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I need A Powerpoint slides on a Case Study ( InMobi : Reimagining mobile advertising) . I need the powerpoint done according to 7 important points as mentioned in a attached file ( Instructions for analyzing a Case Study) . I only need 12 slides and refrences at the end.

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GENERAL COMMENTS ON ANALYZING A CASE STUDY

The purpose of the case study is to let you apply the concepts you’ve

learned when you analyze the issues facing a specific company. To analyze a case study, therefore, you must examine closely the issues with which the company is confronted. Most often you will need to read the case several times – once to grasp the overall picture of what is happening to the company and then several times more to discover and grasp the specific problems.

Generally, detailed analysis of a case study should include seven areas:

1. Comprehending the Case Situation 2. Analyzing the company’s history, development, and growth 3. Defining the Problem 4. Generating Alternative Solutions 5. Identifying Criteria for Evaluating Alternatives 6. Making recommendations 7. Taking Action and Following Up

To analyze a case, you need to apply what you’ve learned to each of these

areas. In what follows, details about each of the above areas will be provided. 1. COMPREHEND THE CASE SITUATION: DATA COLLECTION, IDENTIFY RELEVANT FACTS

Most cases require at least two readings, sometimes more; the first time through should involve familiarizing yourself with the basic situation; you may be given some guide questions to help you and you also might think about why the case was assigned now. There are some standard question that you might keep in mind as you read the case:

• what are the key issues in the case; who is the decision maker in the case; is there a critical decision

• what is the environment in which the key people operate; what are the constraints on their actions; what demands are imposed by the situation

• are solutions doable

• if you had the chance to talk to critical people in the company, what would you want to know

• what are the actual outcomes of the current situation-productivity, satisfaction, etc.; how stable are present conditions

• what are the “ideal” outcomes; what is an ideal “future” condition

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• what information is lacking; what are the sources of the available information

Managers and students rarely have complete information and must rely on

inferences. Be prepared to make creative assumptions; good analysis goes beyond identifying the relevant facts in the case. If some facts aren’t given, figure out what you can assume they are.

Rereading: After the first reading, try to formulate several plausible courses of action and explanation for the data in the case. Imagine yourself as various key people in the case and figure out why you (as the person in the case) might have acted as he/she did, or what you would do. Think about the consequences if you are wrong. Using evidence and numbers: One of the most difficult problems in preparing a case is sorting through the mass of information and evidence. Often cases involve considerable background information of varying relevance to the decision at hand. Often cases involve conflict with different actors providing selective information and courses of action to support their claims. As in real life, you must decide what information is important and what isn’t and evaluate apparently conflicting evidence. As in real life, you will be faced with a lot of information but perhaps not exactly the information you need.

It is not uncommon to feel paralyzed by all the available information; it is difficult to identify the key information after the first reading. You should be slightly skeptical about the information presented or the interpretation placed on it by various actors in the case. You won’t have time to question all evidence in the case but if the evidence is critical, you might ask yourself what it really implies and whether it is as compelling as it seems. As you read the case keep in mind:

• remember that all behavior is caused, motivated, and goal-directed; behavior may see strange, or “irrational” but you can assume it makes sense to the actor

• separate fact from opinion; distinguish between what people say vs. do

• it might be possible to get more information about the case (e.g. the industry) but for the most part you will be asked to do your best with the information available

• separate symptoms from underlying causes

• avoid judgments; avoid premature solutions 2. ANALYZE THE COMPANY’S HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT, AND GROWTH

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A convenient way to investigate how a company’s past strategy and structure affect it in the present is to chart the critical incidents in its history – that is, the events that were the most unusual or the most essential for its development into the company it is today. Some of the events have to do with its founding, its initial products, how it makes new-product market decisions, and how it developed and chose functional competencies to pursue. Its entry into new businesses and shifts in its main lines of business are also important milestones to consider. Identify the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses. Once the historical profile is completed, you can begin the SWOT analysis. Use all the incidents you have charted to develop an account of the company’s strengths and weaknesses as they have emerged historically. Examine each of the value creation functions of the company, and identify the functions in which the company is currently strong and currently weak. Some companies might be weak in marketing; some might be strong in research and development. Make lists of these strengths and weaknesses. The SWOT checklist gives examples of what might go in these lists.

SWOT Checklist

Potential internal strengths Potential internal weaknesses

Many product lines? Obsolete, narrow product lines?

Broad market coverage? Rising manufacturing costs?

Manufacturing competence? Decline in R&D innovations?

Good marketing skills? Poor marketing skills?

Good materials management systems?

Poor materials management systems?

R&D skills and leadership? Loss of customer good will?

Information system competencies

Inadequate information systems?

Human resource competencies?

Inadequate human resources?

Brand name reputation? Loss of brand name capital?

Portfolio management skills? Growth without direction?

Cost of differentiation advantage?

Bad portfolio management?

New-venture management expertise?

Loss of corporate direction?javascript:%20winOpen(‘/business/resources/casestudies/students/swot.htm’,’null’);

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Appropriate management style?

Infighting among divisions?

Appropriate organizational structure?

Loss of corporate control?

Appropriate control systems? Inappropriate organizational structure and control systems?

Ability to manage strategic change?

High conflict and politics?

Well-developed corporate strategy?

Poor financial management?

Good financial management? Others?

Others?

Potential environmental opportunities

Potential environmental threats

Expand core business(es)? Attacks on core business(es)?

Exploit new market segments? Increases in domestic competition?

Widen new market segments? Increases in foreign competition?

Extend cost or differentiation advantage?

Change in consumer taste?

Diversify into new growth businesses?

Fall in barriers to entry?

Expand into foreign markets? Rise in new or substitute products?

Apply R&D skills in new areas?

Increase in industry rivalry?

Enter new related businesses? New forms of industry competition?

Vertically integrate forward? Potential for takeover?

Vertically integrate backward? Existence for corporate raiders?

Enlarge corporate portfolio? Increase in regional competition?

Overcome barriers to entry? Changes in demographic factors?

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Reduce rivalry among competitors?

Changes in economic factors?

Make profitable new acquisitions?

Downturn in economy?

Apply brand name capital in new areas?

Rising labor costs?

Seek fast market growth? Slower market growth?

Others? Others?

Analyze the external environment. The next step is to identify environmental opportunities and threats. Here you should apply all information you have learned on industry and macroenvironments, to analyze the environment the company is confronting. Of particular importance at the industry level is Porter’s five forces model and the stage of the life cycle model.

Porter’s Five Forces Model

(Developed by Michael E. Porter of the Harvard School of Business Administration)

This model focuses on five forces that shape competition within an industry.

1. The risk of new entry by potential competitors 2. The degree of rivalry among established companies within an industry 3. The bargaining power of buyers 4. The bargaining power of suppliers 5. The threat of substitute products

3. DEFINING THE PROBLEM

What is the critical issue or problems to be solved? This is probably the most crucial part of the analysis and sometimes the hardest thing to do in the whole analysis. Perhaps the most common problem in case analysis (and in real life management) is that we fail to identify the real problem and hence solve the wrong problem. What we at first think is the real problem often isn’t the real problem. To help in this stage here are some questions to ask in trying to identify the real problem:javascript:%20winOpen(‘/business/resources/casestudies/students/porter.htm’,’null’);javascript:%20winOpen(‘/business/resources/casestudies/students/porter.htm’,’null’);javascript:%20winOpen(‘/business/resources/casestudies/students/life_cycle.htm’,’null’);

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• where is the problem (individual, group, situation)why is it a problem; is there a “gap” between actual performance and desired performance; for whom is it a problem and why

• explicitly state the problem; are you sure it is a problem; is it important; what would happen if the “problem” were left alone”; could doing something about the “problem” have unintended consequences?

• what standard is violated; where is the deviation from standard

• what are the actual outcomes in terms of productivity and job satisfaction; what are the ideal outcomes

• how do key people feel about the problem and current outcomes

• what type of problem is it ?(individual, relationships, group, intergroup, leadership/motivation/power, total system)

• how urgent is the problem? How important is the problem relative to other problems?

• assess the present conditions:

• What are the consequences; how high are the stakes; what factors must and can change? for the organization (costs and profits; meeting obligations; productivity) for the people (personal and financial rewards; careers; satisfaction and growth)

• How stable are present conditions?

• What information is lacking?

• What are the sources of the available information? Traps in this stage:

• suggesting a solution prematurely-stating a problem while implying a solution

• stating problems in behavioral (personal) terms, not situational terms

• not explicitly stating the problem-assuming “your” problem is “the” problem

• blindly applying stereotypes to problems; accepting all information at face value; making premature judgments; multiple causality

• most crucial at this step is to avoid suggesting a solution

• confusing symptoms with causes; differentiating fact from opinion; prematurely judging people and actions

• stating the problem as a disguised solution (eg. Hardesty’s failure is due to his not visiting purchasing

Analyze structure and control systems. The aim of this analysis is to identify what structure and control systems the company is using to implement its strategy and to evaluate whether that structure is the appropriate one for the company. Different corporate and business strategies require different structures. For

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example, does the company have the right level of vertical differentiation (for instance, does it have the appropriate number of levels in the hierarchy or decentralized control?) or horizontal differentiation (does it use a functional structure when it should be using a product structure?)? Similarly, is the company using the right integration or control systems to manage its operations? Are managers being appropriately rewarded? Are the right rewards in place for encouraging cooperation among divisions? These are all issues that should be considered.

In some cases there will be little information on these issues, whereas in others there will be a lot. Obviously, in analyzing each case you should gear the analysis toward its most salient issues. For example, organizational conflict, power, and politics will be important issues for some companies. Try to analyze why problems in these areas are occurring. Do they occur because of bad strategy formulation or because of bad strategy implementation?

Organizational change is an issue in many cases because the companies are

attempting to alter their strategies or structures to solve strategic problems. Thus, as a part of the analysis, you might suggest an action plan that the company in question could use to achieve its goals. For example, you might list in a logical sequence the steps the company would need to follow to alter its business-level strategy from differentiation to focus. Causes: Once you have identified the key problem(s), try to find the causes here. Most critical here is avoiding solutions, and avoiding blaming or judging people. Also:

• don’t quit at the most obvious answer-try playing devil’s advocate; put yourself in the other person’s shoes

• accept the multiple causality of events

• there may be a number of viable ways to fit the data together; explore as many as you can; go past the obvious

• there is a great tendency to evaluate behavior as good or bad; I care about why it occurred; judgments leads to a poor analysis focusing on justification for the evaluation

• the concern is not whether behavior is good or bad but why it occurred and its consequences

• be careful about hindsight; actors in the case usually don’t have access to outcomes when they act so avoid “Monday Morning Quarterbacking”- consider what actors in the case are reasonably likely to know or do as before, avoid premature solutions and premature judgments

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4. GENERATING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS In thinking about a context for generating alternatives, think about:

• what are the decision-maker’s sources of power in the situation? (legitimate, reward, punishment, expert, referent)

• what are possible leverage points (changing technology such as machines, processes, product designs; changing organizational structure; changing reward systems, job descriptions education, changing personnel, changing culture)

• can individual behavior be changed (education, training, reward systems, job description, etc.)

• what are the constraints on the solution? (time, money, organizational traditions, prior commitments, external realities, legal etc)

• what are the available resources (time, money, people, existing relationships, power)

• should others be involved (in problem definition, data collection, generating alternatives, implementing solutions, monitoring and assessing realities)

In this stage it is important to avoid reaching for a solution too quickly; be

creative here and put yourself in the case. Try living with various alternatives that you are thinking about; what would be the impact on you and on others. Be sure to think about the costs and benefits of each alternative. 5. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES

In considering the alternatives generated above you need to be clear on the criteria you will use to evaluate them. Some possible criteria include:

• does the alternative address the critical aspect of the problem? What are your objective? Be specific.

• what are the intended consequences; what are some unintended possible consequences; how will your decision improve the situation

• what is the probability of success; what are the risks; what happens if the plan fails

• what does the plan depend on? What are the costs? What power and control is needed?

• who would be the “change agent” Does he/she have the power, skills, knowledge to be successful

• is the “solution” consistent with organizational realities

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Remember that there is no one “elegant” solution; all solutions have costs and benefits; identify pros and cons of each alternative; evaluate relative to goals; look at main and side effects

• you may have to make inferences and judgments; do this as long as you have good reasons for your inferences

• choose alternative which best meets the criteria. The decision might not be accepted by those involved so you may have to choose a more acceptable one. You might want to rank order your alternatives according to how well they meet the criteria used as you think about action, put yourself into the case; try to project living with the consequences

6. MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS

The last part of the case analysis process involves making recommendations based on your analysis. Obviously, the quality of your recommendations is a direct result of the thoroughness with which you prepared the case analysis. The work you put into the case analysis will be obvious to the professor from the nature of your recommendations. Recommendations are directed at solving whatever strategic problem the company is facing and at increasing its future profitability. Your recommendations should be in line with your analysis; that is, they should follow logically from the previous discussion. For example, your recommendation generally will center on the specific ways of changing functional, business, and corporate strategy and organizational structure and control to improve business performance. The set of recommendations will be specific to each case, and so it is difficult to discuss these recommendations here. Such recommendations might include an increase in spending on specific research and development projects, the divesting of certain businesses, a change from a strategy of unrelated to related diversification, an increase in the level of integration among divisions by using task forces and teams, or a move to a different kind of structure to implement a new business-level strategy. Again, make sure your recommendations are mutually consistent and are written in the form of an action plan. The plan might contain a timetable that sequences the actions for changing the company’s strategy and a description of how changes at the corporate level will necessitate changes at the business level and subsequently at the functional level.

7. TAKING ACTION AND FOLLOWING UP In thinking about implementation you want to think about these areas:

• what are leverage points for change-technology, reward systems, work relationships, reporting relationships, personnel changes

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• what are the decision maker’s sources of power: legitimate, reward, expert, referent, etc.

• what are the constraints on a solution: time, money, organizational policies, traditions, prior commitments, external realities

• does culture have to change; what historical relationships must be respected

• implementation-will people resist change; is change being reinforced; is a new stability developing

• monitoring changes-are further changes necessary; are costs and benefits of changes as expected

• make sure you have thought about the ramifications of implementing the plan; how will you address them

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