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ONLY focus on the period from 1815-1848, which limits your evidence base. The brown paper bag test, for example, is from the 1900s. So I’m fine with you examining racism from 1815-1848, which likely means focusing on both slavery and the experience of free blacks. Just so long as you keep your perspective to the required time period. PLEASE create a clear preliminary thesis or argument.

********AT LEAST 6 PAGES NOT INCLUDING THE TITLE AND RESOURCES PAGE***********

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It’s better to use journal articles, the books themselves, and primary sources. I didn’t see any primary sources in your list. Be sure your final paper has PRIMARY SOURCES.

Make sure you’re using Chicago Style footnotes or endnotes rather than APA/MLA style in-text citations.

Center the topic around The changing roles of women and African-Americans.

PLEASE USE LINK ATTACHED TO FIND PRIMARY SOURCES: https://libguides.snhu.edu/c.php?g=92272&p=596182

HIS 338 Final Project: Narrative Research Paper Guidelines and Rubric

Overview The final project for this course should be centered on a historical argument that demonstrates an advanced understanding of a specific aspect of America between 1815 and 1848. You will construct a fully researched, thesis-driven narrative containing both primary and secondary sources. You will use these sources to shed light on your chosen topic without propagating any historical fallacies. In addition to the Shapiro Library History Guide as a starting point for your research, a full list of internet links is also available for this project. Remember that your examination of your topic needs to move beyond simply describing key individuals and events; it must analyze those details and assess their significance for the time period. You should NOT produce biographies or simple reconstructions of particular military or political or cultural campaigns. You will strategically organize your paper to put together a highly effective response to the issue presented by your topic and present:

 A Compelling Introduction: Identify your topic clearly, outlining the structure of the argument, defining key terms, and clearly stating the thesis.

 An Organized Body: Follow through your thesis in the body of your paper. Ensure you use effective transitions for every component of your argument. The body of your paper should flow logically, arguing the thesis from your introduction with highly effective examples and facts that support each element and claim in your thesis. The body will also include effective source evidence from your research in the form of highly relevant quotations and concise paraphrasing.

 A Powerful Conclusion: This is where you pull it all together. Your conclusion will not only effectively restate your thesis, but will pull all your claims together. Your conclusion should clearly relate how the issue represented by the thesis is important, identify what bigger question it raises, and/or address possibilities and implications for additional research.

Review the grading rubric below to identify all aspects of the proficiencies that differentiate an exemplary paper.

Main Elements Milestone One: Research Topic In task 1-3, you will submit your research topic. The format should be a one-paragraph Word document that includes the topic for your research project. This assignment will be graded using the Milestone One Rubric. Milestone Two: Annotated Bibliography In task 3-2, you will submit an annotated bibliography of primary and secondary sources that will be used for your research project. The format should be a Word document. This assignment will be graded using the Milestone Two Rubric.http://libguides.snhu.edu/history

Final Submission: Research Paper In task 7-2, you will submit your summative research paper. Your final submission should be uploaded to a discussion topic and submitted as a Word document to your instructor. Your narrative research paper should be a minimum of 6–8 pages (not including cover page or resources) and properly footnoted with a minimum of six quality resources cited in Turabian style, and follow these formatting guidelines: double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Note that you will also be developing a companion assignment, an annotated bibliography (see Milestone Two Guidelines and Rubric document) that will help guide you through the research phase of this project. The final research paper should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the main elements of the final product. It should reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This assignment will be graded using the Final Product Rubric (below). A helpful guide to assist you in conducting your research can be found here.

Final Product Rubric Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (85%) Needs Improvement (55%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Introduction Meets “Proficient” criteria and is substantiated with research

Identifies the topic and outlines the structure of the argument, stating a thesis

Identifies the topic and states a thesis, but the structure of the argument is not clearly defined

Does not clearly identify topic, thesis, and/or structure of argument

25

Body

Meets “Proficient” criteria and is substantiated with highly effective examples and facts that support thesis claims

Body of paper flows logically, arguing thesis with relevant examples and facts that support thesis claims

Body of paper argues thesis with examples and facts that support claims but with gaps in logic that can be addressed with more effective organization and evidence to support thesis claims

Body of paper requires additional organization and/or additional relevant examples and facts to support thesis claims

25

Application of Sources

Meets “Proficient” criteria and is substantiated with several examples to support argument

Integrates appropriate source evidence

Minimally integrates appropriate source evidence

Does not integrate appropriate source evidence

20

Conclusion Meets “Proficient” criteria and is supported with scholarly research

Cohesive conclusion not only restates thesis and supports claims but clearly relates how the issue represented by the thesis is important and raises a greater question or identifies implications for additional research

Conclusion restates thesis and supports claims but needs to more clearly relate how the issue represented by the thesis is important and raises a greater question or identifies implications for additional research

Conclusion needs stronger restatement of thesis to support claims and/or needs to clearly relate how the issue represented by the thesis is important and raises a greater question or identifies implications for additional research

20

Articulation of Response

Submission is free of errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, and organization and is presented in

Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization

Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact

Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of

10http://libguides.snhu.edu/content.php?pid=68964&sid=531138

a professional and easy to read format

readability and articulation of main ideas

ideas

Earned Total

100%

Running head: AMERICAN HISTORY 1

3

Annotated Bibliography

T’Erica Huff

3-2 Final Project Milestone Two

Southern New Hampshire University

1. Bynum, V. E. (1997). Brenda E. Stevenson. Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South. New York: Oxford University Press. The American Historical Review, 189–190.

The authors are scholars who use primary sources such as public records and diaries to describe how enslaved people, whites, and the community at large functioned. Moreover, it assesses how the institutionalization of slavery influenced society. Therefore, this journal serves as a chronicle of the works on the relationships of African-Americans. The events described in the book take place in Loudon County, Virginia. Since this material has been available for over twenty years, it is extremely valuable to interpreters in Virginia Loudon County. This scholarly work is helpful as a part of my final project in determining regional studies and understanding the relationship between black and white during the slavery period.

2. Haynes, G. E. (1914). Reviews: RUSSELL, JOHN H. The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619-1885. Pp. viii, 194. Price $1.00. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, In the ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/000271621405300151

Haynes, a professor, reviews this article written by Russel — historian. He assesses the opportunities, limitations, and circumstances that the free Americans were forced to face. The journal evaluates conditions that led to the freedom of the African-Americans. Moreover, African-Americans were allowed freedom and the examples of owners that allowed freedom of the enslaved people are also mentioned. The journal takes a critical examination of the legal and social status of the free African-Americans. The journal is valuable for interpreters and students pursuing interests in the free black African American experiences. The journal explores Virginia and finds substantial free African American population occupation.

3. Katz, J. H. (2003). White Awareness: Handbook for Anti-racism Training. University of Oklahoma Press.

The author is a Professor who publishes various articles on the issues surrounding racism. Therefore, the book delves on the topic of racism forged and sustained by the whites. The books give a new meaning to the term racism. Throughout the text, racism is described as prejudice and the whites’ value on identifying and combating racism. The book fits best with the policymakers and scholars since it provides exercises for identifying racism. Furthermore, the feelings linked with racism and strategies for eliminating racism are also recognized and dealt with throughout the text. I found the valuable material for further studies on the racism subject and formulation of intervention measures.

4. Morris, R. B. (1958). The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South. By Kenneth M. Stampp. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., In the Journal of Economic History https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022050700088987

Morris, a historian, encourages other scholars to evaluate the origins, profitability, motives of slave owners, and harshness of the systems in place during the slavery era. Moreover, he encourages a deeper study on how enslaved African-Americans provoked the institution. Therefore, the author adopts describing particular events to aid in demonstrating the working, relationships, and behaviors of the institution of slavery across the south of the United States. An example of a specific event is the slave-owners efforts and strategies to control enslaved persons. Lastly, the book is a valuable asset for an interpreter since it provides the baseline and the inner workings of the institution of slavery. Therefore, the book serves as a fundamental source of information on the subject of slavery.

5. Simms, H. H. (1960). STANLEY M. ELKINS. Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, In the ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science https://doi.org/10.1177/000271626032900173

Simms, a researcher, evaluates the historiography of slavery up until the 1950s. Hence, the book compares the institution of slavery to that of Nazi concentration camps to illustrate the adverse effect it had on the enslaved persons. The psychology of enslaved people and their ability to resist were destroyed such that they became dependent on their masters. However, as mentioned in the book, these ideas are refuted by later scholars. However, the book contributes to a critical reexamination of the culture of enslaved people since, at that time, it received a limited view. This book is valuable for an interpreter and individuals passionate about reading as it provides diverts from the perception that slavery was an unprofitable and necessary evil. It differs from the idea that African Americans were treated exceptionally well, and their relationships with the Whites were mutually beneficial.

6. Stephens, A. T., Campbell, Jr., Edward D. C., ed. with Kym S. Rice, (1993). Before Freedom Came: African American Life in the Ante-Bellum South. In the Journal of Negro History. https://doi.org/10.2307/2717742

The author is a scholar, Stephens, who evaluates the works of Campbell. The journal provides information from primary source material on the African-American experience, most specifically on the south’s pre-civil war. Consequently, the journal provides information on the factors constituting slavery, such as the practices, geographical areas, evolutions, traditions, and rural and urban experiences. This information source is beneficial for interpreters and scholars fundamentally because it is a primary source of the material. In essence, it provides graphics helpful in understanding the many of the institutions of slavery workings and the African-American life. I find the journal a valuable tool in understanding the struggles against skin color in the United States for my research.

African American Struggle Against the Color of Their Skin in the USA

2

African American Struggle Against the Color of Their Skin in the USA

T’Erica Huff

Milestone One: Research Topic

African American Struggle Against the Color of Their Skin in the USA

Southern New Hampshire University

The topic that I chose is the “African-American struggle against the color of their skin in the USA”. A racist ideology system that led to a framework of supremacy was established by the European colonization that favored white over black. To explain the oppression and inequality of African and Native Americans, biological variations in the skin coloring were also used, contributing to a racial hierarchy that put white only at peak and black at the bottom. Slaves with the slightest skin became permitted to perform less stringent activities like homework, whereas slaves with darker skin worked harder than most likely outside. African-Americans with a partly white legacy were seen as more innovative and better to dark blacks, thus providing more comprehensive schooling and assets acquisitions. Those are some of factors as to why I decided to select this topic.

The color was indeed a tactic used to establish a split between Africans-Americans by white colonists and promote the notion that it is ideal to be as similar to the white one as possible. The white former slaves decided, in the first types of colorism, that absolute slavery of white skin would be able to work in the home, while the African-Americans would be exposed to the harsh conditions on the land. The division between both the slaves was apparent. Tests were carried out to find out who was light enough to work in the building and who had special rights often. The brown paper bag test was one of these exams (Frederickson, 2015). If human skin was darker than a brown paper bag, the house’s skin was said to be too black. Skin testing was used not only by whites, who sought to distinguish between blacks but also by blacks. All this contributed to this topic being captivating to research and come up with a paper.

References Frederickson, G. (2015). Racism: A Short History. Princeton University Press. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400873678

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