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I have 7 forum topics I need answered, each needing a 250-350 word count. I have attached the details for each week in a word document. 

PBHE427 (Epidemiology) Discussion Questions

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Week 1: Application of Epidemiology

· Discuss a historical figure in epidemiology and what he/she has contributed to the field.

· Must be 250-350 words

Week 2: ProMed Assignment

· Please go to the following website: https://promedmail.org, select a news briefing that describes an outbreak of a disease and summarize in your own words what the news briefing reported.

· Describe the person, place, and time of the outbreak. How significant is this outbreak to human health? What did you learn? What did you already know about this disease before you read the news brief? Please use additional academic sources to supplement any important information on the disease.

· Must be 250-350 words

Week 3: Global Health Indicator Rates

· This week we will examine important health indicator rates of countries. You will use the World Bank Data found here:  http://data.worldbank.org/indicator#topic-8.

· Scroll down to the topic “Health” and choose one (1) of the following indicators:

Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)

Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)

Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)

· When you click on the health indicator of your choice, you will see a table with a list of 247 countries in the first column and dates in the top row.  Look at the most recent year data and choose one (1) country to compare to the U.S.

· State the year, rates of the indicator you chose for both the U.S. and the country you chose, as well as the name of the country. Include the units for the rates (ex. 6 deaths per 100,000 women) and discuss what it means and how they were calculated. Discuss the similarity/difference in these rates and why you believe the similarity/difference occurs?

· Your post title should include the health indicator you chose and the country you chose to compare to the U.S. Try not to repeat indicator/country combinations as there are many to choose from; however, if you do post one that was already selected that is okay. 

· Must be 250-350 words.

Week 4: Identifying Epidemiological Studies in the Literature

· Choose an article from one of the following journals:

· American Journal of Epidemiology: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/  The Journal of Infectious Diseases: http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/  Journal of Public Health: http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/  Clinical Infectious Diseases: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/ 

· Choose a recent (within the last 3 years) article from one of the following journals. Do not repeat a journal article choice that a classmate has already posted to the forum.

· Choose an article that is peer-reviewed and a primary article (not secondary – see attached).  Identify the study type as descriptive (cross-sectional, ecological, case series); analytical (prospective cohort or retrospective cohort) or experimental: (prevention or treatment clinical trial). Define the study type as one of the specific types given in the parentheses.  It must be one of these study types.  NOTE: To receive credit for your post, the article must be a primary study that uses one of the given study designs.  Failure to choose an appropriate article will results in a zero for the assignment. Also, you must do more than read the abstract, you must read the entire article. 

· State the type of study that was conducted (see methods section of article, it must be one of the above study types). What is the research question? What was known or unknown before the study was conducted (see introduction of article)? What was the purpose of the study (should be at end of introduction)? What was the outcome and was it consistent with the researcher(s)’ original research question (see results and conclusions)? What recommendation(s) did the researcher offer for future studies (see conclusions)? Do you feel the findings and research design are real and valid? Why or why not? Please review the lesson for this week and your textbook readings to understand what is meant by valid.

· Must be 250-350 words.

Week 5: Notifiable Disease and Social Determinants of Health

· Discuss a social determinant and how it affects the prevalence of chronic disease(s). Give examples of disease(s) that are associated with this determinant of health. The CDC, WHO, and Healthy People 2020 offer great information on this subject.

· Must be 250-350 words.

Week 6: Disease Prevention

· Select one(1) article from the following online journal links:   American Journal of Epidemiology: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/   The Journal of Infectious Diseases: http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/  Journal of Public Health: http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/ Clinical Infectious Diseases: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/ 

· After reading your selected article, post the following information: 

· Identify the disease that is being studied and what type of prevention method is being evaluated (i.e. primary, secondary, or tertiary).

· Describe what the prevention method is.  It could be a new screening method, vaccination, drugs, or other intervention.

· Who was in the study population(s)/sample(s)? 

· What was the conclusion of the study?

· Do you believe the study to be reliable and valid?  Why or why not?

· What recommendation(s) did the researcher offer for future studies?  

· Must be 250-350 words.

Week 8: Emerging Diseases in your Community

· This week, we will look into our own communities and discuss emerging diseases.  

· Look into health data for your community (either at the country, state, city, or county level). You can look at statistics from your local health department or websites such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Find a disease that is emerging in your community and discuss. Give the rates and the duration of the increase of this disease. What population does this disease affect most? Discuss what you think can be done to prevent further increase in this disease.

· Must be 250-350 words.

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