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APA 7th Edition Formatting- Title Page and References

Title page, reference page, and in-text citations are completed correctly 

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APA 7th Edition Formatting- Font, spacing, headers, margins

12 point Times font, double-spaced, headers formatted correctly

Purpose of article

Description of participants and setting of study

Should include age, functioning level, diagnoses, gender of participants. Where did study take place?

Design of study

What type of single case design was used to evaluate the treatment? (e.g., reversal, MBL)

Target behaviors

List the dependent variables (which are the target behaviors) AND operationally define the behaviors

Overview of Procedures

Explain/summarize the procedures. This should be written so that once I read it, I am able to know what happened in baseline, in treatment A, in treatment B, etc. Should be about a paragraph or so.

Results

MOST IMPORTANT PART! You should explain to me what happened in the graphs shown in the article. Walk me through what happened to the target behavior for the participant’s across baseline, treatment, reversal, follow-up, etc.

NEED TO VISUALLY ANALYZE THE DATA-tell me what happened with level, trend, variability,

Should be about 1-2 paragraphs.

Limitations

List at least 2 limitations to the study/findings. The authors usually list at least 2 in the article.

Implications

Tell me what this study and these findings added to the body of literature on the topic in particular but also to the field. Why does this study matter? What made it special enough to be published?

Chapter 4: Supervising a Diverse Workforce

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:

Define the concept of workforce diversity and identify the major categories of legally protected employees and general guidelines for supervising a diverse workforce.

Explain the issues involved in supervising racial or ethnic minority employees.

Discuss factors that are particularly important when supervising female employees.

Identify and discuss the legal and other considerations of supervising employees with physical and mental disabilities.

Discuss the considerations of supervising older workers and managing an intergenerational workforce.

4–2

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO: (cont.)

Provide examples of religious accommodation.

Describe the unique challenges of supervising globally dispersed employees.

Recognize several pressures faced by supervisors who are members of protected groups.

Explain the issue of reverse discrimination.

Understand how to best supervise a diverse workforce.

4–3

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

FIGURE 4.1 The value of diversity

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© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Managing Diversity is the Bottom-Line Concern

Protected-group employees

Classes of employees who have been afforded certain legal protections in their employment situations.

Classes of protected-group employees:

Racial or ethnic origin

Gender (women)

Physical or mental disability

Age (over 40)

Religion

Military Service

4–5

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

FIGURE 4.2 Managing diversity

4–6

Managing diversity means being aware of differences and managing employees as individuals. To manage diversity does not mean just recognizing and tolerating differences but also supporting and using the differences to the organizational advantage.

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

FIGURE 4.3 A myth occasionally voiced by some supervisors is that protected-group employees cannot be disciplined or discharged

4–7

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Racial and Ethnic Minorities

Barriers for minorities (from 2013 Joseph Rowntree Foundation interviews)

Lack of role models in leadership positions

Language difficulties

Lower education levels

Low self-confidence

Exclusion from informal networks

Lack of organizational understanding of ethic minority communities

Unequal access to opportunities for training and development

Prejudice and stereotyping

Under-recognition of existing skills and experience

4-8

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Racial and Ethnic Minorities (cont.)

Understanding Discrimination’s Effects

Supervisors must be sensitive to employees who have experienced discrimination in the past.

Supervisors should always strive to be fair and considerate, no matter the type of employee.

Appreciating Cultural Differences

Supervisors could discuss with employees about cultural backgrounds and customs so employees understand cultural differences better.

Overcoming Language Differences

Some employers sponsor English improvement and business courses for minority employees.

It is encouraged for supervisors to add more language skills.

4–9

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Women

Entry of women into many career fields

Due to changes in the workforce, we’re seeing greater numbers of women in traditionally male donated jobs such as financiers, scientists, engineers, sales, technical representatives, accountants and managers.

Supervisors should make it clear that any woman taking a previously all-male job will be afforded a realistic opportunity to succeed based on her ability to perform the job.

Balancing work-life issues

One of the most important aspects of job satisfaction for women.

4–10

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

FIGURE 4.4 Two women who changed the world

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Meet Rosie the Riveter

Betty Hunter remembers her first job interview. It was

the 1940s, and women were needed to fill jobs left

vacant by men who had gone to war. But despite the

demand for workers, management was reluctant to put

an inexperienced woman on the factory floor. Millions

of other women like Hunter worked in World War II

defense industries and support services.

During World War II, Ford Motor Company’s Richmond,

California, factory was converted from automotive to

tank production to support the war effort. Prior to 1940,

only three women had worked at the plant—a daytime

telephone operator and two typists. But as an increasing

number of men headed off to war, Ford’s managers

quickly learned that women made excellent industrial

workers. In certain tasks, they even concluded that women were superior to men. Betty Hunter,

like thousands of other women, became known as Rosie the Riveter. According to Tom Butt,

president of the Rosie the Riveter Historic Trust, “It was the first time in American history that

women and minorities worked side by side with men for almost comparable wages.” During

the closing months of the war, Ford hired an increasing number of people of color and women

as other workers who had migrated to California to work in wartime industries headed home.

It is no coincidence that Ford Motor Company was again named one of Working Mother

magazine’s 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2008.

Meet Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks, a grown woman of 42, refused to give up

her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. She defied

what was known as the Jim Crow laws—“white-only

perquisites“—which limited blacks to segregated restrooms

and drinking fountains (if any were available),

entrance into stores through the rear door only, and

seats in the back of the bus.

By refusing to move, Parks committed a deliberate act

of civil disobedience. What would have happened if she

had moved to the back of the bus as commanded? We

will never know, but the inescapable truth is that Parks’s

actions let it be known that change was needed for

America to “walk the talk.” If the talk says that “all men (people) are created equal and have

inalienable rights,” then it was time to translate the talk into action.

Rosa Parks died in October 2005. President George W. Bush and members of Congress laid

wreaths at her bier as it rested in the U.S. Capitol. Her legacy lives on today.2

“Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.”

—Martin Luther King Jr

Sources: (1) “American Women I Have Always Understood, Advertisement,” Working Mother (November 2003), p. 1–1. The Rosie the Riveter WWII Home Front National Historic Park commemorates and celebrates women’s contributions to the war effort. Visit the Rosie the Riveter Historic Trust, a nonprofit organization in Richmond, California and http://www.RosieTheRiveter.org. Also go to www.workingmother.com and click on “Best Companies” to see their programs to help women to be the best they can be. (2) See Kiva Albin, “Rosa Parks: The Woman Who Changed a Nation” (1996 Interview); Quiet Strength (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994); and http://www.grandtimes.com/rosa.html. Parks’s book is not to be confused with Tony Dungy’s Quiet Strength: The Principles, Practices, and Priorities of a Winning Life. In November 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that segregation on public transport was unconstitutional.

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Women (cont.)

Sexual-harassment and sexual stereotyping issues

Sexual harassment

Unwelcome sexual advances, requests, or conduct when submission to such conduct is tied to the individual’s continuing employment or advancement, unreasonably interferes with job performance, or creates a hostile work environment.

Gender stereotyping

Use of demeaning language, judgment, or behavior based on a person’s gender.

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© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Women (cont.)

Training and development opportunities

Women should be offered equal access to training and development activities, and those employees with potential should be encouraged to develop their skills.

Many firms are instituting mentoring programs to empower women.

Pregnancy and family care

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) of 1978 requires that pregnancy be treated no differently from illness or health disabilities if an employer has medial benefits or a disability plan.

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) requires that an eligible employee (male or female) must be granted up to a total of 12 work weeks of unpaid leave during any 12-month period for the birth and care of the newborn child, adoption or foster care; to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, or parent) with a serious health condition; or to take medical leave when the employee is unable to work because of a serious health problem.

4–13

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Women (cont.)

Equitable Compensation

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women performing equal work must receive equal pay.

Comparable worth

Concept that jobs should be paid at the same level when they require similar skills or abilities.

4–14

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Employees with Disabilities

Rehabilitation Act of 1973

People with disabilities were identified as a group that was to receive special consideration in employment and other organizational areas.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Most significant legislation dealing with legal protection for a group since the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Applies to employers with 15 or more employees and identifies coverage for people with disabilities.

4–15

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Employees with Disabilities

Qualified disabled individual

Defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) as someone with a disability who can perform the essential components of a job with or without reasonable accommodation.

Reasonable accommodation

Altering the usual ways of doing things so that an otherwise qualified disabled person can perform the essential job duties, but without creating an undue hardship for the employer.

4–16

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Older Workers

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)

Applies to employers with 20 or more employees, prohibits discrimination in employment for most individuals over age 40.

Mandatory retirement ages, such as age 70, are illegal for most employees.

Supervisors need to perform objective performance appraisals when comparing workers of different ages, as not to risk being the target of a age discrimination lawsuit.

Supervisors should be supportive and understanding as older employees near retirement.

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© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Accommodating Different Religious Beliefs

Under the Civil Rights Act:

Most employers are required to afford nondiscriminatory treatment to employees who hold different religious beliefs.

The following two principles are to be followed:

Employers must make reasonable accommodations for employees with differing religious beliefs.

An employee may not create a hostile work environment for others by harassing them about what they do or do not believe.

4–18

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Managing Employees around the World

In the growing global workplace, differences such as language, work methods and philosophies, cultural identities and practices, and biases about home-country power can pose challenges to supervisors charged with productively integrating their workforce.

Supervisors should be aware of their company’s obligations under EEOC law, based on the structure of its operations, so that they can make appropriate decisions and effectively guide employee behavior.

Multinational corporation

A company that establishes locations, manages production, and delivers services in more than one country and most often directs management policies and practices from one home country.

4–19

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Protected-Group Supervisors

Supervision of legally protected employees require both awareness and sensitivity to various factors. Additional concerns can arise for supervisors who are themselves members of legally protected categories (e.g. minorities and women) and who may experience resistance and resentment in their supervisory positions.

Protected-group supervisors, like all other supervisors, must have performance expectations, policies, and decisions that are applied consistently and uniformly to all employees, regardless of race, gender, age, and other such consideration.

4–20

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Understanding Reverse Discrimination

Reverse discrimination

Preference given to protected-group members in hiring and promotion over more qualified or more experienced workers from non protected groups.

Supervisors of integrated racial groups and male and female employees may be apprehensive of their situations. E.g., supervisors may be reluctant to discipline anyone so as to avoid charges of favoritism or discrimination.

Communication between the supervisor and all groups of employees is essential, and the supervisor should try to correct misperceptions about any employee’s abilities and qualifications as they occur.

4–21

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

Supervising Well: The Overriding Consideration

Being fair in all supervisory actions and decisions

The supervisor must be diligent in his or her fairness; treat complaints as a priority; should listen carefully to the nature of the complaint; and report it to higher-level manager or human resources.

Cultural competency

The ability to understand and adapt to a variety of cultural communities.

Inclusion

Providing opportunities for every worker to fully participate and valuing every workers skills, experiences and perspectives.

4–22

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

4–23

Comparable worth

Cultural competency

Gender stereotyping

Inclusion

Multinational corporation

Protected-group employees

Qualified disabled individual

Reasonable accommodation

Reverse discrimination

Sexual harassment

KEY TERMS

© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

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