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Question 1: Research Writing Bacteriological Analysis of Household Water from Hand-Dug Wells in Cuvelai-Etosha Basin of Namibia

B. McBenedict, H. Wanke, B. M. Hang’ombe, P. M. Chimwamurombe

1 Introduction A Namibia is a desert country with high temperature that leads to increased evaporation of rainwater. The country experiences short rain seasons and long dry seasons which cause water scarcity especially in rural areas that lack developed water pipelines and rely on rainwater harvesting or groundwater sources such as boreholes, open deep wells and shallow wells (Msangi, 2013). The Cuvelai Etosha Basin is shared between Angola and Namibia. In Angola, the basin covers 36% with Cunene province having a larger portion of the northern Cuvelai while Cuando Cubango and Huila provinces share a minor piece (DRFN & HIWAC, 2013). As for Namibia, Oshikoto, Omusati, Ohangwena and Oshana regions contribute 64%, while Kunene and Otjozondjupa regions have an intersection with minor areas in the southern part of the Basin (DRFN & HIWAC, 2013). B Rural communities in Namibia utilize hand-dug wells as a source of water for household purposes. Hence, the Cuvelai system serves as a water resource for the communities in Oshikoto, Omusati, Ohangwena and Oshana regions (Christelis & Struckmeier, 2011). In some areas, community boreholes have been set up, but are often not used as they are far from homesteads or have water quality problems such as high total dissolved solids (TDS) or fluoride concentration (Wanke et al., 2014). While water-related diseases continue to be one of the major health concerns globally, statistics in Namibia show high prevalence of diarrhoea as a result of consuming contaminated water (UNICEF Namibia, 2014) especially in infants, the old aged and people with compromised immunity since they are more vulnerable to infection. Although wells often have visible debris floating in them, they are nevertheless utilized for drinking water without treatment. Contamination is enhanced by lack of sanitation or wastewater treatment systems in the rural areas. This lack of a developed water supply system in some parts of the region increases the risk of water borne infection in these areas because people utilize water from hand-dug wells for household use regardless of its quality and safety (Wanke et al., 2014). C Hand-dug well water may harbour microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa which may be pathogenic and induce diseases leading to death in severe cases (Samuel, 2013). Most hand-dug wells in the Cuvelai Etosha Basin of Namibia are not covered and lack a protection zone which allows animals to access the water troughs which are often placed besides the well (Christelis & Struckmeier, 2011). These hand-dug wells tap water from shallow perched aquifers and are not protected from surface contamination nor is the water quality monitored. This is not desirable given the outbreaks of cholera (UNICEF Namibia, 2014; Smith, Keddy & De Wee 2008), polio (Schoub, 2006), and diarrhoea (Sibeen, 2007) experienced in Namibia. Safe water supply is crucial to societal development and growth, and therefore forms part of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (Agatemor & Agatemor, 2010). The objective of this study was to investigate the bacteriological (Culturable) water quality of hand-dug wells.

Materials and Methods 2. Isolation of Bacteria D Water samples were collected from a total of 25 wells in the Cuvelai-Etosha basin of Namibia. Sampling was conducted during two sampling campaign trips in March and May in order to account for the period before the rainy season and after the rain season. The water samples were filtered with membranes of pore size of 0.1 – 10 µm in order to concentrate the bacteria. The bacteria were then cultivated on a general-purpose medium (Nutrient agar) at an incubation of 37◦C for 24 hours. After bacterial growth, single colonies were isolated and grown as pure cultures. Gram stain was performed on the pure cultures to distinguish gram negative and gram positive (results not shown). Bacteria isolation was performed at the University of Namibia (UNAM). 3 Results and Discussion E A BLAST search of the bacterial sequences revealed the identity (Figure 3) of the bacteria as Bacil lus aerophilus, Bacil lus amyloliquefaciens, Bacil lus aquimaris, Bacil lus aryabhat- tai, Bacil lus cereus, Bacil lus licheniformis, Bacil lus pumilus, Bacil lus safensis, Bacil lus samanii, Bacil lus sp. M37, Bacil lus sp. M26, Bacil lus stratophericus, Bacil lus subtilis, Pseudomonas mendocina, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Streptomyces celuloflavus. Bacil- lus species were the most common inhabitants of the hand-dug wells.

Bacterial isolate ≠ Place of isolation NCBI Identity % Identity Accession#

2 UNAM* Bacillus aerophilus 99 JX049585.1 3 UNAM Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 98 KP334099.1 4 UNAM Bacillus aquimaris 99 KJ009414 5 UNAM Bacillus aryabhattai 98 KM051114 6 UNAM Bacillus cereus 99 KP729612.1 7 UNAM Bacillus cereus 98 HQ683909.1 8 UNAM Bacillus licheniformis 98 LC006127.1 9 UNAM Bacillus licheniformis 98 LC006127.1

10 UNAM Bacillus pumilus 97 EU863189 11 UNAM Bacillus safensis 98 KP717556 12 UNAM Bacillus samanii 99 EU240367 13 UNAM Bacillus samanii 98 EU240367 14 UNAM Bacillus M26 99 EU240373.1 15 UNAM Bacillus M37 98 GQ495062.1 16 UNAM Bacillus M26 99 GQ495051 17 UNAM Bacillus M37 99 GQ495062 18 UNAM Bacillus M37 98 GQ495062.1 19 UNAM Bacillus M26 98 GQ495051.1 20 UNAM Bacillus stratophericus 98 KM277362 21 UNAM Bacillus subtilis 98 KF758384 22 UNAM Bacillus subtilis 99 KF758384 23 UNAM Pseudomonas mendocina 98 DQ345122.1 24 UNAM Staphylococcus haemotylicus 99 KT003269.1 25 UNAM Bacillus M37 98 GQ495062.1 26 UNAM Streptomyces celluflavus 99 KP235209.1

*UNAM- University of Namibia The Bacillus genus is a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria that are rod-shaped and have the ability to form endospores that are resilient to harsh environmental conditions (Clause & Berkeley, 1986). Most Bacillus species are harmless with the exception of a few being pathogenic to humans and animals. Bacillus cereus is among the pathogenic species, it is known for causing food poisoning that is comparable to Staphylococcal species food poisoning. Bacillus cereus is capable of forming heat-stable toxin in food that is associated with spore germination which induces vomiting after ingestion while other strains produce a heat-labile enterotoxin after ingestion that causes diarrhoea (Ashbolt, Grabow & Snozzi, 2001). The presence of Bacillus species in the present study also corroborates with the World Health Organization (2004) suggesting that Bacillus spp. can be found in diverse natural environments such as soil and water. The existence of Bacillus cereus in drinking water supplies has not been reported. Furthermore, World Health Organization (2004) reported that drinking water has not been identified as a source of infection of pathogenic Bacillus spp. However, Bacillus cereus was detected in the present study. This is in agreement with the ability of Bacillus species to form spores. Hand-dug wells can be found with a diverse form of bacteria due to their vulnerability to contamination from human and animal activities occurring around the top of the well. Contamination of hand-dug wells can also be influenced by structures in the vicinity of the well such as pit latrines, farm animal wastes and septic systems (FMDW, 1997). Furthermore, households in the vicinity of contamination are vulnerable because they share the same aquifer (Centre for Disease Control and prevention (CDCP, 2010). The bacterial contamination in the present study can also be attributed to the structure of the wells. Not all hand-dug wells surveyed had a cover to prevent contamination. G The presence of Staphylococcus haemolyticus in the hand-dug wells also suggested the possible contamination of the water with selenium (Riadi & Barford, 1994). This study revealed the presence of bacterial contamination in the hand-dug wells of the Cuvelai-Etosha basin and supports the conclusions that; the water from the hand-dug wells is not safe for drinking unless it is subjected to appropriate disinfection methods. These wells are also vulnerable to the spread of bacterial contamination because they use the same aquifers. 4 Conclusion H This study revealed the presence of bacterial contamination in the hand-dug wells of the Cuvelai-Etosha basin and supports the conclusions that; the water from the hand-dug wells is not safe for drinking unless it is subjected to appropriate disinfection methods. These wells are also vulnerable to the spread of bacterial contamination because they use the same aquifers. In addition, these wells indicated possible contamination with Selenium which when consumed in high amounts can induce a disease called Selenosis. The presence of the health risk bacteria indicated that the water was not fit for drinking in light of WHO and Namibian guideline values for drinking water. However, this water can be consumed with prior treatment.

I The findings of this study lead to the recommendations that; the entry/access of animals in the vicinity of hand-dug wells should be restricted in order to prevent the defecating of animals near the wells. This can be implemented by constructing fences around the wells. Furthermore, wells should be lined with concrete from the top to the bottom. The construction of the wells at higher ground levels can also prevent the entry of contaminants through surface runoff especially in the rain season. The wells should be covered and the concrete protection of the well should also be properly constructed. In addition, the wells should be assessed for the water quality periodically by the Ministry of Health and the well owners should be trained on the maintenance of the well. It is further recommended that; the water must be boiled before drinking it in order to kill bacteria. The boiled water must be covered and protected against recontamination. It is also encouraged that bleach should be added to the water to kill bacteria. Iodine can also be added due to its ability to kill bacteria. However, Iodine may cause allergies in some instances. In addition, the addition of water purification tablets also eliminates the bacteria. In cases of financial challenges, solar disinfection can be performed which involves Filling plastic bottles with water and placing them in the hot sun for two hours. Combining these methods is more effective especially in the elimination of resistant bacteria such as cholera bacterium. Since the most common water source for the community in the Cuvelai-Etosha basin is hand-dug wells, the construction of more boreholes by the government with an inclusive borehole sinking and water quality education program would reduce chances of bacterial infections.

References [1] Agatemor, C. and Agatemor, U. M. (2010). Physico-chemical characteristics of well waters in four urban centers in Southern Nigeria. Environmentalist, 30, 333– 339. [2] Ashbolt N.J., Grabow W.O.K. and Snozzi M. (2001). Indicators of microbial water quality. In: Fewtrell L, Bartram J, eds. Water quality: Guidelines, standards and health – Assessment of risk and risk management for water-related infectious disease. WHO Water Series. London, IWA Publishing, pp. 289–315. [3] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) (2010). Microorganisms, Bacteria and Viruses.1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA30333, USA. [4] Claus, D. and Berkeley, R.C.W. (1986). Genus Bacillus Cohn 1872, pp. 1105- 1139. In: P.H.A. Sneath et al. (eds.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 2. Williams and Wilkins Co.,Baltimore, MD. [5] DRFN and HIWAC. 2013. Training module on water resources management for Basin support officers, Basin management committees and Basin forum members. [6] FMDW. (1997). Facts Microorganisms in Drinking Water. Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Services, Trenton, NJ08625-0369. New Jersey. [7] Isaacs, D. (2008, March 11). Cholera outbreak in the North. The Namibian Newspaper [8] Msangi, J.P. (ed., 2013). Combating Water Scarcity in Southern Africa: Case Studies from Namibia. Springer. [9] Schoub, B. (2006) The outbreak of poliomyelitis in Namibia, Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection, 21:1, 221-260 [10] Riadi, L., and Barford, J. P. (1994). Bioremediation of process waters contaminated with selenium. In INSTITUTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS SYMPOSIUM SERIES (Vol. 137, pp. 209-209). HEMSPHERE PUBLISHING CORPORATION. [11] Samuel, A. (2013). Assessing the water quality of river Asuotia and six hand- dug wells at Wamfie in the Dormaa east district of Brong ahafo region, Ghana (Master’s thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana) [12] Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The WashingtonPost, pp. A1, A4. [13] Sibeen, P. (2007, April 18). Namibia: Diarrhoea Outbreak Claims Four Lives. New Era post, pp.3 Source: journals.unam.edu.na/index.php/ISTJN/article/view/1213


1. Which word/words in the title capture the type of action being done?

2. “The scope of a research might be carried by words and phrases that state limitations in terms of location and/or time.” Which words in the title state the location limitations of this research.

3. What was the purpose of the study?

4. Identify the action verb used in the objective of the research and explain what

it means.

5. Re-write the sampling procedure below in one sentence of not more than 30 words. “Water samples were collected from a total of 25 wells in the Cuvelai-Etosha basin of Namibia. Sampling was conducted during two sampling campaign trips in March and May in order to account for the period before the rainy season and after the rain season.” (44 words)

6. Was this a qualitative or quantitative study? Support yourself with evidence from the article.

7. Was this an empirical or non-empirical study? Support yourself with evidence from

the article.

Question 2: Report Writing

Write a recommendation report in which you discuss the rise in gender-based violence during the covid-19 lock-down period in Namibia. Include at least 3 sources and the report must be signed and dated. Furthermore, your report must not exceed 3 pages in length and it should be written in the following format: 1. Introduction 2. Discussion 2.1 First main point 2.2 Second main point 2.3 Third main point 3. Conclusion 4. Recommendations 5. References

Question 3: APA Referencing This part of the assignment assesses your understanding of aspects related APA referencing.

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The plagiarism must be less than 20%

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