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Choose to view one of the movies in this Unit, either The Garden (in English and some Spanish with English subtitles) or Holding Ground Part 1 and Holding Ground Part 2. Summarize what social justice issues were seen that impacted the physiological, political, social, psychological and spiritual human behaviors on the macro (societal, community) and mezzo (family and community) person and environment dimensions of the story in your chosen video.

What role could you play as a social worker in creating and supporting the social movement pictured in your chosen video. How would you go about facilitating and specifically intervene using Hutchison’s “Political Process Perspective?” What mobilizing elements could be brought into action to forward the social reform movement that you are professionally supporting connected to your chosen video? What recommended guidelines would you apply as a professional social worker to facilitate engagement, assessment, intervention and evaluation to forward your movement from the video? Be specific.

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Integrate in-text cited content from the text and from one additional supplemental reading.

 Hutchison -Ch. 14 pp. 427 – 456

Article: Yu, K. (2012). Formal organizations and identity groups in social movements. Human Relations (New York), 65(6), 753-776. (FHSU Library)

Article: Clayton, D. M. (2018). Black Lives Matter and the Civil Rights Movement: A Comparative Analysis of Two Social Movements in the United States. Journal of Black Studies, 49(5), 448-480. (FHSU Library)

Article:Valocchi, S. (2017). Capitalisms and Gay Identities: Towards a Capitalist Theory of Social Movements. Social Problems (Berkeley, Calif.), 64(2), 315-331. (FHSU Library)

Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment

Sixth Edition

Elizabeth D. Hutchison

Chapter 14

Social Movements

A Definition of Social Movements

Ongoing, large-scale, collective efforts to bring about (or resist) social change

Proactive social movements: seek to reform existing social arrangements and try out new ways of cooperating and living together

Reactive social movements: seek to defend traditional values and social arrangements

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A Definition of Social Movements

Properties that distinguish social movements from other social collectivities

Conflictual relations with identified opponents

Linked by dense informal networks

Share a distinct collective identity

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Social Movements and the History of Social Work

Origin in social movements

Charity organization society (COS) movement: Private charity organizations became overtaxed by the needs of poor people

Focused on individual pathology

Settlement house movement: stimulated by same social circumstances as COS

Focused on environmental hazards

Social reform was primary agenda

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Perspectives on Social Movements

Strain theory: Social movements develop in response to some form of strain in society, when people’s efforts to cope become collective efforts

Strain theory is necessary but not sufficient to predict social movements

Little support for relationship between psychological characteristics and social movement participation

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Political Opportunities Perspective

Assumptions

Social institutions benefit elites and disadvantage others

Elites have routine access to institutionalized political channels

Power disparities make it hard for some groups to successfully challenge existing institutions

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Political Opportunities Perspective

Institutions are sometimes more vulnerable to challenge by groups with little power

Social movements can take advantage of institutional arrangements vulnerable to challenge

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Dimensions that make the political system either receptive or vulnerable to challenges

Openness of the political system: provides neither full access nor total absence of access

Stability of political alignments: routine transfer of political power from one group to another

Availability of elite allies: play a variety of supportive roles; may also limit and distort goals

International relations: more democratic, less authoritarian

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Political Opportunities Perspective

Political Opportunities Perspective

International relations are affected by and affect social movements

Communication technology is quickening the diffusion of collective action as social movements transcend nation states

Global social movements spurred by:

Acceptance of interference of one nation by another

End of classical colonialism

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Mobilizing Structures Perspective

Social movement leaders must

Seek out and mobilize needed resources (people, money, ideas, skills, information) to reduce costs and increase the benefits of movement activities

Social movements have no influence without effective organization of various mobilizing structures

Collective building blocks of social movements

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Mobilizing Structures Perspective

Organize/make use of structures

Formal (resource mobilization)

Resource mobilization theory

Social movement organizations (SMOs)

Professional SMOs

Transnational SMOs

Informal (political process model)

Network model

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Mobilizing Structures Perspective

Information and communication technology

Internet and wireless communication networks have been used extensively in the mobilization of social movements

Greatest power = virtual relationships + occupation of a shared physical space

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Mobilizing Structures Perspective

Life course of social movements

Movement begins ill defined, weakly organized, and becomes larger, less spontaneous, better organized

3 basic processes

Institutionalization

Encapsulation

Factionalization

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Cultural Framing Perspective

Succeeds only when participants develop shared understandings and definitions of the situation

Involves “conscious, strategic efforts by groups of people to fashion shared understandings of the world and of themselves that legitimate and motivate collective action” (McAdam et al., 1996, p. 6)

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Cultural Framing Perspective

Cultural frames are “metaphors, symbols, and cognitive cues that cast issues in a particular light and suggest possible ways to respond to these cues” (Davis et al., 2005, p. 48-49)

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The Cultural Framing Perspective

Social movement groups: balancing act; need to appear nonthreatening and sympathetic; also respond to critics, supporters, and governmental officials

Conscience constituency: people whom are interested in a specific movement because it appears just and worthy

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The Cultural Framing Perspective

Frames for understanding that a problem exists

Call attention to contradictions between cultural ideals and cultural realities

Frames for recognizing a window of opportunity

Perception that change is possible

Frames for establishing goals

Reform or revolution?

Frames for identifying pathways for action

Tactical choices for accomplishing goals

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Emerging Perspectives

Emerging perspectives

Look at role emotions play in motivating people to participate in social movement activities

Differences in why some see societal change as a major priority while others don’t

New social movement theory: collective identity is vital to mobilization

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Social Movement Outcomes

Must be measured

Incrementally

Over time

Cumulatively

From different perspectives

Is influenced by

Tapping into existing networks that have large base, shared culture, strong solidarity, common identity

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Social Movement Trends

Transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs)

Operates in more than one nation-state

Flexible, decentralized structures

Worldwide offices and local grassroots activities

Single issue to multi-issue organizing by TSMOs

Blending technology-based organizing with face-to-face interactions in occupied spaces will continue and escalate

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Social Movements and Contemporary Social Work

Social movement service organizations

Driven by controversial values seen as socially beneficial

Closely integrate service and advocacy

Develop sense of community among clients

Mobilize members to advocate for change

Develop hybrid structure with collective and bureaucratic forms of operation

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Social Movements and Contemporary Social Work

Time of growth in…

Inequality

Government distrust

Ethnic hatred

Activism based on social identity

Progress can be reversed

How can social workers empower others to engage in social movements?

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