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For this submission, provide the third section of the research project.

Your submission should include at the least, six pages of analysis.

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I have selected two leaders one Jeff Bezos who is known to be an effective leader and Martin Winterkorn who is an ineffective leader. These two leaders should be captured in this assignment.  

Complete and submit the following to this assignment:

· Title page

· Leader Communications (Chapter Six) – give examples of how your leaders communicated

· Charismatic vs. Transformational Leadership (Chapter Nine) – discuss whether your leaders practiced charismatic or transformational leadership

· References

You are submitting your paper as a draft to Turnitin so that you can check the originality report, but your paper will not be stored in the Turnitin repository at this time. Use this opportunity to ensure you are submitting content using original content and formatted according to current APA guidelines.

For this submission, provide the third section of the research project.

Your submission should include at the least, six pages of analysis.

I have selected two leaders one Jeff Bezos who is known to be an effective leader and Martin Winterkorn who is an ineffective leader. These two leaders should be captured in this assignment.

Complete and submit the following to this assignment:

· Title page

· Leader Communications (Chapter Six) – give examples of how your leaders communicated

· Charismatic vs. Transformational Leadership (Chapter Nine) – discuss whether your leaders practiced charismatic or transformational leadership

· References

You are submitting your paper as a draft to Turnitin so that you can check the originality report, but your paper will not be stored in the Turnitin repository at this time. Use this opportunity to ensure you are submitting content using original content and formatted according to current APA guidelines.

Running head: Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders 1

Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders 10

Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders

Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders

The Big Five Model of Personality

When we take the time to reflect to every leader, we have encountered throughout our personal lives whether these leaders were effective or ineffective they can all be defined and described through their personalities, traits, and characteristics. It is crucial for organizations and our society as a whole to not only understand but also be able to identify the personalities and traits leaders tend to show and display. Understanding different leadership traits personalities, and characteristics of effective leaders will allow for organizations to be able to select and train individuals who possess the ability to be an effective leader (Lumen Learning, n.d.). Understanding different personalities and traits can also help us as individuals become better leaders because it will allow us to reflect on and improve our weaknesses (Berger, 2019). When it comes to effective leaders’ personalities these personalities tend to be listed into five different categories or personalities which is known as the big five model of personality.

The big five model of personality consist of five different personalities which are surgency, agreeableness, adjustment, conscientiousness, and openness (Lussier and Achua, 2016). This model was believed to originally be developed by D.W. Fiske in 1949. Prior to Fiske concept others had developed theories that identified around 4000 different personalities and traits (Cherry, 2021). However, each one of these five personalities listed are believed to represent the basis of all other personalities and they all contain different leadership traits. To grasp a better understanding of the big five model of personality we will examine each of the personalities and the traits they contain.

Surgency tends to be a positive sociable personality that involves certain traits such as dominance, extraversion, and high energy determination (Lussier and Achua, 2016). The trait known as dominance tends to be important for effective leaders because these kinds of leaders display confidence which is a positive trait. However, dominance can also be viewed as very controlling and aggressive which are often considered to be a negative. Having high energy and being determinate will not only allow leaders to focus in on accomplishing task, but it will also allow them to persuade others which will increase productivity (Hastings, 2008). The next personality listed within the big five model of personality is agreeableness.

Agreeableness involves individuals who are very cooperative and tends to show compassion for others (Cherry, 2021). This personality involves traits like emotional intelligence and sensitivity (Lussier and Achua, 2016). Leaders who display emotional intelligence will often contribute to providing a less stressful work environment while also enhancing or improving communication. This type of leader or manager is also known to increase work productive and reduce employee turnover (Koehler, 2018). Adjustment is another one of the big five and this type of personality involves individuals who are emotional stable and self-confident. Individuals who are emotionally stable will perform well under stressful situation and these individuals are also very positive in regard to how they interact with others.

Self confidence in my opinion tends to be one of the most important leadership traits because it allows for leaders to reflect and improve their weaknesses. One of the biggest misconceptions about self-confidence is that many people tend to mistake it for arrogance which happens to be negative. Conscientiousness also falls within the big five personalities. Individuals that display the personality of conscientiousness are organized and think ahead (Cherry, 2021). This personality involves traits of dependability and integrity. Both of these traits are considered to be traits that make up ethical leadership. Dependable individuals are known to be loyal and display commitment. These individuals will ensure the task they are assigned get completed while individuals with integrity are trustworthy and honest (Lussier and Achua, 2016). The last of the big five personalities is openness, and individuals who possess this personality are eager to learn and very creative/innovative (Cherry, 2021). This personality contains traits of flexibility and intelligence (Lussier and Achua, 2016).

To fully understand the relevance of the big five model of personality today we can analyze and compare two different leaders and see where they align within these personalities and traits. The two leaders we will examine are Jeffery Bezos the former CEO of Amazon who is considered to be an effective leader. The second leader is Martin Winterkorn who is the former CEO of Volkswagen and many people consider him to be an ineffective leader (Steitz and Schwartz, 2021). The CEO of Amazon Jeff Bezos seems to display three of the five big model personalities which would be surgency, conscientiousness, and openness. Jeff Bezos expresses his openness throughout his role within his organization by seeking out and implementing innovative ideas which tends to enhance his organization (Awodesu, 2018). Innovation is one of the major driving factors behind the success of Jeff’s organization.

Jeff Bezos attempts to incorporate innovation within every process of his organization When it comes to surgency Jeff Bezos seems to display this through his dominance and extraversion. During the coronavirus pandemic Jeff was able to display his dominance by taking charge and steer his organization throughout this difficult time. This resulted in Amazon being one of the few companies that benefited from the pandemic (The Irish Times, 2020). Lastly, out of all the big five personalities I would say Jeff Bezos reflects conscientiousness the most. According to GOGIG’s personality assessment of Jeff Bezos he ranks high for conscientiousness (Hodges, 2018). As I stated before individuals with contentiousness personalities tend to think ahead and this is nothing new for Jeff Bezos. Jeff planned the success of his company from the start and often encourages others to do the same before they start pouring money into their business.

If we take the time to look and examine Martin Winterkorn’s personalities and traits, we can determine that he also fits the surgency personality. I would consider Martin to fall within this category mainly because of his determination. Martin Winterkorn was well known for his determination which helped Volkswagen become one of the biggest car manufacturers in the world. However, many people also believe his determination contributed to his failure (Clark and Eddy, 2015). When it comes to the other big five personalities, I would say that Martin tends to display some traits of a contentiousness because of his mindfulness of details. Winterkorn was considered to be a perfectionist because he would do certain things like measure the gaps between the different car doors ensuring that it would be the perfect fit. I would also argue that he fell short when it comes to contentiousness because of his lack of integrity which was revealed during the Volkswagen scandal (Benjamin, 2018).

Theory X and Theory Y

Along with personalities and traits, attitudes are another creditable element that makes up and distinguishes leaders. Although there are many different leadership attitudes, they can only be perceived in two ways positive or negative. These attitudes tend to reveal how an individual feels about different situations (Lussier and Achua, 2016). In the 1960 and American professor named Douglas McGregor developed a concept that would help identify and explain different leadership attitudes and behaviors at work. This concept became known as theory X and theory Y. Theory X attitudes are often perceived to be more negative. These attitudes suggest that individuals do not like their job and therefore must be closely supervised. Leaders with theory X attitudes will often have a negative view of their employees believing that their employees do not care for their jobs and lack ambition to accomplish their task. These types of leaders will also utilize certain punishments to ensure their employees do their job and tends to fall into the autocratic leadership style (Lussier and Achua, 2016).

An autocratic leadership style is a leadership style where one leader makes majority of the decisions like authoritarianism. Theory Y attitude tends to be more positive and believe that individuals like their job and do not need to be closely monitored. Leaders that displayed theory Y attitudes are more productive and use rewards to influence their employees. These leaders also tend to be more motivational and align more towards a participative Leadership style. A participative leadership style involves leaders encouraging their employees to participate and provide feedback during the decision-making process (Lussier and Achua, 2016).

Although theory X tends to involve negative attitudes and theory Y is more positive each one of these theory attitudes can lead to an effective leader. Even though Douglas McGregor developed the concept of theory X and theory Y over 60 years ago it is considered to be still relevant today. If we examine the same two leader I highlighted before we can see the relevance of McGregor’s theory X and theory Y concepts. The CEO of Amazon Jeff Bezos seems to align towards a theory X attitude. Jeff is often described as having an autocratic leadership style which as I stated earlier falls under the theory X attitude.

I say Jeff’s leadership style tends to cater towards an autocratic style because many employees within his organization have stated that he tends to make all of the decisions regarding his company and considers little to no input from others. Some employees have gone on to say that Jeff Bezos does not really provide a positive work environment which also tends to lean towards theory X attitudes (Moran, 2020). Jeff Bezos organization has also been said to display some theory Y attitudes because the organization encourages their employees to not settle and keep developing which happens to be positive views of their employees (Hadas, 2015). Martin Winterkorn on the other hand seems to align strictly under the theory X attitudes. Winterkorn has been known to be a demanding leader within his organization and there have been numerous testimonies from his employees stating that Winterkorn would be very hands on when it came to inspecting his employee’s product (Cremer and Bergin, 2015).

This hands-on approach seems to be similar as the closely supervised concept within theory X attitudes. I also believe Martin Winterkorn attitude tends to fall into the theory X category because of how he continued to place the blame of the Volkswagen emissions scandal on his employee claiming he did not know which seems to be a negative viewpoint of his employees (Dugar, 2018). A key concept to take away when it pertains to theory X and theory Y is that each can be effective when utilized in the right situation and effective leaders can display or operate in both theory X and theory Y which Jeff Bezos demonstrates.

Ethical and Unethical Leadership

When it comes to the topic of ethical and unethical leaders this same concept does not apply because ethics is what make and effective great leader. Ethics or ethical leadership is simply leaders who demonstrate good actions for the common good whereas unethical leaders tend to do the opposite (Lussier and Achua, 2016). It is also important to understand that ethical leadership and behaviors benefits the overall organization. Ethical leaders are known to enhance employee morale, provide a more positive trustworthy work environment, and mitigate or reduce ethical issues and dilemmas (Western Governor’s University, 2020). According to an article from Corporate Compliance Insight Jeff Bezos can be classified as an ethical leader.

This article highlights and discusses how Jeff Bezos takes an ethical approach when he was being extorted and decided to get a head of the situation and be transparent enough to publish the message he was being extorted for. By publishing these messages Jeff displayed honesty and integrity which are true characteristics of ethical leaders (Boehme, 2019). A great example of an unethical leader would be Martin Winterkorn. Martin Winterkorn is mostly known for the unethical scandal that swept through his organization during his watch as CEO. The scandal occurred from a software system that reported false emissions report (Dugar,2018). The results from the scandal led to Winterkorn resigning and Volkswagen having to pay $63 billion (Silverman, 2018).

References

Awodesu, O. (2018, March). Critical Reflection on personal leadership skills and leadership style of Jeff Bezos. Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323547822_Critical_Reflection_on_personal_leadership_skills_and_leadership_style_of_Jeff_Bezos

Benjamin, L. (2018, July 02). Home. Retrieved April 15, 2021, from https://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2018/07/02/importance-of-being-an-ethical-leader/

Berrett-Koehler. (2018, September 11). The importance of emotional intelligence in a leader. Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://medium.com/@BKpub/the-importance-of-emotional-intelligence-in-a-leader-d1ffc7fd753c

Boehme, D. (2019, February 15). Watch and learn, ceos: A powerful example of ethical leadership. Retrieved April 14, 2021, from https://www.corporatecomplianceinsights.com/watch-and-learn-ceos-a-powerful-example-of-ethical-leadership/#:~:text=Bezos%20displayed%20many%20of%20the,your%20values%20and%20your%20words.

Boundless management. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2021, from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-management/chapter/trait-approach/

Cherry, K. (2021, February 10). What are the big 5 personality traits? Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://www.verywellmind.com/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-2795422#openness

Clark, N., &; Eddy, M. (2015, September 23). Volkswagen’s chief in the vortex of the storm. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/23/business/international/volkswagens-chief-in-the-vortex-of-the-storm.html

Cremer, A., &; Bergin, T. (2015, October 10). Fear and RESPECT: Vw’s culture UNDER WINTERKORN. Retrieved April 14, 2021, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-volkswagen-emissions-culture/fear-and-respect-vws-culture-under-winterkorn-idUSKCN0S40MT20151010

Dugar, A. (2018, June 01). Volkswagen’s leadership: Focuses, failures, and finding a way out. Retrieved April 16, 2021, from https://medium.com/@dugar/volkswagens-leadership-focuses-failures-and-finding-a-way-out-b6ff86f7da79

Hadas, E. (2015, August 19). Edward Hadas: Amazon’s ultra-xy management style. Retrieved April 14, 2021, from https://www.reuters.com/article/idUS405059751620150819

Hastings, R. (2018, April 10). CEOs Are More Energetic and Comfortable with Complexity, Report Suggests. SHRM. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/behavioral-competencies/leadership-and-navigation/pages/ceosmoreenergetic.aspx.

Hodges, C. (2018). The top personality traits of the world’s richest Man, Jeff Bezos. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.gogig.com/blog/top-personality-traits-of-the-worlds-richest-man-jeff-bezos

Koehler, B. (2018, September 11). The Importance of Emotional Intelligence in a Leader. Medium. https://medium.com/@BKpub/the-importance-of-emotional-intelligence-in-a-leader-d1ffc7fd753c. 

The Irish Times. (2020, April 23). Managing through a crisis: Jeff bezos gets his hands dirty again at Amazon. Retrieved April 14, 2021, from https://www.irishtimes.com/business/technology/managing-through-a-crisis-jeff-bezos-gets-his-hands-dirty-again-at-amazon-1.4236022

Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2016). Leadership Theory, Application, & Skill Development (6th edition) Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Moran, A. (2020, August 07). Jeff Bezos’ leadership Style: What can WE LEARN?: SB. Retrieved April 15, 2021, from https://www.startingbusiness.com/blog/leadership-style-jeff-bezos

Silverman, S. (2018, August 14). CEOs and board members: Be aware of unethical leaders. Retrieved April 16, 2021, from https://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2018/08/14/warning-to-ceos-aware-unethical-leaders.html

What is ethical leadership? (2020, February 04). Retrieved April 15, 2021, from https://www.wgu.edu/blog/what-is-ethical-leadership2001.html#close

Running head: Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders 1

Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders 10

Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders

Understanding Effective and Ineffective Leaders

Transformational Leader: Jeffery Bezos

Jeffery Bezos has been considered one of the most wealthiest men in the world (Awodesu, 2018). Having built a global empire from the bottom up, speaks volumes to his leadership abilities. Nearly 30 years ago, the concept of Amazon.com was birth (Awodesu, 2018). An idea that started on paper soon became a global leader in selling products and services (Hodges, 2018). Not to mention the business opportunities that became available for small businesses and large corporations. What are the key ingredients to creating an empire that has been able to survive the often unpredictable economy of the world? How can one individual infiltrate the e-commerce market to the point where global entities bargain for their share and stake? It’s quite simple; the laws of effective leadership.

Maxwell (1993) states the most effective and impactful leader have influence. In other words, they understand the importance of creating a following that will buy into what they are selling (Maxwell, 1993). Let’s explore Bezos leadership style a little more. According to Awodesu, 2018, Jeffery Bezos ability to make strategic business decisions as think innovatively characterize him as an effective leader. Moreover, such characteristics also correlate to the mentality of “win-win” (Awodesu, 2018). It’s merely impossible to stay within the confines of the traditional organizational ideals and expect exponential growth.

As a transformational leader, it’s first essential to recognize what you bring to the table, make decisions that are well-thought out and executed, and follow through with clearly defined goals (Hodges, 2018). While such characteristics are at the core of being a transformational leader, there is also the importance of staying on a trajectory of reward versus risk (Hodges, 2018). Are you willing to take the risk, and believe there’s also a reward.

Transformational leaders have an instinct that relies on breaking the mold of tradition (Maxwell, 2013). The success of a transformational leader is dependent upon their strategy of moving and navigating through the niche of their market (Maxwell, 2013). Furthermore, they assess the needs and hone in on the gap or inconsistency (Maxwell, 2013). Transformational leaders explore the bigger picture and put action behind their vision, while others may simply envision (Maxwell, 2013).

When Bezos started Amazon.com he pinned a letter of motivation to his employees. In this letter he shared a simple yet complex concept that’s based on perception. Bezos stated, whenever there is development and creation, there will always be loss. However, having the knowledge that this may happen prepares you to view product and service development from a different angle (Maxwell, 2013). The strategy of motivating and inspiriting his employees caused a sense of belongingness. Early on, the culture of the organization was centered on having confidence in the abilities, gifts and talents of his employees (Maxwell, 2013). The disbursement of power throughout the organization provides employees with a sense of not only taking value in the integrity of the organization, but also feeling appreciated and respected (Maxwell, 2013).

Nearly twenty years after starting Amazon, continued to empower and motivate his employees by introducing a concept that allowed employees to engage in decisions for the company (Hodges, 2018). While there were some guidelines to this decision- making process, employees feel a sense of power and belongingness. Moreover, creating an ongoing environment of productivity, creativity, and commitment (Hodges, 2018). Transformational and successful leaders are constantly thinking of ways to keep employees enthused and driven, this has been Bezos leadership style from the beginning.

Bezos’ success as an effective leader was based on being unrestricted, understanding the value of utilizing the ideas and concepts of his employees as being critical to company growth, being pioneering, and unafraid to explore options regardless of the outcome (Hodges, 2018).

Authoritarian Leadership Style: Martin Winterkorn

The next leader I have chosen to discuss is Martin Winterkorn, former CEO of Volkswagen. Martin Winterkorn as known for infamous emissions scandal where his integrity was questioned. Prior to this scandal, Volkswagen was on the track to making history in the financial market (Clark & Eddy, 2015). Winterkorn had a goal of making Volkswagen the leader in the auto industry. Unfortunately, the ambition of his goals as well as his drive, ultimately lead to a well-known scandal that will likely forever taint his image.

Martin Winterkorn is known for being a domineering and controlling boss who didn’t believe in failure (Clark & Eddy, 2015). Many have coined Winterkorn as being a fearful leader who was very intimidating (Clark & Eddy, 2015). The organizational climate has be defined as cold, harsh and unrelenting (Clark & Eddy, 2015). Input from employees were virtually non-existent. As a matter of fact, employees weren’t privy to the key happenings within the company. According to Winterkorn’s goal was to become the leader in the auto industry; his target was growth and recognition from the public sector.

Under the authoritative leaders, decisions are made at the top, there is little to no input from those outside of the key stakeholders (What is Autocratic leadership, n.d). Generally employees are paid well but undervalued and appreciated (What is Autocratic leadership, n.d). Authoritative leaders rely on their intellect and resources to carry the company (What is Autocratic leadership, n.d). Any suggestions or feedback from outside of upper-level management are disregarded. Winterkorn was aware of the issues regarding lack of motivation of employees, low work ethic and poor communication. As a result, he was in the process of changing the hierarchal structure of the organization. Despite this change, Winterkorn’s leadership style motivated him to want more, to be the best of the best, regardless who was impacted (Clark & Eddy, 2015). As an authoritative leader, and the culture it’s speculated his “get it done” mentality didn’t condone any potential illegal activities.

Contingency Leadership Theory

According to the Contingency Leadership Theory, there’s no one size fits all approach According to this leadership theory, the manner in which you lead an organization is based on situations. In other words, one’s leadership response and position were based on the actual situation. This often dictates the morals, values, and ethical behavior of a leader (Benjamin, 2018). The desire to be a global leader cause you pursue and engage in unethical behavior or will motivate you to constantly find better solutions. I believe this was the difference between Bezos and Winterkorn. While both were considered great leaders, the trajectory of their career and the organizations were quite different.

Influencing Styles

Maxwell (2013) says that without influence it’s impossible to be a great leader. The best leaders influence people through power politics, networking or negotiations. This level of influence is based solely on the style of in which one leads. Jeff Bezos was a powerful leader. He had the position of power as he was well known for capitalizing off the input from his employees. There was no top-down management approach (Lussier & Achua, 2016). Both Bezos and Winterkorn had legitimate power, however it’s the approach and exercise of this influence that sets both apart.

Leadership is not innate. Leaders are not born they are trained and positioned. The two leaders I have discussed in this paper had different style of leading their company. One chose an approach that incorporated more input from their employees while the other chose a more take-charge approach. It just so happens that Bezos’ approach was more effective. His decisions were based on ethical decisions that catapulted the organization to be a global leader in e-commerce.

Winterkorn on the other hand, his style caused the potential downfall and demise of his career. This had a negative impact as well on the culture of the company and overall output and production. The same can be said for Bezos.

:

References

Awodesu, O. (2018, March). Critical Reflection on personal leadership skills and leadership style of Jeff Bezos. Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323547822_Critical_Reflection_on_personal_leadership_skills_and_leadership_style_of_Jeff_Bezos

Clark, N., &; Eddy, M. (2015, September 23). Volkswagen’s chief in the vortex of the storm. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/23/business/international/volkswagens-chief-in-the-vortex-of-the-storm.html

Hodges, C. (2018). The top personality traits of the world’s richest Man, Jeff Bezos. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.gogig.com/blog/top-personality-traits-of-the-worlds-richest-man-jeff-bezos

Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2016). Leadership Theory, Application, & Skill Development (6th edition) Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Maxwell, J.C (2013). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership. Harper Collins.

What is Autocratic leadership? Definition of Autocratic Leadership, autocratic Leadership Meaning. (n.d.). Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/autocratic-leadership

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Communication, Coaching, and Conflict Skills

Chapter 6 Part Two: Team Leadership

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Learning Outcomes 1) List the steps in the oral message-sending process. 2) List and explain the three parts of the message-receiving

process. 3) Describe paraphrasing and state why it is used. 4) Identify two common approaches to getting feedback, and

explain why they don’t work. 5) Describe the difference between criticism and coaching

feedback. 6) Discuss the relationship between the performance formula and

the coaching model. 7) Define the five conflict management styles. 8) List the steps in the initiating conflict resolution model.

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Communication

• Communication is the process of conveying information and meaning.

o True communication happens only when all parties understand the message (information) from the same perspective (meaning).

• Communication and leadership. o There is a positive relationship between

communication competency and leadership performance.

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Sending Messages and Giving Instructions

• Managers give instructions, which is sending a message.

o How well you give instructions directly affects performance.

• Before sending a message, plan it. o What is the goal of the message? o Who should receive the message? o How will you send the message? o When and where will the message be transmitted?

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 6 – 5

The Oral Message-Sending Process

Model 6.1

The oral message-sending process: (1) develop rapport; (2) state your communication objective; (3) transmit

your message; (4) check the receiver’s understanding; and (5) get a commitment and follow up.

Small talk. Receiver should know desired end

result.

Give instructions.

Ask direct questions

and/or paraphrase.

Important step.

Model 6.1

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Written Communication

• Lack of organization is a major problem. > Set an objective, keeping audience in mind. > Make an outline and transfer to written form.

• Write to communicate, not to impress. > Keep the message short and simple 1-5-15. > Use active voice rather than passive voice.

• Edit your work and rewrite if needed. > Have others edit important work.

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 6 – 7

The Message-Receiving Process

Exhibit 6.1

The message-receiving process includes listening, analyzing, and checking understanding.

Listening is the process of giving a speaker your

undivided attention.

Analyzing is the process of thinking about,

decoding and evaluating the message.

Checking understanding is the

process of giving feedback.

The number one thing lacking in new college grads is listening skills.

Exhibit 6.1

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Discussion Questions

• How would you assess communications in organizations?

• Give examples of good and poor communications in organizations.

• State your plan for improving your listening skills.

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Feedback

• The importance of feedback: > Feedback is the process of verifying messages

and determining if objectives are being met. • Role of feedback in verifying messages:

> Paraphrasing is the process of having the receiver restate the message in her/her words.

• Role of feedback in meeting objectives: > Ongoing feedback increases motivation.

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The Need to Be Open to Feedback

• To improve your performance, you have to be open to feedback also called criticism. > People do not enjoy being criticized.

• When receiving criticism, view it as an opportunity to improve.

o Stay calm, o Don’t get defensive, and o Don’t blame others.

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Assuming • Send the message and assume mutual understanding

without getting feedback. • Getting feedback ensures mutual understanding.

“Do you have any questions?” • Give entire message and ask for questions, feedback

does not usually follow – people do not ask questions. • Another common error is assuming no questions

means there is mutual understanding.

Common Approaches to Getting Feedback And Why They Don’t Work

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How to Get Feedback on Messages

• Be open to feedback. > If questions upset you, you will get no questions.

• Be aware of nonverbal communication. > Make sure yours encourages feedback.

• Ask questions. > Ask direct questions on specific information.

• Use paraphrasing. > How we ask for paraphrasing affects attitude.

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360-Degree Feedback Sources

Exhibit 6.2

360-degree feedback is based on receiving performance evaluations from many people.

After looking at informal ways of getting feedback, here is a formal process.

Exhibit 6.2

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Discussion Questions

• How would you assess managers at giving feedback?

• Specifically what should managers do to improve?

• Is 360-degree multi-rater feedback really better than a boss-based assessment?

• As a manager will you elect to use 360?

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Coaching

• Coaching is the process of giving motivational feedback to maintain and improve performance. > Based on feedback and communications. > Boosts performance.

• Coaching is not just for athletes, managers should look for steady performance and continual improvement.

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Coaching Guidelines

Exhibit 6.3

Specific feedback is needed to

avoid confusion.

Descriptive feedback can be based on facts (observed and

proven) or inferences

(unproven).

Feedback should be given as soon as possible but be flexible; withhold feedback when pressed for time or when

emotions are high.

Exhibit 6.3

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Job Instructional Training Steps

Model 6.2

The job instructional training (JIT) steps include (1) trainee receives preparation; (2) trainer presents the task; (3) trainee performs the task; and (4) trainer follows up.

Put the trainee at

ease, create interest in

the job and encourage questions.

For complex tasks with multiple

steps, give employee a

copy of written steps.

Correct any errors, be

patient and helpful, continue

until trainee is proficient.

Correct any errors or

faulty work procedures before they become a

habit.

Model 6.2

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Criticism vs. Coaching Feedback

• Criticism is rarely effective, employees get defensive and develop a negative attitude.

• Coaching feedback is based on a good, supportive relationship; it is specific and descriptive; and it is not judgmental criticism.

• Criticism makes employees feel like losers, coaching feedback makes them feel like winners.

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Discussion Questions

• Do you agree with the statement “Don’t criticize”?

• Do mangers tend to give criticism or coaching feedback?

• How can mangers improve?

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Attribution Theory

• Attribution theory is used to explain the process managers go through in determining the reasons for effective or ineffective performance and deciding what to do about it. > Manager’s reaction has two stages:

o First, they determine the cause of poor performance, o Second, they select an appropriate corrective action.

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The Performance Formula

Model 6.3

The performance formula explains performance as a function of ability, motivation, and resources.

> When ability is the reason: The corrective action is training (JIT).

> When motivation is lacking: Motivational techniques, such as praise, may help.

> When resources are the problem, get the resources.

Model 6.3

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Coaching Model

Model 6.4

In detail, with

examples, describe

behavior to change.

Tell employee desired

performance, in detail.

Unless the reason was ability and employee

seems willing to change.

To ensure employee is behaving as

desired.

Improving performance with the coaching model.

Model 6.4

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Mentoring

• Mentoring is a form of coaching in which a more-experienced manager helps a less- experienced protégé. > Primary responsibility is to coach by providing

good, sound career advice and help develop leadership skills.

> Seek out a good mentor – formal or informal.

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Discussion Questions

• Women and minorities are less likely to have mentors, so should they get mentors?

• Will you seek out career mentors?

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Managing Conflict

• A conflict exists whenever people are in disagreement and opposition.

• All human relations rely on the: > psychological contract – set of unwritten implicit

expectations of each party in a relationship. o Often unaware of our expectations until they are unmet.

• Conflict arises when the contract is broken.

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• We fail to communicate our expectations or ask about expectations of other party.

• We further assume other party has same expectations as us.

• We fail to communicate our expectations or ask about expectations of other party.

• We further assume other party has same expectations as us.

Broken Contract

• Functional conflict – opposition supports objectives.

• Dysfunctional conflict – prevents the objectives from being met.

• Functional conflict – opposition supports objectives.

• Dysfunctional conflict – prevents the objectives from being met.

Conflict can be

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Discussion Questions

• What are your psychological contract expectations of your boss and coworkers?

• Give examples of conflicts you have had at work, listing the expectations that were not met.

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 6 – 28

Conflict Management Styles

Exhibit 6.4Exhibit 6.4

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Advantage Disadvantage

Avoiding Conflict Style

• The avoiding conflict style user passively ignores the conflict rather than resolve it.

• Appropriate use: o When conflict is trivial, o When your stake is not high, o When confrontation would damage relationship, or o When time is short or emotions are high.

Maintains relationships.

No resolution.

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Advantage Disadvantage

Accommodating Conflict Style

• The accommodating conflict style user passively gives in to the other party.

• Appropriate use: o The person enjoys following, o Maintaining the relationship is priority, o Changes are not important to accommodator, or o Time is limited.

Maintains relationships.

May be counterproductive.

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Advantage Disadvantage

Forcing Conflict Style

• The forcing conflict style user uses aggressive behavior to get their way.

• Appropriate use: o Unpopular action must be take on important issues, o Commitment is not crucial to implementation, o Maintaining relationships is not critical, or o Conflict resolution is urgent.

Better decisions if forcer is correct.

Overuse leads to hostility.

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Advantage Disadvantage

Negotiating Conflict Style

• The negotiating conflict style user attempts assertive, give-and-take concessions.

Also called compromising style.

• Appropriate use: o When issues are complex and critical, o Parties have equal power and differing solutions, or o A solution will only be temporary or if time is short.

Conflict is resolved quickly.

Can lead to subpar decisions.

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Advantage Disadvantage

Collaborating Conflict Style • The collaborating conflict style user seeks joint

resolution with best solution for all. Also called problem-solving style.

• Appropriate use: o When compromise would result in sub-optimization, o When group goal comes first and members collaborate, o Maintaining relationships is important, or o Time is available or when it is a peer conflict.

Can lead to the best solution

Time consuming

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Discussion Questions

• What percentage of the time do you think a manager can actually use the collaborating conflict management style?

• Give detailed examples of when managers have used collaboration at work.

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Initiating Conflict Resolution

The initiating conflict resolution model steps are (1) plan a BCF statement that maintains ownership of the problem; (2) present your BCF statement and agree on the conflict; (3) ask for, and/or give, alternative conflict resolutions; and (4) make an agreement for change.

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Plan a BCF Statement • Step 1. Plan a Behavior, Consequence, and

Feeling (BCF) statement that maintains ownership of the problem. > Three things that do not belong in BCF statements.

• The BCF model describes a conflict in terms of behavior, consequences, and feelings.

Don’t make judgments.

Don’t make threats.

Don’t give solutions.

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Present BCF Statement

• Step 2. Present your BCF statement and agree on the conflict. > Make your short, planned statement and wait

for a response – persist if needed. > Repeat by explaining in different terms until

you get an acknowledgment or give up. > If you cannot agree, change your approach,

using another of the four conflict management styles.

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Alternative Conflict Resolutions

• Step 3. Ask for, and/or give, alternative conflict resolutions. > Ask what can be done to resolve the conflict. > If agree, great; if not, offer your resolution.

o Remember you are collaborating.

> When other party is unresponsive about resolving conflict, appeal to common goals.

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Agreement For Change

• Step 4. Make an agreement for change. > Try to reach an agreement on specific action

you will both take to resolve the conflict. > Clearly state, or write down, specific behavior

changes necessary by all parties to resolve the conflict.

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Responding to Conflict Resolution

• These conflict resolution model steps help those in the role of responder to a conflict.

Listen • And

paraphrase the conflict using the BCF model.

Listen • And

paraphrase the conflict using the BCF model.

Agree • With some

aspect of the complaint.

Agree • With some

aspect of the complaint.

Ask for/Give • Alternative

conflict resolutions.

Ask for/Give • Alternative

conflict resolutions.

Make • Agreement

for change.

Make • Agreement

for change.

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Mediating Conflict Resolution

• Frequently, parties cannot resolve disputes alone.

• A mediator is a neutral third party who helps resolve a conflict. > Nonunionized organizations use managers as

mediators. > Unionized organizations use professional

mediators.

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Mediating Conflict Resolution

• The mediator should follow these steps: > Have each party state his/her complaint using the

BCF model, > Agree on the conflict problem(s), > Develop alternative conflict resolutions, > Make an agreement for change, and > Follow up to make sure the conflict is resolved.

• An arbitrator is a neutral third party who makes a binding decision to resolve a conflict.

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The Collaborating Conflict Style

Model 6.5Model 6.5

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Key Terms • arbitrator • attribution theory • BCF model • coaching • coaching feedback • communication • conflict • feedback • initiating conflict

resolution model

• job instructional training • mediator • mentoring • message-receiving

process • oral message-sending

process • paraphrasing • performance formula • 360-degree feedback

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Charismatic and Transformational

Leadership

Chapter 9 Part Three: Organizational

Leadership

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Learning Outcomes 1) Briefly explain Max Weber’s conceptualization of charisma. 2) Explain what is meant by the phrase “locus of charismatic leadership”. 3) Discuss the effects of charismatic leadership on followers. 4) Discuss how one can acquire charismatic qualities. 5) Distinguish between socialized and personalized charismatic leader

types. 6) Explain the four stages of the transformation process. 7) List the qualities of effective charismatic and transformational leaders. 8) Describe the four behavior dimensions associated with

transformational and charismatic leaders. 9) Distinguish between charismatic and transformational leadership. 10) Explain the basis of stewardship and servant leadership.

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Charismatic Leadership

• Charismatic and transformational theories return our focus to organizational leadership.

• Charismatic and transformational leaders influence followers who then rally toward a shared goal.

• Social, cultural, economic, and political systems are all impacted by these leaders.

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Weber’s Conceptualization of Charisma

• The sociologist Max Weber believed charismatic leaders had a vision that spurred followers to action.

• Vision is the ability to imagine different and better conditions and the ways to achieve them.

• Charisma is a social construct between the leader and follower, in which the leader offers a transformative vision or ideal which exceeds the status quo and then convinces followers to accept this course of action not because of its rational likelihood of success, but because of their implicit belief in the extraordinary qualities of the leader.

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What is the basis of charisma?

The situation or social

climate facing the leader.

The leader’s extraordinary

qualities.

A combination of the

situation and the leader’s qualities.

Locus of Charismatic Leadership

External locus of charismatic leadership.

Internal locus of charismatic leadership.

An interaction of the two.

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The Effects of Charismatic Leaders on Followers

Exhibit 9.1Exhibit 9.1

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How One Acquires Charismatic Qualities

Suggested strategies: > Through training and practice, you can improve

your communication and interpersonal skills. > While still in college, develop your visionary

skills by practicing the act of creating a vision. > You can practice being candid. > Through a leadership development workshop

or seminar, you can develop an enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic personality profile.

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Discussion Questions

• Explain the importance of effective communication skills for charismatic and transformational leaders.

• Charismatic leaders are said to possess special traits that influence their behaviors. > Three such traits described in the chapter are

envisioning, empathy, and empowerment. > Explain how each of these traits influences how

followers perceive the charismatic leader.

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Charisma: A Double-Edged Sword

• Positive or negative charisma lies in the values and motives of the leader. > The socialized charismatic leader (SCL) is one

who possesses an egalitarian, self-transcendent, and empowering personality and uses charisma for the benefit of others.

> The personalized charismatic leader (PCL) is one who possesses a dominant, self-centered, self- aggrandizing and narcissistic personality and uses charisma for self-glorification.

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Discussion Questions

• A strong emotional attachment and loyalty to a charismatic leader can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on followers. > Explain both types of effects on followers.

• In Chapter 5, different types of power: > legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, expert,

connection, and information power, and influencing tactics were discussed. > What type of power is the charismatic leader most

likely to be associated with and why?

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Transformational Leadership • Transformational leadership seeks to change

the status quo by articulating to followers the problems in the current system and a compelling vision of what a new organization could be.

• Transactional leadership seeks to maintain stability within an organization through regular economic and social exchanges that achieve specific goals for both the leaders and their followers.

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Effects of Transformational Leadership

• Positive effects on: > organizational performance, culture, and learning. > Follower organizational commitment. > Employee turnover rates, performance and

citizenship behavior.

• Effective transformational leaders shift focus from self-interest to collective interests.

• Transformational leadership is associated with improved creativity and decision quality.

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Transformational and Transactional Leadership

Transformational Leadership

• Is about changing the status quo.

• Is vision-oriented. • Values change. • Is more enduring.

Transactional Leadership

• Is about exchanging valued benefits.

• Is task & reward-oriented. • Values stability. • Tends to be transitory.

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The Transformation Process • Transformational leaders usually enter an

organization experiencing a decline or in need of a major change in direction.

• A four-part transformation process starts with the leader’s ability to: 1) Challenge the status quo and make a convincing

case for change, 2) Present an inspiring vision of the future, 3) Provide effective leadership during the

transformation, and 4) Institutionalize the change.

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Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Make a case for change.

Present a shared vision.

Lead the transformation.

Institutionalize the change.

• Challenge the status quo.

• Identify attractive new trends.

• Encourage others.

• Involve others. • Express new

vision in ideological terms.

• Inspire followers.

• Instill a sense of urgency.

• Empower followers.

• Establish priorities.

• Minimize risk. • Avoid a

“quick fix”.

• “greatness attitude”.

• Change appraisal and rewards.

• Implement team-building.

• Task force monitors progress.

The Transformation Process

Source: Based on Carolyn Hines and William Hines Jr., “Seminar on the Essence of Transformational Leadership (Leadership Training Institute),” Nation’s Cities Weekly 25(9) (March 4, 2002): 8.

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Qualities of Effective Charismatic and Transformational Leaders

Exhibit 9.3Exhibit 9.3

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Transformational and Charismatic Leader Behaviors

Exhibit 9.4Exhibit 9.4

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Charismatic and Transformational Leadership: What’s the Difference?

Personal meaning is the degree to which people’s lives make

emotional sense and to which the demands

confronted by them are perceived as being

worthy of their energy and commitment.

• Not all transformational leaders are charismatic.

• Each achieves their labels in different ways.

• They often have differing mind- sets.

• Their career paths usually differ. • Each perceives their personal

meaning differently. • They face different degrees of

risk from opponents.

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Stewardship and Servant Leadership

• Some use the term values-based leadership to describe these two leadership types: > Stewardship is an employee-focused form of

leadership that empowers followers to make decisions and have control over their jobs.

> Servant leadership is leadership that transcends self-interest to serve the needs of others, by helping them grow professionally and personally.

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Attributes of Effective Stewardship

Exhibit 9.5

Stewardship is more about facilitating than actively leading.

Stewardship leaders don’t lead; they coach followers to do the leading.

Exhibit 9.5

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Attributes of the Effective Servant Leader

Exhibit 9.6

Servant leadership is centered on a strong service orientation and moral-spiritual grounding.

Exhibit 9.6

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Discussion Questions

• Servant leadership emphasizes being able to serve and lead. > In your opinion, is this contradictory or doable?

• Do you believe everyone has the same capability to become a servant leader; or are some people by their nature more inclined to be servant leaders?

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Key Terms

• charisma • personalized

charismatic leader (PCL)

• personal meaning • servant leadership • socialized charismatic

leader (SCL)

• stewardship • transformational

leadership • transactional

leadership • vision

Name: ____________________________________

Company Name: _____________________________

SWOT Analysis

EnablersChallenges
InternalSTRENGTHS:WEAKENESS:
ExternalOPPORTUNITIES:THREATS:
How the above information will be used:

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