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Richard Paul’s Analytical Thinking Model 

Education of thE GiftEd and talEntEd

Sylvia B. Rimm Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and the Family

Achievement Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio

Del Siegle University of Connecticut

Gary A. Davis University of Wisconsin

S e v e n t h E d i t i o n

330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Rimm, Sylvia B., 1935- author. | Siegle, Del, author. | Davis, Gary A., 1938- author. Title: Education of the gifted and talented / Sylvia B. Rimm, Del Siegle, Gary A. Davis. Description: Seventh edition. | Boston : Pearson, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016057606 | ISBN 9780133827101 | ISBN 0133827100 Subjects: LCSH: Gifted children—Education—United States. Classification: LCC LC3993.9 .D38 2018 | DDC 371.95—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016057606

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-382710-1 ISBN-10: 0-13-382710-0https://lccn.loc.gov/2016057606

To Buck, Ilonna, Joe, Miriam, Benjamin and Avi

David, Janet, Dan, and Rachel

Eric, Allison, Hannah, and Isaac, and

Sara, Alan, Sam, and Davida

To Betsy, Jessica, and Del

To Chelsea, Nathan, Tegan, and Neil

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These are the goals of educational programs for gifted and talented students, and these are the purposes of this book. Gifted and talented students have special needs and special issues. They also have special, sometimes immense, talent to lend to society. We owe it to them to help cultivate their abilities. We owe it to society to help prepare tomorrow’s leaders and professional talent. Such students are a tremen- dous natural resource, one that must not be squandered.

New to this editioN

The seventh edition of Education of the Gifted and Tal- ented continues the tradition of engaging readers in the mission of educating and inspiring gifted children. How- ever, this seventh edition has many major updates, and approximately 30% of the content is new:

●● Learning outcomes have been added to set advance organizers for every chapter. These will assist stu- dents in targeting main issues for study.

●● Although directions and definitions for gifted educa- tion have always been in flux, three new important directions by leaders in the field have been added to Chapter 1.

●● New issues and research for identification of under- served groups are addressed in both Chapters 3 and 13.

●● Many districts are leveraging Response to Interven- tion (RtI) to provide services for gifted students (see Chapter 6). Push-in programs are also gaining popularity. Technology is also playing a more important role in meeting the educational needs of gifted students.

●● New models are surfacing to provide services to gifted students. The Advanced Academic Program Development Model focuses on a system for align- ing the identification process to the academic ser- vices that gifted students need (see Chapter 7). The CLEAR Model combines elements from Tomlinson, Kaplan, Renzulli, and Reis’s work to create units that allow students to explore authentic, unanswered questions in meaningful ways.

●● Our understanding of creativity as big-c and little-c is expanded to include mini-c and pro-c as we exam- ine how creativity manifests itself differently across time and within individuals’ lives (see Chapter 9). Synectics methods can be used in the classroom to enhance students’ creative thinking as well as to help students understand content at a deeper level.

●● Gifted educators accustomed to Bloom’s taxonomy will enjoy aligning their questioning and learning activ- ities to Marzano and Kendall’s new thinking taxonomy based on a hierarchy of complexity (see Chapter 10).

●● Chapter 14, formerly called the “Cultural Undera- chievement of Gifted Females,” has been the most revised chapter in every edition, and this seventh edi- tion is no exception. Even the title has changed—to “Gifted Girls. Gifted Boys”—and the chapter now includes specific issues related to gifted boys as well as fully updated data and recommendations for gifted girls.

●● The latest results of research about underserved gifted children, provided by the National Center for Research on Gifted Education (funded by the Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Student Education Act [P.L. 100-297]) is included in Chapter 13.

To provide programs to help meet the psychological, social, educational, and career needs of gifted and talented students.

To help students become capable of intelligent choices, independent learning, problem solv- ing, and self-initiated action.

To strengthen skills and abilities in problem solving, creative thinking, communication, independent study, and research.

To reinforce individual interests.

To bring capable and motivated students together for support and intellectual stimulation.

To maximize learning and individual development—while minimizing boredom, confusion, and frustration.

In sum, to help gifted students realize their potential and their contributions to self and society.


vi Preface

●● Important new specific communications from the National Office for Special Education provided reas- suring reminders that the discrepancy concept can continue to be used for qualifying gifted students for special education programs based on learning disa- bilities (see Chapter 15).

●● Counseling gifted children to find their passions has become an omnipresent fashion. Even the media has joined in. Chapter 17 reminds counselors to encour- age interests and engagement instead of passions, which can sometimes become unrealistically high expectations for adolescents.

●● Speirs, Neumeister, and Burney propose a new four- step model for conducting an internal evaluation. Their evaluation process is governed by an evalua- tion committee (see Chapter 18).

CyCliC Nature of Gifted eduCatioN

The aftermath of the launching of the Russian satellite Sputnik initiated huge excitement about cultivating gifted children’s minds. Although there was an amazing new interest in talent development, it was brief. That interest was rekindled in the mid-1970s, at which time enthusiasm for accommodating the education needs of gifted and tal- ented children truly began its climb to higher levels, with greater public awareness than ever before. Federal state- ments, definitions, and funds appeared. States passed leg- islation that formalized the existence and needs of gifted students and often provided funds for state directors, teachers, and programs. Cities and districts hired gifted- program directors and teacher-coordinators who designed and implemented identification, acceleration, and enrich- ment plans. In many schools and classrooms where help from the outside did not appear, enthusiastic teachers planned challenging and beneficial projects and activities for gifted students in their classes.

Although progress continued in the mid-1980s, the gifted movement was pressured by society to also step backward. As we describe in Chapter 1, the problem was a reborn commitment to equity—helping troubled students become more average. Some school districts trashed their gifted programs along with tracking and grouping plans. Although efforts to promote equity and efforts to support high-ability students in order to encourage excellence are not necessarily incompatible, many educators perceived gifted programs as unfair to average students and conse- quently pitched the baby with the bathwater.

A second and smaller backward step was the coop- erative learning style of teaching. Cooperative learning groups certainly supply academic and social benefits for most children, but often not for gifted ones. Whereas gifted

students benefit from opportunities for collaboration, they need advanced academic work; challenging independent projects that develop creativity, thinking skills, and habits of independent work; and grouping with gifted peers to accommodate their education and social needs. They should not be required to work at a too-slow pace or to serve only as teachers to others in the group.

A third factor that always takes its toll for gifted pro- grams is simply the economy. When the going gets tough, gifted programs—viewed by critics as elitist luxuries for “students who don’t need help” or even “welfare for the rich”—are among the first to be cut.

Although damage continues, gifted education is resilient. In many schools and districts, it is healthier than ever. At least four events have aided the survival and even growth of gifted education. First, some schools and dis- tricts, for the most part, ignored the reform movement and steamed ahead with differentiated instruction for gifted students. Research shows that such resilience is most likely to exist if two disarmingly simple features are present: enthusiastic teachers and administrators and/or state legis- lation that requires gifted services.

Second, grouping based on ability or achievement remains alive and well at all education levels (Kulik, 2003). Special classes in high school (e.g., AP and honors classes) and grouping in the elementary school (especially for math and reading) continue in nearly every individual school. Attendance at community colleges and local uni- versities for high school students has expanded.

Third is the move toward improving education for all students—including high-ability ones. This move is partly a response to the reform movement and can come under the talent development banner. For example, differ- entiated curriculum and high-level activities such as think- ing skills and creativity are brought into the regular classroom, and strategies for identifying gifted students are becoming more flexible. Renzulli’s Schoolwide Enrichment Model (described in Chapter 7) exemplifies this trend.

A fourth, twofold dramatic change emerged after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Although funneling money toward national defense caused funding for gifted education to be in short supply, there has been greater recognition of the need for science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) inno- vation to support national security since 2001. Expansion of foreign-language learning has also been prioritized in order to promote understanding of the cultures and goals of both allied nations and groups that might do us harm. The cycling continues as we experience a déjà vu of the post-Sputnik times mentioned earlier, but it has also moved forward. Today’s education of the gifted and talented

Preface vii

places much greater emphasis on creativity, innovation, and the applications of significant research findings related to successful gifted education.

our appreCiatioN

The authors wish to thank Marie Cookson, Melissa Lampe, and Barb Gregory, editorial assistants to Sylvia Rimm, for their ever-helpful organizational and editorial contribu- tions. We would like to thank Ashley Carpenter, Susan Dulong Langley, and Maggie Haberlein for their assistance with the references; Susan Dulong Langley for her assis- tance compiling the learning objectives for each chapter; the Pearson Education staff, including Janelle Rogers, Program Manager, Teacher Education and Workforce

Readiness, and Kevin Davis, Director of Editorial and Portfolio Manager; and the Aptara team, including Pat Walsh, Supervisory Project Manager, Erica Gordon, Project Manager, Rights and Permissions, and Rakhshinda Chishty, Full-Service Project Manager. A special thank you goes to Julie Scardiglia for her kind and patient assis- tance with permissions and changes. Also, we appreciate Marianne L’Abbate’s careful editing during the production stage. The authors also wish to extend their appreciation to the many families with gifted children who supplied real- life examples, as well as to teachers of the gifted who con- tributed their continuing experiences. Finally, we are indebted and appreciative to our own families for their encouragement, support, and experiences that helped enrich our text.

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Brief contents

Preface v

chapter 1 Gifted Education: Matching Instruction with Needs 1 chapter 2 Characteristics of Gifted Students 23 chapter 3 Identifying Gifted and Talented Students 40 chapter 4 Program Planning 70 chapter 5 Acceleration 93 chapter 6 Grouping, Differentiation, and Enrichment 114 chapter 7 Curriculum Models 140 chapter 8 Creativity I: The Creative Person, Creative Process, and Creative

Dramatics 161 chapter 9 Creativity II: Teaching for Creative Growth 175 chapter 10 Teaching Thinking Skills 195 chapter 11 Leadership, Affective Learning, and Character Education 218 chapter 12 Underachievement: Identification and Reversal 232 chapter 13 Cultural Diversity and Economic Disadvantage: The Invisible Gifted 260 chapter 14 Gifted Girls, Gifted Boys 287 chapter 15 Gifted Children with Disabilities 306 chapter 16 Parenting the Gifted Child 326 chapter 17 Understanding and Counseling Gifted Students 347 chapter 18 Program Evaluation 372

References 391 Name Index 441 Subject Index 450


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preface v

Chapter 1 Gifted education: Matching instruction with needs 1 History of Giftedness and Gifted Education 3 Contemporary History of Gifted Education 4 National Center for Research on Gifted Education 9 Definitions of Giftedness 11 Explanations and Interpretations of Giftedness and Intelligence 13

Summary 21

Chapter 2 characteristics of Gifted students 23 The Terman Studies 23 Traits of Intellectually Gifted Children 26 Affective Characteristics 27 Characteristics of the Creatively Gifted 30 Characteristics of Historically Eminent Persons 31 Characteristics of Teachers of the Gifted 36

Summary 38

Chapter 3 identifying Gifted and talented students 40 Thoughts and Issues in Identification 41 National Report on Identification 44 Identification Methods 44 Assessment of Gardner’s Eight Intelligences 54 Triarchic Abilities Test 54 A Multidimensional Culture-Fair Assessment Strategy 55 Talent Pool Identification Plan: Renzulli 55 Identifying Gifted Preschoolers 56 Identifying Gifted Secondary Students 56 Recommendations from the National Report on Identification and NRC/GT 58 Considering the Goals of Identification 61

Summary 61    •    Appendix 3.1: NAGC Position Statement 63    •    Appendix 3.2: Spanish Edition of Rimm’s (1976) GIFT Creativity Inventory 64    •    Appendix 3.3: Teacher Nomination Form 65    •    Appendix 3.4: Teacher Nomination Form 66    •    Appendix 3.5: Student Product Assessment Form 67    •    Appendix 3.6: Rubrics for Verbal and Problem- Solving Tasks 68    •    Appendix 3.7: Scales for Rating Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students 69

Chapter 4 Program Planning 70 Main Components of Program Planning 71 Program Planning: Sixteen Areas 73 The View from the School Board 85


xii Contents

Perspectives of Other Teachers 86 Curriculum Considerations 88 Legal Issues in Gifted Education 88

Summary 90    •    Appendix 4.1: Ideas for Statements of Philosophy, Rationale, and Objectives 91    •    Appendix 4.2: National Standards for Preparation of Teachers of the Gifted 92

Chapter 5 acceleration 93 Acceleration versus Enrichment 95 A Nation Deceived and a Nation Empowered—Definitive Research on Acceleration 96 Types of Acceleration 98 Grade Skipping 102 Subject Skipping and Acceleration 104 Early Admission to Middle or Senior High School 105 Credit by Examination 105 College Courses in High School 105 Advanced Placement 106 Distance Learning 106 Telescoped Programs 106 Early Admission to College 107 Residential High Schools 107 International Baccalaureate Programs 108 Talent Search Programs 109

Summary 111    •    Appendix 5.1: College Board Offices 112    •    Appendix 5.2: Talent Search and Elementary Talent Search Programs 112

Chapter 6 Grouping, Differentiation, and enrichment 114 Grouping Options: Bringing Gifted Students Together 115 Differentiation 121 Enrichment 125 Independent Study, Research, and Art Projects 126 Learning Centers 128 Field Trips 128 Saturday Programs 128 Summer Programs 129 Mentors and Mentorships 130 Junior Great Books 131 Competitions 132 Technology and the Gifted 134 Comments on Grouping, Differentiation, and Enrichment 136

Summary 136    •    Appendix 6.1: Places That Publish Student Work 138

Chapter 7 curriculum Models 140 Schoolwide Enrichment Model: Renzulli and Reis 141 Autonomous Learner Model: Betts 146

Contents xiii

Advanced Academic Program Development Model: Peters, Matthews, McBee, and McCoach 147 Purdue Three-Stage Enrichment Model: Feldhusen et al. 148 Parallel Curriculum Model: Tomlinson, Kaplan, Renzulli, Purcell, Leppien, and Burns 150 Multiple Menu Model: Renzulli 152 Integrated Curriculum Model: VanTassel-Baska 154 Mentoring Mathematical Minds Model: Gavin et al. 155 The Grid: Constructing Differentiated Curriculum for the Gifted: Kaplan 156 CLEAR Model: Callahan et al. 157 Comment 159

Summary 159

Chapter 8 creativity i: the creative Person, creative Process, and creative Dramatics 161 Theories of Creativity 161 Levels of Creativity 163 Creative Persons 164 Creative Abilities 166 The Creative Process 167 The Creative Process as a Change in Perception 170 Creative Dramatics 170

Summary 173

Chapter 9 creativity ii: teaching for creative Growth 175 Can Creativity Be Taught? 175 Goals of Creativity Training 176 Creativity Consciousness, Creative Attitudes, and Creative Personality Traits 176 Understanding the Topic of Creativity 178 Strengthening Creative Abilities 180 Personal Creative Thinking Techniques 182 Standard Creative Thinking Techniques 184 Involving Students in Creative Activities 191 Creative Teaching and Learning 192

Summary 193

Chapter 10 teaching thinking skills 195 Issues 196 Indirect Teaching, Direct Teaching, and Metacognition 197 Types of Thinking Skills 199 Critical Thinking 201 Models, Programs, and Exercises for Teaching Thinking Skills 202 Philosophy for Children: Lipman 208 Talents Unlimited 209 Instrumental Enrichment: Feuerstein 209 Critical Thinking Books and Technology 211

Involving Parents as Partners in Teaching Thinking Skills 214 Obstacles to Effective Thinking 215 Selecting Thinking-Skills Exercises and Materials 215

Summary 216

Chapter 11 Leadership, affective Learning, and character education 218 Leadership 219 Leadership Definitions: Traits, Characteristics, and Skills 219 Leadership Training 220 Affective Learning 223 Self-Concept 223 Moral Development: The Kohlberg Model 225 Materials and Strategies for Encouraging Affective Growth 228 The Humanistic Teacher 229

Summary 230

Chapter 12 Underachievement: identification and reversal 232 Definition and Identification of Underachievement 233 Characteristics of Underachieving Gifted Children 237 Etiologies of Underachievement 243 Family Etiology 243 School Etiology 248 Reversal of Underachievement 252

Summary 258

Chapter 13 cultural Diversity and economic Disadvantage: the invisible Gifted 260 Legislation 261 Special Needs 262 Factors Related to Success for Disadvantaged Youth 264 Identification 266 Programming for Gifted Students Who are Culturally Different 273 Gifted Programming in Rural Areas 282

Summary 284

Chapter 14 Gifted Girls, Gifted Boys 287 Gifted Girls 287 Historical Background 288 Present Status of Women 289 Gifted Boys 293 Sex Differences or Gender Differences 293 Mathematics Abilities 296 Differences in Expectations, Achievement Orientation, and Aspirations 299 Reversing Gender-Based Underachievement 303

Summary 304

xiv Contents

Chapter 15 Gifted children with Disabilities 306 Needs of Gifted Students with Disabilities 306 Identification 310 Critical Ingredients of Programs for Gifted Children with Disabilities 317 Reducing Communication Limitations 318 Self-Concept Development 319 High-Level Abstract Thinking Skills 322 Parenting Children with Disabilities 323

Summary 324

Chapter 16 Parenting the Gifted child 326 Parenting by Positive Expectations 326 Some Special Parenting Concerns 327 Preschool Children 336 Nontraditional Parenting 339 Parent Support Groups and Advocacy 342 Teaching Teens Self-Advocacy 344 Parents as Teachers—Home Schooling Gifted Children 344

Summary 345    •    Appendix 16.1: National Gifted and Talented Educational Organizations 346

Chapter 17 Understanding and counseling Gifted students 347 Historical Background 349 Personal and Social Issues 349 Perfectionism 353 Emotional Sensitivity and Overexcitability 355 Gifted and Gay 357 Gifted and Overweight 358 Depression and Suicide 360 Career Guidance and Counseling 361 Strategies for Counseling Gifted Students 363 Stress Management 365 Developing a Counseling Program for Gifted Students 367 Comment 369

Summary 369    •    Appendix 17.1: Recommended Reading for Counselors, Administrators, and Teachers 371

Chapter 18 Program evaluation 372 Why Must Programs Be Evaluated? 372 Evaluation Design: Begin at the Beginning 373 Evaluation Models 373 Complexity of Evaluation and Audience: A Hierarchy 377 Instrument Selection 379 Test Construction 380

Contents xv

Daily Logs 383 Indicators 383 Student Self-Evaluations 383 Performance Contracting 383 Commitment to Evaluation 384

Summary 384    •    Appendix 18.1: Example of a Structured Observation Form 385    •    Appendix 18.2: Example of a Classroom Observation Form 386    •    Appendix 18.3: Administrator Survey 389

References 391

Name Index 441

Subject Index 450

xvi Contents


1 Gifted Education Matching Instruction with Needs

Learning OutcOmes

1. Summarize the evolution of giftedness and gifted education from ancient through modern times.

2. Analyze how key individuals, ideas, and events shaped the contemporary history of gifted education.

3. Assess the importance of the National Center for Research on Gifted Education.

4. Recommend a defensible definition of giftedness.

5. Compare and contrast the range of explanations and interpretations of giftedness and intelligence.


T ens of thousands of gifted and talented children and adolescents continue to sit in their classrooms—their abilities unrecognized, their needs unmet. Some are bored, patiently waiting for peers to learn skills and concepts that they had mastered one or two years earlier. Some find school intolerable, feigning illness or

creating other excuses to avoid the trivia. Many develop poor study habits from the slow pace and lack of chal- lenge. Some feel pressured to hide their keen talents and skills from uninterested and unsympathetic peers. Some give up on school entirely, dropping out as soon as they are legally able. Some educators have called it a “quiet crisis” (Renzulli & Park, 2002).

Other gifted students tolerate school but satisfy their intellectual, creative, and artistic needs outside the for- mal system. The lucky ones have parents who sponsor their dance or music lessons, microscopes, telescopes, computers, art supplies, and frequent trips to libraries and museums. The less fortunate ones make do as best they can, silently paying a price for a predicament they may not understand and that others choose to ignore. That price is lost academic growth; lost creative potential; and, sometimes, lost enthusiasm for educational success, eventual professional achievement, and substantial contributions to society.

Some educators—and many parents of nongifted students—are not swayed by the proposition that unrecog- nized and unsupported talent is wasted talent. A common reaction is, “Those kids will make it on their own,” or “Give the extra help to kids who really need it!” The argument is that providing special services for highly able or talented students is “elitist”—giving to the haves and ignoring the have-nots—and therefore unfair and undemo- cratic. Other criticisms refer to the costs of additional teachers and other resources and to the idea that pullout programs or special classes remove good role models from the regular classroom. Many teachers feel that students should adjust to the curriculum rather than the other way around (Coleman & Cross, 2000).

Naming the problem “sounds of silence,” Sternberg (1996) itemized dismal ways in which society reacts to the needs of the gifted. Specifically, federal funding is almost absent. Few laws protect the rights of the gifted, in contrast with many laws protecting children with special needs. Gifted programs tend to be the last

2 Chapter 1

installed and the first axed. Disgruntled parents register their gifted children in private schools, but most can’t afford them.

Some see gifted programs as “welfare for the rich.” Average children are the majority, and their parents prefer not to support other parents’ “pointy-headed” bright chil- dren. Besides, don’t gifted children possess great potential without special support? Some critics of gifted programs believe that gifted students are inherently selfish and that parents of the gifted at PTA meetings are “the loudest and least deserving.”

Gifted children are indeed our most valuable natural resource. We must recognize multiple forms of giftedness. We must recognize alternative learning styles, thinking styles, and patterns of abilities and coordinate instruction with these characteristics in mind. Programs need to be expanded and evaluated. Everyone—parents, teachers, administrators, and others—must be educated about the needs of our gifted children.

Currently, some criticisms of gifted education include a strong spark of conscience-rending truth. In fact, White, middle-income, and Asian students tend to be over- represented in gifted and talented (G/T) programs, whereas African American, Hispanic, and low-income students are underrepresented. The problem is drawing strong attention to identification strategies, with a move toward multiple and culturally fair identification criteria (Chapter 3); to broadened conceptions of intelligence and giftedness (later in this chapter); and even to G/T program evaluation (Chapter 18) in the sense of assessing effects on students not in the program, other teachers, administrators, and the larger community (Borland, 2003).

Our love-hate relationship with gifted education has been noted by Gallagher (1997, 2003), Colangelo and Davis (2003), and others. We admire and applaud the indi- vidual who rises from a humble background to high educa- tional and career success. At the same time, as a nation, we are committed to equality.

The educational pendulum swings back and forth between strong concern for excellence and a zeal for equity, that is, between helping bright and creative students develop their capabilities and realize their potential contri- butions to society, and helping below-average and troubled students reach minimum academic standards. Although interest in the gifted has mushroomed worldwide since the mid-1970s, the pendulum swung forcefully back to equity during the final years of the 20th century and the first years of the 21st century. Programs for the gifted were being terminated because they were not “politically correct,” because of budget cutting, because of the lack of support- ive teachers and administrators, and because gifted education was not mandated by the particular state.

The  Philanthropy Roundtable has made efforts toward attracting “Wise Giv

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