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For this assignment, use the data you downloaded in your W1 Project.

This week, you will explore the hypothesis that a relationship exists between the misinformation effect (the type of information relayed) and the accuracy of the color recalled.

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Use a chi-square analysis to compare the accuracy of the color recalled (recall color) across your misinformation effect (the type of information relayed).

Click here to access the final project description.

Click here to access the Microsoft Excel file containing the final project database.

Each week, you completed a project related to the final project scenario. In
Week 10, you will bring it all together into one cohesive report that contains all the information given in the final project description (do not delete anything or rewrite what is there), along with:

  • A description of your participants (Subsection in the Method section)
  • A results section that contains all relevant data analyses completed throughout the ten weeks. Do not include any analyses you conducted that do not directly relate to the hypotheses given in the Final Project description. Do not include data output in the final project report.
  • A discussion section in which you will summarize the project and tie it all together with a discussion of your results in relation to the literature review and the hypotheses given, any weaknesses you might have seen in the research, and thoughts you might have for future research. This is your area to shine: speculate on what is going on in relation to what you know about the real world and critically analyze the research.

1. Move the output from your chi-square analysis into a Microsoft Word document and write a one-paragraph interpretation.

a. Name your document SU_PSY2008_W10_Project_a_Council_A

2. In a separate Microsoft Word document, write your APA-formatted report using the final project description as your template (copy this word-for-word, changing so it is correctly formatted in accordance with APA guidelines only). Include the final project description (starting with literature review through references) in your report, and complete the sections indicated. Be sure to integrate information from the descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA, and chi-square analysis into your methods, results, and discussion. Your final project should be 7 to 8 pages in length, including the title page and the references page.

b. Name your document SU_PSY2008_W10_Project_b_Council _A

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© 2013 South University

Introduction

Literature Review

Social scientists have long been interested in the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Several studies over the past few decades have demonstrated that eyewitnesses are not always accurate (e.g., Buckhout, 1974; Bornstein & Zickafoose, 1999). More recently, many individuals have filed appeals based on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) evidence. Of those acquitted on this basis, 78 percent had originally been convicted based on strong eyewitness testimony (Stambor, 2006). One reason witnesses may err when recalling information about a criminal is the misinformation effect, which involves “incorporating ‘misinformation’ into one’s memory of the event after receiving misleading information about it” (Myers, 2008). Elizabeth Loftus (1978, 1979a, 1979b, 2001) and her associates have repeatedly demonstrated this effect, finding that memory can be “constructed” based on suggestive questions and information given after the fact. Other factors that play a role in our ability to recall information are decay and stress. Shapiro & Penrod (1986) presented evidence that suggests memory may decay over time, while other researchers have found that as stress increases, the accuracy of recall decreases (Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, & McGorty, 2004; Payne, Nadel, Allen, Thomas, & Jacobs, 2002). Hypotheses Given what we have learned through the literature review, our hypotheses are:

 There will be a relationship between the type of information conveyed (a misinformation effect) and the accuracy of recall about the color of the vehicle.

 Memory may decay over time.

 The level of stress will affect recall.

 There will be a relationship between the level of stress and confidence, such that confidence declines as stress rises.

Method

Participants: You will complete this as a part of your final project. This section should be completed at the end of Week 4. Procedures Participants are randomly assigned to one of three levels of stress: high stress, where they are writing a final exam immediately following their participation in the experiment; medium stress, where they are writing a final exam the day following their participation; and low stress, where their participation comes two weeks prior to their final exam. They are shown one of two different versions of a video of a bank robbery and instructed to pay close attention to detail.

All versions share the same beginning scenario, with two individuals entering a bank to rob it. The first individual (individual #1) is 5’10” tall and of medium build, wearing blue jeans, a black leather jacket, and black tennis shoes. This individual is wearing a ski mask with the holes around the eyes large enough for the color of the skin, which is white or light colored, to be visible. The second individual (individual #2) is 6’2″ and heavyset, wearing black sweat pants, a red jacket, and dark work boots. This individual is wearing a ski mask identical to that of individual #1. The skin around the eyes is dark. No other skin is visible on either individual. Individual #1 walks to the window and hands the teller a note, bringing up the right hand, which is in the pocket, to simulate a gun. It is unknown whether an actual gun was used. Individual #2 stays back a step as if keeping watch. After the teller gives money to the robber, the two

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© 2013 South University

robbers leave the bank, jump into a car waiting at the curb, and drive away. In version #1, the car is blue. In version #2, the car is green. Following the viewing of the video, each participant meets an individual in the waiting room. This individual (actually a confederate of the experimenter) states that he or she had lost something and had come back to see whether the experimenter found it. The individual begins a conversation about the video and says, “Did you see that blue (or green, depending on the condition) car they were driving?” Half the time, this question is congruent (the color mentioned by the confederate matches the color shown in the video). And half the time, the color is incongruent (the color mentioned by the confederate is different from that visible in the video). Measures At the end of this conversation, the confederate leaves, and the participant is asked by the experimenter to complete a short questionnaire to measure his or her memory of the details in the video. This questionnaire consists of fifteen fill-in-the blank questions where participants are asked questions, such as “What kind of pants was the individual who asked for the money wearing?” The participant must write what he or she recalls or “unknown” if uncertain about the response. Each correct answer is given one point, and the points are added to create a continuous measure of recall as the dependent variable. Scores on this measure can range from 0 to 15. This questionnaire is given again two weeks later, and a third time after one month.

Participants are also asked to rate their confidence in their recall of each item on a scale of 1 to 10, with one meaning very little confidence and 10 meaning a great deal of confidence. These items are added to create an overall confidence score, with higher scores indicating higher levels of confidence. Scores on this measure can range from 15 to 150. The misinformation effect is stored in a variable named “recall color.” Recall color is scored as “Correct” if participants correctly identify the color of the car they had seen in the video and “Incorrect” if they incorrectly identify the color. Finally, all participants complete a short questionnaire to measure their stress levels. This is necessary to check the stress manipulation and ensure it was effective. Possible scores on this measure range from 0 to 25, with higher scores indicating higher levels of stress. Results

You will complete this as a part of your final project. Include the results of all analyses conducted to test hypotheses in Weeks 7, 8, 9, and 10. Discussion

You will complete this as a part of your final project. The discussion should be written in Week 10, after all results are in. Be sure to discuss your results in relation to the information you learned in the literature review (introduction) and in relation to your hypotheses.

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References:

Bornstein, G. HY., & Zickafoose, D. J. (1999). “I know I know it, I know I saw it”: The stability of the

confidence-accuracy relationship across domains. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5, 76–88.

Buckhout, R. (1974). Eyewitness testimony. Scientific American, 23–31. Deffenbacher, K. A., Bornstein, B. H., Penrod, S. D., & McGorty, E. K. (2004). A meta-analytic review of

the effects of high stress on eyewitness memory. Law and Human Behavior, 28(6), 697–706. Loftus, E. F. (2001). Imagining the past. The Psychologist, 14, 584–587.

Loftus, E. F. (1979a). Eyewitness testimony. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Loftus, E. F. (1979b). The malleability of human memory. American Scientist, 67, 312–320. Loftus, E. F., Miller, D. G., & Burns, H. J. (1978). Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual

memory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 19–31. Myers, D. G. (2008). Social psychology (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Payne, J. D., Nadel, L., Allen, J. J. B., Thomas, K. G. F., & Jacobs, W. J. (2002). The effects of

experimentally induced stress on false recognition. Memory, 10(1), 1–6. Shapiro, P. N., & Penrod, S. (1986). Meta-analysis of facial identification studies. Psychological Bulletin,

100, 139–156. Stambor, Z. (2006). How reliable is eyewitness testimony? APA Monitor, 37(4), 26–27.

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