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INSTRUCTIONS: 

The purpose of this essay is to allow you to further engage with our assigned readings about historical developments in 20the century Latin America. Choose and answer ONE of the 

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prompts below. If you would like to write about a topic of your choosing, please email me to get my 

approval.

FORMAT: 

The essay should be 4-6 pages long, in Times New Roman 12-point font, double-spaced, and in Word.

SOURCES:

For this essay you should use the textbook, the primary source, and any audiovisual 

materials assigned in our class. 

Do not use any outside sources without consulting me.

CITATION: 

Your essays must use proper in-text citation that demonstrates where your information is 

drawn from. Remember that you need to use citation even if you are not using a direct quote. For example, if you are paraphrasing a section of the textbook, you should still include an in-text citation. When in doubt, provide citation.

You may use any style of citation you are most familiar with – such as MLA, APA or Chicago style – as long as you use it consistently throughout the paper. 

PLAGIARISM: 

Plagiarism is defined as “[t]he adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements 

of another person as one’s own without acknowledgment.” This would include, for example, copying or substantially restating the published, unpublished, or on-line work of another person without appropriate attribution. Plagiarism can include insufficient paraphrasing, even if the source is attributed. For the purpose of this class, I will use an “eight word rule,” meaning that if eight consecutive verbatim words are taken from a text without direct quotes, I will consider that to be insufficient paraphrase.

 Prompt Option #2: New Song and the Revolutionary 1960s in Latin American

The 1960s were considered a “revolutionary decade” in Latin America and around the world. One reflection of the cultural sensibility of the 1960s can be found in a genre called New Song (Nueva Cancion) or sometimes Protest Song, which was popular in Latin America in that decade. For this option, you should write an essay that analyzes this musical genre and shows how it reflects the politics of the 1960s in Chile.

For this option, you should analyze the lyrics of at least three songs from the period. You may choose from the ones that I suggest, or you can identify your own. Using the English translation of the lyrics, identify and analyze one or more underlying themes (for example, poverty, US imperialism, Latin American unity, or the inevitability of revolution). Be sure to connect those themes to the readings we have done about what was happening in Latin America in the 1960s – i.e. the historical context in which this music was made. To do so you must use our textbook and include in-text citation when appropriate. Remember that the purpose of this option is to use music as a window onto the politics of the 1960s and ‘70s.

You can use the song lyrics available on our Classes page in the Primary Documents folder:

    Carlos Puebla “En eso llegó Fidel”

    Inti Illimani, “Simón Bolivar

    Daniel Vigletti, “A Desalambrar”

    Mercedes Sosa, “Solo le pido a Dios”

You can also use the list of songs below, with links to the lyrics in English. You can find many recordings of these songs on YouTube.

    Victor Jara (Chile), “El Aparecido/The Apparition” (https://www.musixmatch.com/lyrics/Victor-Jara/El-aparecido/translation/english)

    Atahualpa Yupanqui (Argentina), “Basta ya/Enough!” (lyrics available in English https://lyricstranslate.com/en/basta-ya-enough.html-2)

    Mercedes Sosa (Argentina), “Si se calla el cantor/If the singer is silenced” (lyrics available in English https://lyricstranslate.com/en/si-se-calla-el-cantor-if-singer-goes-quiet.html)

Secondary sources:

    Thomas C. Wright, Latin America since Independence, especially chapters

    The documentary film Mercedes Sosa: The Voice of Latin America available on Kanopy

Primary sources:

    Song lyrics (available on our Classes page and in links above)

INSTRUCTIONS:

The purpose of this essay is to allow you to further engage with our assigned readings about historical developments in 20the century Latin America. Choose and answer ONE of the

prompts below. If you would like to write about a topic of your choosing, please email me to get my

approval.

FORMAT:

The essay should be 4-6 pages long, in Times New Roman 12-point font, double-spaced, and in Word.

SOURCES:

For this essay you should use the textbook, the primary source, and any audiovisual

materials assigned in our class.

Do not use any outside sources without consulting me.

CITATION:

Your essays must use proper in-text citation that demonstrates where your information is

drawn from. Remember that you need to use citation even if you are not using a direct quote. For example, if you are paraphrasing a section of the textbook, you should still include an in-text citation. When in doubt, provide citation.

You may use any style of citation you are most familiar with – such as MLA, APA or Chicago style – as long as you use it consistently throughout the paper.

PLAGIARISM:

Plagiarism is defined as “[t]he adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements

of another person as one’s own without acknowledgment.” This would include, for example, copying or substantially restating the published, unpublished, or on-line work of another person without appropriate attribution. Plagiarism can include insufficient paraphrasing, even if the source is attributed. For the purpose of this class, I will use an “eight word rule,” meaning that if eight consecutive verbatim words are taken from a text without direct quotes, I will consider that to be insufficient paraphrase.

Prompt Option #2: New Song and the Revolutionary 1960s in Latin American

The 1960s were considered a “revolutionary decade” in Latin America and around the world. One reflection of the cultural sensibility of the 1960s can be found in a genre called New Song (Nueva Cancion) or sometimes Protest Song, which was popular in Latin America in that decade. For this option, you should write an essay that analyzes this musical genre and shows how it reflects the politics of the 1960s in Chile.

For this option, you should analyze the lyrics of at least three songs from the period. You may choose from the ones that I suggest, or you can identify your own. Using the English translation of the lyrics, identify and analyze one or more underlying themes (for example, poverty, US imperialism, Latin American unity, or the inevitability of revolution). Be sure to connect those themes to the readings we have done about what was happening in Latin America in the 1960s – i.e. the historical context in which this music was made. To do so you must use our textbook and include in-text citation when appropriate. Remember that the purpose of this option is to use music as a window onto the politics of the 1960s and ‘70s.

You can use the song lyrics available on our Classes page in the Primary Documents folder:

Carlos Puebla “En eso llegó Fidel”

Inti Illimani, “Simón Bolivar

Daniel Vigletti, “A Desalambrar”

Mercedes Sosa, “Solo le pido a Dios”

You can also use the list of songs below, with links to the lyrics in English. You can find many recordings of these songs on YouTube.

Victor Jara (Chile), “El Aparecido/The Apparition” (https://www.musixmatch.com/lyrics/Victor-Jara/El-aparecido/translation/english)

Atahualpa Yupanqui (Argentina), “Basta ya/Enough!” (lyrics available in English https://lyricstranslate.com/en/basta-ya-enough.html-2)

Mercedes Sosa (Argentina), “Si se calla el cantor/If the singer is silenced” (lyrics available in English https://lyricstranslate.com/en/si-se-calla-el-cantor-if-singer-goes-quiet.html)

Secondary sources:

Thomas C. Wright, Latin America since Independence, especially chapters

The documentary film Mercedes Sosa: The Voice of Latin America available on Kanopy

Primary sources:

Song lyrics (available on our Classes page and in links above)

“Solo le pido a Dios,” written by León Gieco 1978, performed by Mercedes Sosa

Solo le pido a Dios  Que el dolor no me sea indiferente Que la reseca  Muerta no me encuentre  Vacio y solo sin haber hecho lo suficiente

Solo le pido a Dios  Que lo injusto no me sea indiferente Que no me abofeteen la otra mejilla  Despues que una garra me araño esta suerte

Solo le pido a Dios  Que la guerra no me sea indiferente

Es un monstruo grande y pisa fuerte  Toda la pobre inocencia de la gente solo de Armonica

Solo le pido a Dios  Que el engaño no me sea indiferente  Si un traidor puede mas que unos cuantos Que esos cantos no lo olviden facilmente

Solo le pido a Dios  Que el futuro no me sea indiferente Desahuciado esta el que tiene que marchar  A vivir una cultura diferente

I only ask of God

That I not be indifferent to pain,

That death won’t find me

Empty and alone without having done enough

I only ask of God

That I not be indifferent to injustice

That they will not slap my other cheek

After a claw has scratched this destiny of mine

I only ask of God

That I not be indifferent to struggle,

It is a big monster stomp and walks on

All the poor innocence of people.

I only ask of God

That I not be indifferent to deception

If a traitor can do more than a few (?),

That those few do not forget easily.

I only ask of God

That I not be indifferent to the future,

Hopeless is he who has to go

To live in a different culture.

Inti Illimani, “Simón Bolívar” (Chile, 1973)

Simón Bolívar, Simón, caraqueño americano, el suelo venezolano le dio la fuerza a tu voz. Simón Bolívar, Simón, nació de tu Venezuela y por todo el tiempo vuela como candela tu voz. Como candela que va señalando un rumbo cierto en este suelo cubierto de muertos con dignidad. Simón Bolívar, Simón, revivido en las memorias que abrió otro tiempo la historia, te espera el tiempo Simón. Simón Bolívar, razón, razón del pueblo profunda, antes que todo se hunda vamos de nuevo Simón. Simón Bolívar, Simón, en el sur la voz amiga, es la voz de José Artigas que también tenía razón.

Simon Bolivar, Simon, American of Caracas, the Venezuelan soil gave strength to your voice Simon Bolivar, Simon, born in your Venezuela and may your voice fly like a candle for all times Simon Bolivar, Simon, revived in our memories history has opened a new era, the time is waiting for you, Simon Simon Bolivar, the truth, the truth of our profound people before everything collapses let’s start anew, Simon Simon Bolivar, Simon there is a friendly voice in the south it is the voice of Jose Artigas [an Independence leader from Uruguay] who also held the truth.

Carlos Puebla, “En Eso Llegó Fidel” (And then Fidel Arrived), Cuba (circa 1960)

Aquí pensaban seguir ganando el ciento por cierto con casas de apartamentos y echar al pueblo a sufrir y seguir de modo cruel contra el pueblo conspirando para seguirlo explotando y en esto llegó Fidel.Y se acabó la diversión, llegó el comandante y mandó a parar.Aquí pensaban seguir tragando y tragando tierra sin sospechar que en la sierra se alumbraba el porvenir y seguir de modo cruel la costumbre del delito hacer de Cuba un garito y en eso llegó FidelAquí pensaban seguir diciendo que los cuatreros, forajidos, bandoleros asolaban al país Y seguir de modo cruel con la infamia por escudo difamando a los barbudos, y en eso llegó Fidel.Aquí pensaban seguir jugando a la democracia y el pueblo que en su desgracia se acabara de morir Y seguir de modo cruel sin cuidarse ni la forma, con el robo como norma, y en eso llegó Fidel.They were planning to stay on here earning 100% (on their investments) with apartment houses and the like while the people suffered and to continue in a cruel manner conspiring against the people to stay on exploiting it and then Fidel arrivedAnd that was the end of the party the commander arrived and ordered (all that) to stopThey were planning to stay on here, taking in more and more land without suspecting that in the mountains the future was lightning up and to continue in a cruel manner the custom of crime to turn Cuba into a gambling den and then Fidel arrived.They were planning to stay on here saying that cattle thieves, outlaws, highwaymen, were destroying the country, and to continue in a cruel way with infamy as their shield defaming the bearded ones, and that’s when Fidel arrived.They were planning to stay on here playing democracy and the people in their misery were to end up their days and to continue in a cruel way without even bothering with appearances with theft as their norm, and that’s when Fidel arrived.

Daniel Vigletti, “A Desalambrar” [Let’s tear down the fences]

From the album Canciones para mi America [Songs for My America], Uruguay, 1960s.

Yo pregunto a los presentes Si no se han puesto a pensar Que esta tierra es de nosotros Y no del que tenga mas

Yo pregunto si en la tierra Nunca habra pensado usted Que si las manos son nuestras Es nuestro lo que nos den

A desalambrar, a desalambrar Que la tierra es nuestra Es tuya y de aquel De Pedro y Maria De Juan y Jose

Si molesto con mi canto A alguno que ande por alli

Le aseguro que es un gringo O un dueno del Uruguay

A desalambrar, a desalambrar Que la tierra es nuestra Es tuya y de aqul De Pedro y Maria De Juan y Jose

A desalambrar, a desalambrar Que la tierra es nuestra Es tuya y de aquel De Pedro y Maria De Juan y Jose

I ask those present

if they haven’t begun to think

that this land belongs to us

and not to the man who has most.

I ask if you never

would have thought of the land,

that if these hands are ours,

what they give us is ours.

Let’s tear down the fences,

The land is ours, yours, his,

Pedro and Maria’s, Juan and Jose’s.

If I annoy anyone with my song

someone that walks through here,

I assure you that he is a gringo

or an Uruguayan landlord.

Let’s tear down the fences

The land is ours, yours, his

Pedro and Maria’s, Juan and Jose’s

Let’s tear down the fences

The land is ours, yours, his

Pedro and Maria’s, Juan and Jose’s

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