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I am a student/athlete from The Netherlands, and I am struggling in my World Literature class. My teacher is strict, so I find it hard to get good grades. Because of this, I need someone to write my paper.

The Long Paper Assignment is due April 19. It is based on my literature review. I have attached both documents. It has to be written in MLA.

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Konincks 1

Diego Konincks

Professor T. Truffin


March 19th, 2021

Augustine’s Confessions and Confucius Analects

For my final paper in World Literature 1, I would like to explore the various philosophical thoughts of distinct cultures. A larger part of society is defined and propelled by the individual and social morality developed and expanded to the community members. Moral beauty has since been identified as an exceptional phenomenon critical to the functioning of social institutions. Morality is an aspect that creates peace among the people and, therefore, the ground foundation of civilization. In similar but distinct ways, St. Augustine and Confucius developed the confession and analects teachings that have, in significant ways, influenced the behavior of people across the globe both in ancient times and the world today. The two philosophical thoughts have comprehensively discussed the ethical values expectations in society. However, the two schools of thought are distinguished following different experiences and beliefs as the two philosophers lived in different environments. In such a way, these profound differences are attributed to the contributing factors that help shape the distinct cultures adopted and used in the west and east.

Confucianism’s philosophy is part of the Chinese belief system during ancient times, whose main focus was on the importance of individual ethics and morality. In his beliefs, the philosophy states that ancestor worship and human-centered virtues were adopted for community members to live a peaceful life (Olberding, 2013). Hence, Confucianism believed in transforming selfish leaders into unselfish people to serve as examples of love and unity, and in their influential position, turn wars into peace. Most importantly, the transformation of these leaders is to be done by aligning these leaders’ hearts and minds with the will of the heavens. On the other hand, St. Augustine provides his experiences in an autobiography, which are accompanied by religions explication or other philosophical explanations (Mushtaq, A. St. Augustine’s The Confessions). Confucius, on one hand, believed that the virtue and driving force in human is the truth of life, while Augustine, the truth and heart of all good human receive, comes from God.

Kim, Y. (2017). The politics of historical vision: Use of the past in the Analects. European Journal of Political Theory16(4), 392-410.

According to Kim (2017), Confucianism philosophical thought is essentially developed to guide how individuals embrace and perform their culture, refinement, and virtue. Individuals living in societies guided by Confucianism depict a strong character, because the philosophy is concerned about the good moral practices. In such a way, this dimension allows Confucius recognition as a vision of history following its multiple approaches and rich concept of morality. In this case, the world would enjoy the cosmic harmony. Most importantly, it has been used to challenge adopted but problematic assumptions that intend to block the study and understanding of Confucius’s beliefs. For instance, the early Zhou traditions sought to revive the past ritual practices, limiting the in-depth analysis of how they considerably bring harmony to society. In such a way, it is possible to recognize Confucianism in these ritual performances using agency and self-consciousness in determining their political identity. Conflicting thoughts about the ritual performances prompt members to stray and forget the ancient teachings of peace and love. By understanding the early Zhou practices based on Confucianism, leads to the development of human virtues yielding respect and humility towards individuals. As such, the ritual performance in Confucianism is only designed to promote a respectful attitude and develop a sense of community within the Zhou group.

Hong, J. C., Hwang, M. Y., & Tai, K. H. (2018). The Difference of Teachers’ Beliefs Related to Students’ Practice of Confucian Analects: A Comparison among Three Chinese Fujian Ethnic Regions. In Teacher Education in the 21st Century. IntechOpen.

Chinese societies are commonly characterized by the Confucian cultures mainly because this is where the culture originated. Dialogue communication between Confucius and the disciples are referred to as the Confucian Analects. These form the basic foundation of Confucianism philosophy. In China’s education social institutions, Confucianism’s practice has been integrated as a common cultural practice. This is because Confucianism was implemented as a state ideology in China by the emperor Wu Di. However, the study and application of the Confucianism dialect are different for different students based on political, economic, and social positions. In such a way, the cultural differences impact Chinese educators in viewing the students’ Confucian practices. Therefore, these prevailing conditions of Confucianism learning in the educational settings could be applied to facilitate student’s life fulfillment based on the Confucian philosophy. In different ways, the Chinese education system, through the Confucianism philosophy, promoted education for those who lived in poverty and underprivileged individuals in society.

Olberding, A. (2013). Confucius’ complaints and the analects’ account of the good life. Dao12(4), 417-440.

According to Olberding (2013) the philosophy Confucianism has through the Analects appeared to provide distinct evidence of the experiential qualities on how individuals should lead a virtuous life. The Analects suggestive purpose to provide a guide to readers and general public on the means to cultivate the inner moral human nature and consistently acquire valuable knowledge. These text records seemingly suggest that virtues hold more power to joyous life and protect people from sorrow. However, from Confucian experiences, the text develops some tension based on his complaints. Our understanding of good life helps explain how much an individual’s life is satisfying to them. In Confucian’s case, he was able to win a good life, given that he was able to include in his experiences how he felt. A good life is an everybody’s responsibility and role to fulfill their roles while they remain to be active community members.

Therefore, Confucian as a philosophy insists on the great role played by individual relationships with personal conceptions and esteem. This seeks to promote interconnectivity between members to define one’s characters other than an individualism society nature. Members are expected to in a great way cultivate on increased wisdom, benevolence and righteousness. Such strong character provides for the Confucian etiquette that aimed at providing different forms of moral training so that readers had an equal opportunity to perform moral work, inculcate appropriate dispositions of their cognitive and emotional abilities and provide a personal social perception.

Tornau, C. (2019). Saint Augustine.

Augustine has been recognized as a significant figure in Christianity based on his philosophy of Antiquity. He is an individual who impacted the religious system with the deepest and most influential thoughts (Tornau, 2019). Augustine was a follower of the Catholic Church, and his command in matter theology has been accepted in the East where Christianity did not exist. The west practices Christianity as a tradition, but this has been contested by the sin, freedom, grace and sexuality identification established in the western culture. This contradicts Augustine’s perspective on religion, especially based on his transformation from a worldly person to an individual transformed by his reconciliation with his Divide creator. In most cases, his autobiography has been used as a source of the philosophical traditions allowing pagan religion, social and cultural tradition practices to take place within the Christianity practice. As a result, the west’s contemporary cultural practices have shown little concern of meeting Augustine’s Christianity values for inner divine and reduced human autonomy and the secular world. Most importantly, the richness of his philosophical understanding has constantly fascinated and intrigued readers to appreciate the Divine creator’s presence.

Manning, L., Cassel, D., & Cassel, J. C. (2013). St. Augustine’s reflections on memory and time and the current concept of subjective time in mental time travel. Behavioral Sciences3(2), 232-243.

Manning, Cassel & Cassel (2013) find the significant need to reconstruct the past while society anticipates a better future. As such, it is important for people to travel and work in the mental time to develop a heart consciousness of the things that surround the human phenomenon. This is a necessary element that stands at the center of human cognition to reach out and understand subjective time. The contribution made by St. Augustine confessions in the past has created memorable information that is the most reliable and important meditations. It has completed an impervious move to chronological times so that the confessions remain to valuable source for many to reflect. These mediations prompt an individuals’ ability for self-continuity so that the perspectives allude to beneficial time in realizing that God guided Augustine on the things of the present using the stuff in the future. The purpose of confession was used to help defend his Christianity journey from criticism. He explained how the Christian faith arrived and highlighted the significant beliefs of a true Christian.

Augustine, S. (2013). The Confessions of Saint Augustine, by Saint Augustine. Gutenberg.org. Retrieved 19 March 2021, from https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3296/3296-h/3296-h.htm.

According to Augustine (2013), Augustine was a philosopher most influential in the west who displayed his passion in the book confessions. In an autobiography format, the book described his journey at the beginning of his search for the truth. A truth he felt was connected with a higher power from what humanity provided. The book offered the phases of life through his culminations when he converted into a Christian. It includes Augustine’s infancy and early life as a child, especially when he was sent to study Latin literature. In his adulthood, Augustine is engaged in reading the Platonist books of philosophy, which deepened his understanding of Christianity and society’s evil nature. Augustine’s book of confession is an important opportunity for him to reflect on his life. In such a way, Augustine has depicted a profound philosophical spirit and an in-depth willingness to devotion. Thus, it is a book that allows Augustine to present to his Divine Creator the confession of his heart about the human nature to sin. Besides, it provides profound insights into the biblical doctrine, the general creation, divine nature, human nature, and the intended association between man and God. As such, Augustine is characterized as a thinker who delivered the truth about the spiritual journey in philosophy.

Zhou, X. (2020). An Analysis on the Culture Adaptability of Confucianism and Christianity. In Yearbook of Chinese Theology (pp. 172-184). Brill.

According to Zhou (2020), diffusion and detachment between Confucianism and Christianity are critical characteristics that define the cultural adaptability in the east and west societies. In such a way, the two philosophical thoughts have different formation processes. On one hand, the Confucianism philosophy requires the society to have its teachings diffused into the secular aspects of an individuals’ life. Confucian insists on the importance of education without distinction. On the other hand, Augustine’s Christianity philosophy suggests the significant way of Heaven concepts in a standardized form of practices. Therefore, Christianity’s philosophy allows for adjustment on missionary strategies based on time, culture, and religion.

Jiantao, R. E. N. (2010). A sense of awe: On the differences between Confucian thought and Christianity. Frontiers of Philosophy in China5(1), 111-133.

According to Jiantao (2010), both Confucian and Augustine philosophy includes the essential aspects of reverence, including ethical outlook and sincerity among community members. Confucianism’s thoughts on ethical practice should be based on self-consciousness as guided by a sense of reverence. As such, community members should develop ethical self-awareness, while Christian reverence sense should be established on the divine sense of worship. As such, the two philosophers held different views on self and truth. Confucius believed that the truth about life was having a heart filled with goodness, while Augustine believed that truth was the greater sense of worship to the Divine creator.

Doyle, G. W. (2017). 3 Lit-sen Chang (Zhang Lisheng), Strategy of Missions in the Orient. In Yearbook of Chinese Theology 2017 (pp. 31-50). Brill.

Doyle (2017) provides a Confucianism examination from the Christianity perspective. In such a way, it has developed a Christian understanding as a religious philosophy. For starters, Confucianism from a Christian perspective is not a religion mainly because Confucius did not identify his teachings like those of the ultimate truth like Augustine Confessions. Primarily, Confucius’s teachings were founded on establishing and shaping the character and life of the Chinese people. Therefore, Confucianism promotes the personal and social ethics system so that it was centered around humanity’s virtue.

Reminders about source use:

1. Do NOT use quotations to begin or end paragraphs in the body of a paper

· Topic sentences should be in your words (not quotes)

· Quotes should be followed up with commentary (see below)

2. Introduce your sources

3. Cite your sources

4. Explain/Interpret/Comment On your sources (do not assume that they speak for themselves)

MLA Basics: 8th edition

For more detailed information, see The MLA Handbook For Writers of Research Papers and/or

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01 /

http:// www.lib.campbell.edu/research/refworks

You need to provide citations whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source.

The MLA System has two components: In-text citations keyed to Works Cited Page

In-text citations

· Standard for prose: Author and page number(s) are identified after text (omit author if identified in sentence)

· Winthrop warns Massachusetts Bay Colony settlers not to “worship other gods, our pleasures or our profits, and serve them” (189).

· Poetry: Author and line number(s) are identified after text (omit author if identified in sentence)

· The speaker of “The Prologue” claims that “this maxim’s most sure: / a weak or wounded brain admits no cure” (Bradstreet ll. 23-24).

· If you cite more than one work by one author, use a shortened form of the title from which the citation is drawn.

· Smith writes that “documentation is easy” (Writing 32).

· Smith writes that “MLA is the simplest of the documentation styles” (Documentation 51).

· Online source—use paragraph numbers:

· Smith writes that “documentation is easy” (par. 3).

· Online sources with no author listed are NOT recommended, but if you use them, use a shortened form of the article title, NOT the URL

· One writer says that “documentation is easy” (“MLA advice”)

Works Cited Page

· Appears at the end of the paper on a new page (complete with page numbers)

· Center the words Works Citedan inch from the top of the page

· Begin each entry flush with left margin

· If entry runs more than a line, indent subsequent lines by ½ inch (use hanging indent option in Microsoft Word, located under FormatParagraph)

· In other words, Works Cited entries are NOT indented like paragraphs (just the opposite)

· Double-space everything.

· Put items in alphabetical order by authors’ last names

· Do not number entries.

Common Works Cited Entries


Author. Title of source (Book Title). Other contributors (translators, editors if appropriate), Version (edition if other than the first), Publisher, Publication date.

Foster, Thomas. How To Read Literature Like A Professor. Quill/HarperCollins, 2003.


Author. Title of source (Ebook Title). Other contributors (translators, editors if appropriate), Version (edition if other than the first), Publisher, Publication date. Title of container (who produced the ebook), Location (permalink or doi). Date of access.

Blum, Edward J. W.E.B. Du Bois, American Prophet, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013, Proquest ebrary, http://site.ebrary.com.proxy.campbell.edu/lib/campbellu/reader.action? docID=10748588. Accessed 8 Sept 2020.

Selection in an Edited Book/Anthology

Author. Title of source (“Story or Poem Title.”) Title of container (Book), Other contributors (translators, editors if appropriate), Version (edition if other than the first), Publisher, Publication date, Location (page range).

Valmiki. The Ramayana of ValmikiThe Norton Anthology of World Literature. Translated by Swami Venkatesananda, Edited by Martin Puchner, 4th Shorter Edition, W.W. Norton, 2019. 635-669.

Journal Article accessed through online database

Author. Title of source (“Article Title.”) Title of container (Journal Title), Number (vol., no.), Publication date, Location (page numbers). Title of container (Database). Location (permalink or doi). Date of Access.

Gibson, Donald B. “Strategies and Revisions of Self-Representation in Booker T. Washington’s Autobiographies.” American Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 3, 1993, pp. 370–393. JSTOR www.jstor.org/stable/2713239. Accessed 8 Sept 2020.

Online Professional or Personal Site

Author. Title of source (“Article Title.”) Title of container (Website Title), Publisher, Publication date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. “The Path Forward: Improving Opportunities for African-American Students.” U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation, 10 December 2015, https://www.uschamberfoundation.org/reports/path-forward-improving-opportunities-african-american-students. Accessed 8 Sept 2020

ENGL 205: Long Paper Assignment: 300 pts due by midnight on Friday, April 16

(file must be in DOC, DOCX, or RTF format)

Examining differences between texts often generates significant insight, especially when there is much in

common. For example, while both the Jacob of Genesis and Arjuna come face to face with a divine being,

what do we make of the fact that Jacob wrestled and struggled physically and Arjuna engages in a

philosophical debate?

Your job is to examine two authors/texts and discern what significant meaning is generated by a meaningful

difference. In choosing your texts, you must identify a significant similarity that allows the difference to

highlight a meaningful idea.

In the above example, the significant similarity is that both Genesis and Bhagavad Gita feature characters

having face-to-face meetings with a deity. That similarity marks a significant area of comparison.

The difference between a physical struggle and a mental struggle then is an area of meaningful

comparison. The thesis would be your answer to the question “what do we make of that difference?”

or “what is the significance of that difference?” or “What does that difference teach me?”.

Each student will write a 2,600-word essay (approx. 8 pages, properly formatted) based on one of the

following choices:

1) Narrative

Compare/Contrast TWO of the following:

• Beowulf

• Don Quixote

• Sunjata

• Tale of Genji

• The Thousand and One Nights

2) Poetry

Compare/contrast TWO of the following:

• a selection from The Classic of Poetry

• Francis Petrarch

• A Tang Poet (Li Bo, or Du Fu)

3) Religion/Philosophy

Compare/contrast TWO of the following:

• Augustine’s Confessions

• Bhagavad-Gita

• Confucius Analects

• The Qu’ran


Your paper must…

 be 2,600 words long (NOT COUNTING WORKS CITED PAGE) (approx. 8 pages)

 quote, summarize, and/or paraphrase from the following sources: o the two primary sources—(the literary text or texts you are analyzing) o at least 2 books/ebooks (secondary sources) o at least 5 peer-reviewed articles from scholarly literary journals (only one article from The

Explicator is allowed). Book reviews do not count. (secondary sources)

 have a descriptive title

 provide a reason for comparing the two texts in the introduction

 contain a clear interpretive thesis statement that summarizes your conclusions

o remember that your thesis claim should be specific and significant

 explain and support its main points with specific examples and/or quotations from the texts

 use the alternating format for compare/contrast papers rather than the block format (see below)

 contain unified, coherent, well-developed paragraphs with strong topic sentences

 cite the literary texts in proper MLA documentation format

 be formatted according to the MLA guidelines

 be submitted in Blackboard on time.

Structure Notes for Compare/Contrast Papers

There are two ways to organize compare/contrast papers.

Do NOT use this format:

Block: organized by texts

A. Introduction and Thesis B. Background Information C. Stuff about Text A

a. Point 1 b. Point 2 c. Point 3…

D. Stuff about Text B a. Point 1 b. Point 2 c. Point 3…

E. Conclusion

DO use this format:

Alternating: organized by ideas/points

A. Introduction and Thesis B. Very Brief Background Material, if

appropriate (Background may be historical,

thematic, or theoretical, depending on the

topic selected. Make sure that it is relevant to

the argument that follows).

C. Analysis a. Idea 1 (point of comparison)

i. Discuss BOTH texts. b. Idea 2

i. Discuss BOTH texts. c. and so on…

D. Conclusion

Please note that letters and numbers in this outline refer

to sections of your paper, not paragraphs. Each section

may include one or more paragraphs.

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