Nanotechnology these days turned into the most astounding investigations created and functioning examination territories in numerous fields including common, synthetic designing, hardware, and medication, likewise in materials. In present-day sciences, nanotechnology is considered as the following modern upset which it might give more prospects to surpass our assumptions in numerous fields. In media transmission designing nanotechnology could give viable answers for power proficient figuring, detecting, memory development, and human-machine association. Nanotechnology in correspondence frameworks additionally gives the capacity to makers to deliver central processors and sensors that are extensively more modest, quicker, more energy productive, and less expensive to make than their present-day modules. In this paper, an outline of numerous issues identified with nanotechnology in correspondence frameworks are talked about, and furthermore paper will give a short thought of the likely use of different nanotechnology advancements in the correspondence frameworks and the potential for prospects investigates that may prompt improved correspondence frameworks.
Nanotechnology, communication, responsible innovation, upstream engagement, technological risks, media management.
Internet is a global network which connects people from one part of the world to another in a nanosecond. In 1960’s, the internet was invented for the communications between scientist and military but now it is used by millions of people. Along with it, many pros and cons came along. However, people use it more as an advantage to invent new things and become successful to take the world where it is now. Nanotechnology is basically a research as well as innovation field that is after coming up with ‘things’ – mostly materials and devices in small sizes of atoms and molecules. Note, a nanometer is a unit of measurement that is equivalent to one billion of a meter. This is ten times the hydrogen atom’s diameter. The size is too small considering that a human hair is normally about 80,000 nanometers. Such large scales make the basic rules of chemistry and physics not to hold. The characteristics of materials like conductivity, color, reactivity, and strength vary greatly from the nanoscale to the macro. For example, the ‘nanotubes of carbon are many times stronger compared to steel but also lighter than steel. Nanotechnology innovation is the mixture of extreme developed technology and a responsibility towards its making. Nanotechnology is praised as a technology with the capacity to enhance the efficiency of consuming energy, aid in environmental cleaning, as well as dealing with serious health problems. Scientists hail it as trend with the potential to greatly enhance manufacturing technology and at the same time greatly reduce the costs of the same. Around two decades ago nanotechnology began to reach its’ peak enlightening the development of industrial sectors, technologies, environment, medical sector, food, water and so on. It is one of the immense fields where there are tremendous research-based project going on to make the field even better.
The growing development in nanotechnology in the medicinal field made it easier for the health workers to diagnose and provide the right treatment fit for the patients. Alongside, the development of nanotechnology was started to make the day-to-day life easier for the public including their safety and environmental conservation. The development of nanotechnology brings ethical, legal, and social issues with it.
Eric Drexler, the person who is also the scientist who brought about the term ‘nanotechnology’ is of the opinion that there might be upcoming “greatly powerful, as well as dangerous technologies”. He predicted in a book titled ‘Engines of Creation’ that those molecules that replicate themselves and were developed by humans have the capacity to go out of hand. Besides the debunking by several specialists in the field, there remains to be concerns over the impacts of the technology on the environment as well as humans. In addition, there have been concerns of its effects on the North-South divide. Activists as well as lobby groups have raised a concern that thanks to the development and science behind nanotechnology, there is a probability that the technology will grow at a pace that will be difficult for the policy makers to keep up with in coming up with relevant regulatory measures. They call for a candid discussion to strike a favorable balance for the risks and benefits. However, development of nanotechnology has immense impacts in the world. Its progress has gone beyond any imagination and vast compared to its previous development. A huge responsibility to save the world in scarcity maybe one of its fundamental goal. Thus, nanotechnology has made a great change in the relationship between science, technology, and the mankind. In the field of telecommunication and making it a great revolution with communication technologies, nanotechnology plays a very crucial role. Nanotechnology has impacted this industry in numerous ways and contributed as an innovation of software, applications, and other different mediums. With the research on nanotechnology, it is believed that nanotechnology will be able to locate, analyze and solve the problems to make our lives to function more conveniently. The responsible development of nanotechnology to benefit the society, environment always requires the involvement of public, their knowledge and acceptance towards the uprising innovation (Unmesha, 2019).
Wireless technology is being embraced globally for its obvious advantages. Firstly, mobility is the main advantage that is luring the whole world towards the technology. The technology brings about unprecedented flexibility. An example is mobile telephony. Its implementation can be anywhere and anytime via greatly increased throughput performance. Secondly, wired communication is costly and time consuming considering that it requires physical fitting of infrastructure. On the contrary, wireless technology infrastructure is cheaper and easier to install. The most of all the advantages is the use of nanotechnology. The use of wireless technology is increasing drastically and the utilization of nanotechnology in these wireless devices and programs are high performance, lower power consumption, compact sizes, and advanced features. These technology makes a great enhancement in the social life including both home and office. Maximum usage of nanotechnology in these wireless devices work in improving the surrounding as they could use as sensors to measure things prior to what is going to happen, for example, earthquake detector, smoke detector, motion sensors and many more. The modern devices use high frequencies, high data with effectiveness which requires nanotechnology to function in an efficient way. The currently in use RF technologies in data rate exchange systems will only be applicable and able to satisfy the public’s needs in the coming 10 to 15 years after which they will become defunct. The use of the RF technologies will stop due to its physical limits. Devices that are nanotechnology-enabled will be the heart of the coming generation’s technologies of wireless communication. Nanotechnology will support wireless networks to be in congruence with the performance needs of the flexible electronic devices.
Nano communication and networks
A nanonetwork also called nanoscale network is an interconnection of nanomachines that can do very simplified tasks like computing, actuation, sensing, and storing data. Note, nanomachines are very small devices in sizes of nanometers. Nanonetworks function to enhance the potential of individual nanomachines in their complexities as well as limit of operation through enabling them to match, send and fuse information. As we know, nanotechnology takes a big place in nano communication and networks. The increasing use of the mobile led to the development of 5G wireless communication (which uses nano antennas) to enhance the network coverage and the wireless communication more efficiently (Hao et al., 2020). The correspondence between Nanomachines occurs as in the customary correspondence that implies the frameworks need to send a message over a transporter to the collector and the data conveyed ought to be encoded on the transmitter side and decoded in the beneficiary. With the use of MIMO technology, the components were able to be reduced to nano-size. nanonetworks make it possible for the upcoming applications of nanotechnology in the environmental research, consumer and industrial products applications, military technology, and biomedical field.
Problem of communication of nanotechnology to the public
Nanotechnology started to reach its peak almost around 2000s’ and was recognized as the responsible development establishing the Nanotechnology Innovation (NNI) done with the potential of giving the outcome of a change in the society for good to make the lives of the public easier. Even with the responsible development of nanotechnology with the uprising developments, scientists still feared of facing the failure in terms of public acceptance (Boholm, & Larsson, 2019). Public approach towards nanotechnology is controlled by various factors such as media, ability to process the change in the environment, cultural bias and so on. Religious beliefs play a crucial role to provide a negative impact to support nanotechnology. Another exposure to the problem is the risks involved and impact of nanotechnology towards the community. This factor changes the attitude of public regarding the information which leads to provide instability to the innovation. Communication between technology and public is very delicate matter. Media information about the nanotechnology changes the attitude of the public. The media may negatively talk of the nanotechnology and the public will not respond to this change. There are also concern that nanotechnology could be toxic because it deals with the nanoparticles and the public need to be assured of their safety that this technology will not poison them. Also, policies and regulations about this technology are widely varied and this will fetch lack of understanding from the public. Also, because nanotechnology may be in minute or intangible form, communicating such matter to the public will be a challenge. Researchers fail to communicate with clarity the underlying concepts of nanotechnology to the public. Failing to clearly communicate the concepts to the public will leave them wowed and fails their interest. This disappointing information leads to lack of comprehension within the public. In health sector, nanotechnology maybe effectively used to carry genes to the cells and to treat diseases such as cancer as well as being used for vaccination purpose and welcoming a positive feedback from the public. On the other hand, nanoparticles may create disastrous effect on parts of the body such as immune and inflammatory system.
Major solutions for the communication of nanotechnology to the public
The media plays an important role to influence the public about the occasion of nanotechnology. In today’s world, media is considered as huge influencer in changing people’s attitude towards certain things. According to the research, public judgement is based on the information provided by the media and how it is represented. The media can increase awareness among public to inform about the studies and ongoing research on specific topic and how it can benefit the public. The campaigns including the mass media can be a huge influence in the public providing science programs on broadcasting channels. Media educate the public by using evidence maps on how nanotechnology works. Evidence maps characterizes and presents arguments in a debate that has both the risky and the safe side of it, difficult information is presented in a clear and logical manner. The best way the media present to the public build a positive perception in the minds of the public. Media attention should focus more on the positive side of the nanotechnology while also not forgetting to shed light on the negative side and how to keep safe about it. Media are encouraged to publish more articles about the nanotechnology to create excitement within the public who will thereafter learn more about the nanoscale technology. Media are also urged to feature televisions shows that have an idea of nanotechnology, this develops interest in school children which will increasingly enable them to develop interest in high-tech technology. Also, media houses are encouraged to invite researchers who will speak to the public leaving them to develop interest due to researcher expressing their interest in an enthusiastic manner.
Strengthening policy and regulation
The examination of nanotechnology on the safety of the products should be legally approved. The implication of nanotechnology should be safe for the public use. Due to the ongoing controversies on nanotechnology, the federal laws and policies regarding the research should be implied more on use allowing the public to know about the policies and regulations which will reduce the exploitation and the risks related to the problems. The support and knowledge of nanotechnology plays a vital role in strengthening the regulations. Government must ensure about the policies and guidelines to be effective for the involvement of public. The regulation also should encourage more research in processes solicitation to encourage project collaborations, also the policy should encourage deep understanding of the nanoscale materials to enable manipulation and controls of nanotechnology. The regulations also should ensure that cultural beliefs, ethical and legal environment are protected. The policy should also provide for the effective education of the researchers and skilled professional dealing with the nanotechnology. Critical analysis methods should be developed to assess nanoparticles in the environment using the machines that analytically monitor the environment. This will block any medium for possible pollution into the environment which will negatively affect the public. Policies regarding the life-cycle analysis of the newly formed nanotechnology products should be deeply researched on including different usage parts. The accurate approximation of the full environmental impact should be established.
Increase clarity and consistency in communication
The nanotechnology should be socially accepted by the public through the communication between consumers and the scientists. The public should be aware about the steps involved in the development and the drawbacks in the technology. This will help the public to understand more about the use and misuse of it. According to the research done in many countries, public still lacks the knowledge of nanotechnology and its principles (Joubert et al., 2019). Public participation is very important to understand the information and value of the technology. There still lies the conflict towards the risk involving nanotechnology raising the question of sustainability. To provide clarity and consistency in communication, the scientific terms should be defined and clearly explained to public which provides them more understanding of what they are dealing with and what does it do (Pidgeon & Rogers-Hayden, 2007). Media should also communicate the impact of the nanotechnology in a coherent manner so that it will attract a positive feedback to the society. Coherent information about the nanotechnology will not only be of valuable impact but will also enable the public to know how to protect themselves in case of the negative side of the nanotechnology which may pose a challenge. The knowledge on the operation of the nanotechnology should be strengthened by educating the public about it. Research about the risk assessment should be communicated to the public in an open manner. Comprehension of the key concepts in nanotechnology is of paramount importance but scientist may not effectively communicate to the public about the nanoscale materials being used. People should be protected from conceptualizing objects they cannot see properly. This will be overcome by clear presentation techniques done by the scientist to this audience. It is also necessary to understand the education level of the public so as to encourage deeper conceptual view of the technology’s concepts being presented in the nanoscale. This encourages effective and clear communication.
Nanotechnology has made great progress in the recent past. The world is so optimistic that the technology will bring desirable changes in the fields of health care, dentistry, and human life in general. Just like all the other technologies, it also has a great risk of being abused and misused on a scale and limit yet to be observed. However, nanotechnology can add a greater number of correspondence methods that cannot be anticipated at present and may exceed proportion creative mind since this innovation in the principal period of examination, especially in the field of media communications designing exploration. Nanotechnology has become advanced since its origin in industrial, medical, food, transportation and many more sectors. New nanotechnologies are being developed which have an increasing impact on our daily lives which modify our life for the better. The usage of distant correspondence is rapidly growing and quickly expanding. It has introduced very crucial platform for communication and substantially impact its operation to meet the highest expectations of the people. Like everything, nano technologies also have cons and effects on the environment as well as the health of the people. But with the communication between the developers and public, the development will be faster and in a safer way. Finally, it appears like the whole world is headed for nanotechnology if all factors remain constant. All factors in this context means in case technology advances at the same pace as it is doing.
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