statistic according to which 10% of new cars sold in the UK in October 2019 were electric or hybrid. The text also includes a photograph of a man leaning on a modern car. 

D2) The problems with electric cars

The text informs us that electric car batteries are produced with non-renewable materials which are mined in conditions that negatively affect the environment and the local population, and often involves the exploitation of children. 

The batteries in electric cars also need to be disposed responsibly. The text includes a statistic that shows there will be eleven million tons of lithium-ion batteries that need to be recycled by 2030. The text also states that electric cars are good for the environment only if the electricity they use is from a renewable source. In China, which is the biggest market for electric vehicles, most electric cars are likely using dirty energy. The text also shows a photograph of very young children doing manual labor.

Text 5a: Greta Thunberg’s speech at the UN Climate Action Summit 2019

The text includes an extract from a speech by Greta Thunberg, a young activist from Sweden who started the global youth protest for climate called “school strike for climate” or #FridaysForFuture. The text also states that Thunberg has been both praised and ridiculed for her message. Furthermore, the text provides a link to a video recording of the speech. 

Greta Thunberg states that she should be at school rather than addressing world leaders on climate breakdown, and accuses leaders of ignoring the science on global warming and its devastating effects. Thunberg then speaks about the plan to cut global emissions in half in 10 years, arguing that this only gives humanity a 50% chance to avoid a temperature increase and irreversible chain reactions. She explains that the 50% does not take into consideration other aspects, and that reaching this point relies on hergeneration using undeveloped technologies. Thunberg also declares that the 50% risk is not acceptable to her generation, because they have to live with the consequences. 

Thunberg then quotes statistics about the chances of staying below a 1.5 degrees global temperature rise, pointing out that the world has a limited amount of CO2 left to emit to avoid the rise. At the end, Thunberg tells world leaders that they are failing her generation, but that they will not let them get away with ignoring climate change. She also states that a change is coming. 

Text 5b: Responses to Greta Thunberg’s speech 

These two texts discuss Greta Thunberg’s speech in Text 5a. The first text informs us about a Fox News guest, Michael Knowles, who called Greta Thunberg mentally ill. It also states that the network later apologized for the comment. The text quotes Knowles, who also denies that climate change is an issue, and claims that Thunberg is being manipulated by her parents and by politicians with left-wing views. 

The second text included in Text 5b is a tweet that suggests that Thunberg’s speech was not authentic, and that she is too young to be taken seriously. The tweet was shared by the President of the United States, Donald J. Trump, who congratulates the author for their words. 

Text 6: “The Last Bee” – A poem by Brian Bilston

Brian Bilston’s poem speaks about the important impact that the disappearance of bees will have on the planet. The author chooses to take the letter “b” out of all the words in the poem since the letter sounds just like the word “bee”. The text includes an illustration of a bee with the slogan “Save the bee”. 

Text 7: The importance of using a sock; getting a message across when the law forbids it 

The text includes a link to a video and the transcript of the video featuring Sandford Johnson, a Mississippi teacher. He is quoted saying that Mississippi’s sex education law prevents teachers from showing teens how to use condoms, but that teachers can still show teenagers how to use socks to protect their feet. 

Sandford Johnson introduces himself and tells his audience that he is there as a SexEd trainer. He explains that, since he cannot do condom demonstrations, he has decided to teach teenagers how to put on a sock. Throughout the rest of the transcript, Johnson draws parallels between wearing a sock and wearing a condom. He ends his speech by telling his audience to make sure they use a sock every time. 

Text 8: Getting your message across

The text consists of text bubbles placed around a square with the text “Getting your message across”. Each of the text bubbles contains a piece of advice on how to get your message across: be catchy, use language appropriate for your audience, be concise and clear, include your audience by telling them how to get involved and by using pronouns such as “you” and we”. You can also appeal to your audience’s emotions, consider the listener’s feelings and give constructive feedback, and use different literary devices.

Answer

Task 1

Short answer

Answer either 1A or 1B. 

1A

Read the conversations below. Thomas and Betty are unhappy with the work done by Angela and Jim. After the conversation, Thomas and Betty have asked you for advice about how to give better feedback to their friends. 

Write a short text to either Thomas or Betty giving him/her some advice. Use examples from the conversation in your text. Text 8 in the preparation material may be useful for this task. 

1B

Study the two job advertisements for Dental Technicians below. Consider how they get their message across and which of the two would appeal more to you if you were looking for a job as a dental technician. 

Write a text about which of the two advertisements gets its message across to you. Give reasons for your choice using examples from the texts. Text 8 in the preparation material may be useful for this task.

Task 2

Long answer

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic “Getting your message across”.

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D. 

2A

During your course you have discussed current social and cultural issues in English-speaking countries. Many of these issues are controversial and lead to disagreements between individuals and groups when they try to get their messages across and convince others.

Choose a current social or cultural issue and create a text discussing this issue and the competing messages about it. In your text:

· Introduce the issue you have chosen

· Explain and discuss the opposing views on the issue

· Explain how the opposing sides get their message across 

All of the texts in the preparation material may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

2B

Texts 2a and 2b in the preparation material both try to get their message across about the benefits of either vocational or academic education programs. 

Create a text to convince young people in Australia to choose the vocational education program that you are taking. To get your message across:

· Introduce your vocational education program

· Inform the reader about what you are learning and why it is important

· Use some of the information in text 2a and/or 2b to convince young people that your vocational education program is a good choice for them 

Text 8 in the preparation material may also be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

2C

Create a literary text about someone who is desperate to get his/her message across. Your text must:

· Include a character who wants to get his/her message across to others

· Explore the thoughts and emotions the character has regarding this message

· Explore the challenges the character experiences in getting this message across 

Some examples of literary texts could be: a story, poem, song text, play or sketch. Give your text a suitable title.

2D

Texts are written to communicate a message. 

Choose one or two texts from the preparation material and create a text discussing how the message of the text/s is communicated. In your text:

· Introduce the text/s you have chosen

· Explain the message that is being put across in the text/s

· Discuss how the message is communicated in the text/s and if it is effective. Give examples. 

Texts 1-7 in the preparation material are relevant choices for this task. Text 8 may also be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title.

Preparation material

Innholdsfortegnelse

· Discussion of the topic

· Text 1A: Climate change: Cleaner energy in Britain

· Text 1B: Indigenous knowledge: Aboriginal fire practices can help reduce the risk of mega-fires in Australia

· Text 1C: Civil rights: Northern Ireland abortion ban removed and equal marriage made law

· Text 1D: Equality: Hello Sunshine puts women in the center of the story

· Text 1E: Citizen safety: NZ takes immediate action to reduce access to semi-automatic weapons

· Text 1F: Helping others: 8500 hotel rooms made available for the homeless

· Text 1G: Renewable resources: Traditional woven baskets replace plastic bags in Samoa

· Text 1H: Food and health: Study shows benefit of free school dinners

· Text 2: My job is important!

· Text 3: How the world has changed in the last 20 years

· Text 4: Youth activism is increasing around the globe, and adults should pay attention, says author

· Text 5: Can a video game save a life? Video game developer puts players in a race for survival

· Text 6: “A Way of Talking”. A short story by Patricia Grace

Discussion of the topic

The preparation material for Engelsk Fellesfag Høst 2020 begins with a presentation of the topic “Positive change in English-speaking countries”. It explains that change occurs either naturally or because people wish to influence those around them. Although every occupation changes others’ lives in a positive way – like the medical personnel, for example – positive change can also happen on an individual level.

The presentation also encourages you to find other sources on the topic of positive change in English-speaking countries, aside from the texts provided in the preparation material. You should also consider how the texts in the preparation material relate to the ones you have studied during your English course. 

Text 1A: Climate change: Cleaner energy in Britain

Text 1 A is an extract from the article “Zero-carbon electricity outstrips fossil fuels in Britain across 2019” by Julia Kollewe and published in 2020 on the website of The Guardian. The extract shows how 2019 has been the year when Britain used more energy from zero-carbon sources than from fossil fuels. This is due to Britain’s focus on renewable and low-carbon types of energy. 

The text also includes a link to a video on renewable energy, provided by CNBC International. 

Text 1B: Indigenous knowledge: Aboriginal fire practices can help reduce the risk of mega-fires in Australia

Text 1 B is an extract from the article “How Australia’s Indigenous people can help the country fight fire”, written by Ali MC and published on the website of Al Jazeera in 2020. The extract shows how a traditional Aboriginal practice known as cultural burning promotes the growth of new plants while also getting rid of flammable materials, which would otherwise lead to serious fires. 

Text 1 B also contains an adaptation from the article “ ‘It’s miraculous’: Owners say cultural burning saved their property”, which was written by Ella Archibald-Binge and Rhett Wyman and published on the website of The Sydney Morning Herald in 2020. The extract shows how several properties in Australia were saved from bushfires by cultural burning. 

The text also includes a link to a video on fire management, provided by ABC News.

Text 1C: Civil rights: Northern Ireland abortion ban removed and equal marriage made law

Text 1C is an extract from the article “Northern Ireland: ‘historic day’ as abortion ban lifted and equal marriage made law” published in 2020 on the website of Amnesty. According to the text, Northern Ireland has legalized same-sex marriages at the beginning of 2020, and the abortion ban has been lifted beginning with spring 2020. The extract also refers to some of the negative consequences of the ban. 

The text includes a link to a video on the topic of abortion and same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland, provided by Channel 4 News. 

Text 1D: Equality: Hello Sunshine puts women in the center of the story

Text 1D is an adaptation from the article “At Reese Witherspoon’s Hello Sunshine, women play the leads—onscreen and off”, written by Julia Boorstin and published in 2018 on the website of CNBC. The extract shows the importance of Hello Sunshine, a company created and led by women, which supports and empowers women in the media. 

The text also includes a link to a video on actress Reese Witherspoon’s reasons for creating the company Hello Sunshine. 

Text 1E: Citizen safety: NZ takes immediate action to reduce access to semi-automatic weapons

Text 1E is an adaptation from the article “New Zealanders turn in more than 50,000 guns in assault weapon buyback”, written by Sophie Lewis and published in 2019 on the website of CBS News. The text shows New Zealand’s decision to ban semi-automatic weapons after a mass shooting in two mosques. The text also presents the authorities’ successful mission to collect the banned guns through a buyback program.

The text includes a link to a video provided by Today on New Zealand’s decision to ban all military-style guns after the 2019 mass shooting.  

Text 1F: Helping others: 8500 hotel rooms made available for the homeless

Text 1F is an adaptation from the article “Coronavirus: SF has 8,500 potential hotel rooms for the homeless, front-line workers”, written by Marisa Kendall and published in 2020 on the website of The Mercury News. The text also includes a photograph of a message encouraging homeless people to seek help. Text 1F shows how, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the homeless people of San Francisco were offered accommodation from over 30 hotels.

The text also includes a link to a video provided by KQED QUEST, which presents the creation of mobile showers for the homeless. 

Text 1G: Renewable resources: Traditional woven baskets replace plastic bags in Samoa

Text 1G is an adaptation from the article “Traditional woven baskets replace plastic bags in Samoa” written by Tahlea Aualiitia and published on the website of ABC. The text talks about Samoa’s decision to ban plastic bags and about the Samoa Women’s Association of Growers’ decision to turn to traditional woven baskets. The text mentions how all members of society are encouraged to use these traditional baskets.

The text also includes a link to a video on how plastic bags impact the environment, provided by Our Changing Climate

Text 1H: Food and health: Study shows benefit of free school dinners

Text 1H is an adaptation from the article “Free school dinners ‘led to fall in childhood obesity rates’ ” written by Jamie Doward and published on the website of The Guardian. The text shows that school meals might prevent obesity, which starts from early childhood. 

The text also includes a link to a video on the reasons why people gain weight, provided by The Guardian

Text 2: My job is important!

Text 2 is a selection of brief texts showing five people describing their jobs and the reason why each job is important. Each text is accompanied by a photograph showing the person doing his or her job. The five texts contain job descriptions by a plumber, a childcare worker, a truck driver, an electrician, a florist, and an agricultural machinery mechanic. 

Text 3: How the world has changed in the last 20 years

Text 3 features quotes from people who comment on how the world has changed in the past 20 years. The quotes mention both positive and negative changes. Among the positive changes, people mention the importance of the smoking ban in restaurants, working from home or online learning, monitoring devices, or streaming platforms. Some of the negative changes that people mention are the lack of privacy and people’s inability to spell and write properly because of the use of internet language.  

Text 4: Youth activism is increasing around the globe, and adults should pay attention, says author

Text 4 is an adaptation from the article “Youth activism is on the rise around the globe, and adults should pay attention, says author”, written by Jennifer McNulty and published on the website of UC Santa Cruz in 2019. The text shows an account provided by Jessica Taft, a researcher on youth activism. Taft talks about young people who follow the example of activists Greta Thunberg and Malala Yousafzai. According to Taft, young people need to be included in movements related to social change and offers the example of an organization in Peru, which is led by children. 

The text also focuses on the advantages of child-led organizations, such as recognizing young people’s involvement in a variety of issues, for instance, childcare and environmental issues. Although children in the US are not as involved in activism as the children in the rest of the world, they still organize themselves around causes that matter to them.

Text 5: Can a video game save a life? Video game developer puts players in a race for survival

Text 5 is an adaptation from the article “25-year-old refugee created video game out of his ‘journey of life and death’ ” published in 2020 on the website of The New York Post. The text presents Lual Mayen, a video game developer who has created a game where players take the role of a refugee in a race for survival. The video game is based on Mayen’s life and his experiences as a refugee from South Sudan after the second civil war. According to Mayen, the video game teaches people the real struggle of refugees. While the game is free to play, several in-game acquisitions – like buying food – help real people in refugee camps.  

Text 6: “A Way of Talking”. A short story by Patricia Grace

Text 6 is a short story by Patricia Grace. The story follows the point of view of Hera, a young Maori woman who is about to be married. Her younger sister Rose has just returned home from university in Auckland to attend her sister’s wedding. Hera and Rose go to the dressmaker’s to get measured for dresses. At one point, the dressmaker makes a racist comment about the Maori people, and Rose challenges her views. Rose has always spoken her mind, whereas Hera has always kept quiet.

Hera is embarrassed by Rose’s behavior, but, after they leave the dressmaker’s, she realizes that Rose is also hurt by the racist comment and begins to understand her behavior. The two sisters return home, and Hera promises to herself to learn to stand up for her culture and show Rose that she is not alone. 

Task 1 

Short answer  Answer either 1A or 1B 

Task 1A 

Text 3 in the preparation material is about changes in the world over the last 20 years. Write a short text commenting on one or two of these changes and how they have influenced people’s lives. 

Task 1B 

Alex is trying to find an apprenticeship, so he has written the following email to send to all the local firms in his area. He has asked you to read it, suggest any changes he should make and explain why. 

Write a short text to Alex with advice about how to improve his text so that potential employers will want to contact him. Include advice about language and content. Use examples from his email. 

Yo! My name is Alex and I really need an apprenticeship!!! Can you help?? I am almost done with my two years at school and I have done OK. I haven’t got great grades in everything because some of my subjects sucked! But I will do heaps better if you’re a good boss! I learn pretty quick. Just show me once and I am all good to go! No need to waste time training me! I am also a totally awesome DJ which means that I sometimes have jobs at clubs until really late at night so I will need to come in late the next day. But I could also DJ at our work parties! Send me a text (525 6789) if you want to know more about me or whatever.Cheers! Alex 

Task 2 

Long answer 

The following tasks are based on your preparation topic: “Positive change in English-speaking countries”

Answer either 2A, 2B, 2C or 2D. 

2A 

In the short story “A Way of Talking” (Text 6) you have read about two sisters trying to make a positive change. 

Create a text discussing a character who tries to make a positive change. The character you discuss may be from “A Way of Talking” or from another short story or novel, film or series you have worked with. In your text: 

· Introduce the character you are going to discuss

· Explore the situation that requires a change

· Present and discuss how the character tries to make a positive change

· Discuss how the text may affect the reader’s desire to make a positive change

Give your text a suitable title. 

2B 

Create a text about the profession you are aiming for and how you as a worker can make a positive change for people and society through this profession. In your text: 

· Introduce the profession you are aiming for

· Present the most important tasks in this profession

· Explain why this profession is important for society

· Discuss how you can make a positive change through your profession

Text 2 may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title. 

 2C 

In the preparation material you have read about several positive changes taking place in English-speaking countries. Discuss a positive change relating to a social and/or cultural issue in an English-speaking country. In your text: 

· Introduce the positive change that you have chosen

· Discuss why this change is important and what more needs to be done

· Discuss the challenges that may arise when trying to make a positive change

· Refer to one or more of the texts in the preparation material

Texts 1a-h, 3, 4, and 5 may be useful for this task. Give your text a suitable title. 

2D 

Create a literary text about making a positive change. Your text must: 

Be set in an English-speaking country in the year 2020 

· Explore a situation or issue that requires change

· Include a character who makes a positive change

· Explore the challenges the character faces in making this change

· Examples of literary texts can be a story, poem, song text, play or sketch.

Give your text the title “A Positive Change”.

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