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1. W1D2 Zumbi Reading

Please read Introduction, (pp. 1-4), and pp. 35-43; 75-90; 114-17, 125-139.

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2. W2D1 Asantewaa Reading

Please read pp. 27-35 (through first paragraph on p. 35); 114-141 (Stop at “the Ending of the Yaa Asantewaa War”)

Reading Review Questions: (Both readings will answer the following questions)

1. Who is the author? If different from the author, who is the historical figure examined in the reading? 

2. What are the key challenges or struggles the author or the historical figure faced? 

3. Whom do you think was the audience for the biography? 

All students must submit a short response (at least 2-5 sentences for each question) answering the questions about each of the week’s readings to canvas groups.

Please write the answers to the two readings in a file. Please mark the corresponding question numbers in each reading

Please read Introduction, (pp. 1-4), and pp. 35-43; 75-90; 114-17, 125-139.

2. W2D1 Asantewaa Reading

Please read pp. 27-35 (through first paragraph on p. 35); 114-141 (Stop at “the Ending of the Yaa Asantewaa War”)

Reading Review Questions: (Both readings will answer the following questions)

1. Who is the author? If different from the author, who is the historical figure examined in the reading? 

2. What are the key challenges or struggles the author or the historical figure faced? 

3. Whom do you think was the audience for the biography? 

All students must submit a short response (at least 2-5 sentences for each question) answering the questions about each of the week’s readings to canvas groups.

Please write the answers to the two readings in a file. Please mark the corresponding question numbers in each reading

Zumbi and Palmares

Importance of Slavery and Sugar

Portuguese innovated the use of plantations for the cultivation of sugar on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and São Tomé off the coast of Africa

Chattel Slavery: Plantation labor based on chattel slavery, a hereditary system that reduced humans to property with few rights

By the 1550s – Brazil began to dominate the global supply of sugar for about one hundred years

Introduction of sugar led to introduction of sizeable black population through the transatlantic slave trade in Brazil and other countries (about 4-5 million enslaved Africans were sent to Brazil); slave trade ended in 1850 and slavery abolished in 1888

Formation of quilombos (maroon societies of those who fled slavery) was just one form of resistance to the brutality of slavery

Brazil had the most maroon societies in the Americas

Relationship between the Portuguese and the Dutch

Portuguese and Dutch had a long history of commercial relations

Dutch were important shippers of Brazilian products

Amsterdam had long been a major market for sugar

Iberian Union

1580 – King Sebastião I of Portugal dies (24 years old)

Sebastião leaves behind no immediate heirs, resulting in a dynastic crisis

Portuguese nobility and wealthy elite proclaim Phillip II of Spain as king of Portugal, leading to the Iberian Union (union of Portugal and Spain under the Spanish monarchy

King Sebastião I

Benefits of Iberian Union to Portuguese included:

Greater access to Spanish markets in America for Portuguese merchants

i.e., Portuguese slave traders received contracts to provide enslaved blacks to Spanish America

Allowed Portuguese in Brazil to cross into points further west

Negative Impact of Iberian Union for Portuguese included:

Spain had been in conflict with the Netherlands, and the difficulties between them intensified

As the tensions between the Spanish and the Dutch increased, the Portuguese were forced to sever ties with the Dutch

This escalated to open confrontation that, in the Americas, centered around control of the sugar business and the slave trade

Dutch Attacks on Brazil Begin: Salvador

Dutch invasions of Brazil marked the greatest political and military conflict of colonial Brazil

1604 – Dutch raided Salvador, then capital of Brazil

1609-1621 – Twelve Years’ Truce between Spain and the Low Countries

1621 – End of truce and creation of Dutch West India Company marked the beginning of concerted effort to occupy Portuguese America’s sugar regions and to control the slave supply

Recapture of Bahia

Dutch Attacks on Brazil Begin: Salvador, cont’d

1624 – Dutch invaders occupy Salvador and take the city in just over 24 hours; Dutch did not get past Salvador’s city limits

1625 – A coalition drove out the Dutch after a year of occupation

Recapture of Bahia

Dutch Attacks on Brazil Continue: Pernambuco

1630 – Dutch attack Pernambuco, Brazil’s most productive sugar captaincy

Eventually, Dutch conquered all of northeastern Brazil from south of the São Francisco River to São Luis in Maranhão (see map)

Dutch also seized African slaving ports, realizing that a constant supply of enslaved blacks was essential for success

Dutch maintain hold on northeast from until 1654 (1630-1654)

The struggle with Palmares was a: (Cheney, p. 48)

Class conflict: poor vs. wealthy

Racial conflict: mostly black vs. white (interests)

Cultural conflict: Two sets of irreconcilable values

Social conflict: Two ways of organizing community

Economic conflict: A collective economy vs. a monocultural cash-crop under oligarchic domination

Political conflict: Portuguese subjects obedient to a king vs. former Portuguese subjects doing fine without the king

“Palmares proved liberty possible, slavery unnecessary.”

Palmares Timeline

1597

First report of mocambos (maroon societies/quilombos) in hills of Pernambuco/ first accounts of attacks by quilombolas (those who live in quilombos) in Brazil

1602

First order to attack and eliminate Palmares

1630

Dutch invade the captaincy (Portuguese royal land grant territory) of Pernambuco

1644

First Dutch incursions into Palmares

1654

Dutch surrender Pernambuco

1655

Portuguese attack Palmares twice

1661 and 1663

More forces are sent to attack Palmares

1677

First major victory against Palmares, led by Captain Fernão Carrilho

Palmares Timeline, cont’d

1678

Palmares leader Ganga-Zumba and colonial leaders negotiate a peace treaty; Ganga-Zumba and followers relocate to Cucaú

1679

Zumbi and the other mocambos in Palmares refuse to accept the treaty and remain in Palmares

1680

Ganga-Zumba killed (likely assassinated) and Cucaú is eliminated

1681

Zumbi is considered the main leader in Palmares

1683

Second incursion by Captain Carrilho, which is a major defeat

1684

Zumbi engages in offensive guerrilla warfare, attacking a settlement and raiding a fort

1685

King Pedro II of Portugal sends a letter to Zumbi requesting negotiation

Palmares Timeline, cont’d

1687

Troops from São Paulo participate in attacks against Palmares

1687

Enslaved people in Pernambuco plot an armed revolt with the help of Palmaristas; authorities discover the plan and execute leaders

1692-1694

Main war between Palmaristas and troops from São Paulo; After much destruction, injury and death, many Palmaristas manage to escape, including Zumbi

1695

Zumbi is caught and assassinated

Zumbi in Brazilian Memory

Upholds myth of racial democracy?

OR

Undermines myth of racial democracy?

Bronze head of Zumbi in federal capital, Brasília

“To remember the resistance of blacks in order to advance the struggle for a free society free of all forms of oppression”

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