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     The article by Hammad & Khalaf discusses learning methods taught to a nursing student, which are lecture-based learning (LBL) and case-based learning (CBL) methods (2020). LBL is practiced in most nursing learning environments. LBL is centered around the instructor and is the passive transferring of knowledge (Hammad & Khalaf, 2020). CBL is focused on the student being able to find knowledge and the teacher is guiding and directing the student to be able to find answers (Hammad & Khalaf, 2020).  Source of nursing students being able to critically think and make clinical-based decisions is vital to have competent nurses to care for patients. The textbook states that problem-based learning (PBL) or CBL setups up a nurse to be able to critically think and is an effective learning method (McEwen & Wills, 2019). Applying nursing theory through CBL is effective by using case scenarios that provide a real-life situation in the nursing environment and allows the nurses to apply knowledge learned and put to use the nursing theories that apply. This type of learning develops the readiness of the nurse to provide safe and effective care in the clinical setting. The CBL or PBL strategies bridge the gap between theory and practice and between the classroom and work environment (Hammad & Khalaf, 2020). Case studies are extremely important in nursing education because this gives the nurse real-life situations to apply the nursing knowledge and skills learned in the classroom. The efficiency of this type of learning strategy is highly recommended. In my nursing program, CBL was used applied inadequately in my opinion, and the LBL was overused. The PBL adult learning theory is effective in nursing programs. The nursing educators can utilize the student to find the answer and research the reason for the answer while applying this to real-life situations. The nurse educators equip the student nurse to use problem-solving skills and knowledge to make clinical based decisions instead of sitting in a lecture for hours hearing the instructor pass on knowledge. Each adult learner has different learning strategies that work better for them. The learning methods are different for each individual and different methods are more effective to some than others. 

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