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Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 11

Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 11Reflect on the assigned readings for the week. Identify what you thought was the most important concept(s), method(s), term(s), and/or any other thing that you felt was worthy of your understanding. 
Also, provide a graduate-level response to each of the following questions:

  1. Rip up your favorite magazine, and classify any 5 ads according to whether you think they’re aiming to achieve a cognitive, emotional, or behavioral goal. Which ad do you like the most? Did any stimulate you to learn more about the brand? 
  2. Imagine you were designing an ad for a (choose one): car, laptop, health clinic. What would your ad look like if you were targeting: a) old people, b) kids, c) super rich people, d) What celebrity would you have endorse your brand? Why ? 

Activity 11

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This activity/assignment will help students understand advertising messages and marketing communications. Activity: Use the Internet to research and identify 10 ads that have used subliminal messages, prepare a report about these ads. Is it very easy for consumers to identify these hidden messages? What effect do they have if any? If not, why do you think advertisers use them? 

© 2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Advertising Messages and Marketing Communications

© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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11. 2

© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Marketing Framework

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Discussion Questions #1

“Milk—It does the body good” and “Got milk?” are both advertisements for milk.

Which do you think is more effective? Why?

Why don’t the advertisements say “Smith’s Milk—it does the body good?”

Why do you think advertising is important?

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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What Is Advertising?

Advertising

Primary means to communicate with customers

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)

Message should be consistent and complementary across all media

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Why Is Advertising Important?

Two reasons for importance

Facilitates customers’ awareness

Attempts to persuade potential customers that the brand is superior

Effect

Has both short- and long-term effects

Expected to generate sales but it is hard to prove

Advertising effects are cumulative

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Goal Models (slide 1 of 3)

AIDA: Attention, Interest, Desire, Action

Capture attention

Pique interest

Make consumer desire the product

Get consumer to act (buy)

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Goal Models (slide 2 of 3)

Other models

Awareness  knowledge  preference  brand conviction  purchasing

Awareness  interest  brand evaluation  trial  adoption

Ad exposure  message received  attitude change  intent to buy  buy

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Goal Models (slide 3 of 3)

Three types of goals

Cognition: increase awareness and knowledge

Affect: enhance attitudes and associations

Behavior: encourage buying

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Discussion Questions #2

Can you think of an ad that recently…

Got your attention?

Changed your knowledge?

Encouraged you to talk about it?

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Goals Correlate to Product Life Cycle

Life cycle stages and advertising goals

Introduction: awareness and information

Growth: enhance positive attitudes

Maturity: remind consumers

Decline: reductions in ad spending

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Designing Advertising Messages

Classic communication

Source (company) encodes message (ad)

Ad is transmitted

Receiver (customer) decodes the message

Copy testing makes sure target correctly understands the message

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Cognitive Ads (slide 1 of 3)

Cognitive ads engage the consumer’s brain

Types of cognitive ads

One-sided argument: focuses on product’s benefits

Two-sided argument: gives pros and cons

Usually stand out more and are considered more objective

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Cognitive Ads (slide 2 of 3)

Types of cognitive ads (continued)

Non-comparative ad: only one brand’s features, attributes, image, etc., are presented

Comparative ad: two or more brands’ features, attributes, image, etc., are presented

Ads created by the smaller company help the company and the competitor

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Cognitive Ads (slide 3 of 3)

Types of cognitive ads (concluded)

Product demonstration: shows the product at work

Drama: product is the solution to a problem

Memorable

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Emotional Ads (slide 1 of 2)

Types of emotional ads

Humor

May break through clutter & be buzz-worthy

Usually not cost efficient

May remember the joke but not the product

Fear ads

Use negative emotions

For a fear appeal to be effective, the ad must provide a solution to reduce the consumer’s fear

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Emotional Ads (slide 2 of 2)

Types of emotional ads (continued)

Subliminal ads: contain elements shown too fast to detect consciously

Considered unethical and have never been shown to work

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Image Ads

Ad message is more abstract

Company distinguishes itself by its image because the product’s category is crowded

Used for positioning

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Endorsement Ads

Spokesperson provides a testimonial

Types of spokespeople

Celebrity

Spokes-characters

Experts

Regular people

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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How Endorsements Work (slide 1 of 2)

Elaboration likelihood model

Central route

Ad’s argument persuades

Occurs when customers are highly involved with brand and motivated to process the ad

Peripheral route

Ad’s peripheral cues persuade not argue

Occurs when customers are not involved with brand and not motivated to process

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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How Endorsements Work (slide 2 of 2)

Source credibility

Consumer interprets message as the most important piece of information, but also processes the credibility of the source

e.g., actors who play doctors on TV

Sleeper effect

Consumers forget the source over time, so its credibility doesn’t matter

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Discussion Questions #3

Which type of ad would you recommend using to pitch:

Your university? Why?

Mother’s Against Drunk Driving (MADD)? Why?

A presidential candidate? Why?

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Evaluating Advertising (slide 1 of 3)

Cognitive tests consider memory

Day-after recall tests (DAR)

Ask random samples of households “Which brands did you see last night?”

Recognition tests

When can’t remember more ads, ask “Do you remember seeing X ad?”

Mere exposure

Sheer familiarity from repeated exposure may enhance viewer’s favorability

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Evaluating Advertising (slide 2 of 3)

Affective ads (image and preference)

Concept testing

3-4 focus groups of 8-10 screened participants are shown the ideas of the ad

Ads are usually in preliminary development

Consumers’ responses to ad, brand, etc., are evaluated

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Evaluating Advertising (slide 3 of 3)

Affective ads (continued)

Copy testing

Large random samples of consumers view a TV program and ads; after 30 minutes, consumers take survey

Ad evaluation items

Stimulation (curious, enthusiastic, etc.)

Information (useful, credible, etc.)

Negative emotion (irritation, etc.)

Transformation (enjoyment, satisfied feeling, etc.)

Identification (felt involved with it, etc.)

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Aad and Abrand

Measure two attitudes

Attitudes-toward-the-ad (Aad)

Attitudes-toward-the-brand (Abrand)

Aad  Abrand likelihood to purchase

Testing methods

Dial during an ad copy test

Diagnostics

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Discussion Questions #4

Which firm above has a problem with

Satisfaction?

Awareness?

Which brand would you most want to be associated with?

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Managerial Recap (slide 1 of 2)

Set goals in order to evaluate ads

Classes of ad messages

Rational or cognitive ads

One- and two-sided arguments, comparative and non-comparative ads, product demonstrations, and dramas

Emotional ads

Humorous and fear-inducing appeals, image, and endorsements

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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Managerial Recap (slide 2 of 2)

Advertising is tested via concept testing and copy testing

Memory tests (recall and recognition)

Attitudinal tests

Behavioral measures

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© 2018 Cengage Learning.® May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 

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