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Chapter 11: The Rise of Democracy 1824 to 1840

U.S. A NARRATIVE HISTORY, EIGHTH EDITION

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DAVIDSON • DELAY • HEYRMAN • LYTLE • STOFF

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The Rise of Democracy 1824 to 1840 • ““[A]t the same time that new markets were producing a

more stratified, unequal society, the nation’s politics were becoming more democratic.…the new system of national politics…involved more voters than ever before….But the relationship between the new equalities of politics and the new opportunities of the market was an uneasy one.”

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What’s to Come

Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy

Jackson’s Rise to Power

Democracy and Race

The Nullification Crisis

The Bank War

The Jacksonian Party System

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Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (1) Americans’ democratic “manners”

Meaning of equality • Americans promoted equality of opportunity,

not equality of condition

Death of the caucus system

• Republican congressional caucus selected William Crawford as their presidential candidate

• Andrew Jackson was the Republican candidate of the people

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Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (2) Oyster houses were the sports bars of antebellum America, and the preferred sport was politics. Newspapers expressed strong party loyalties, inspiring the man at the right to harangue his skeptical friend. ©Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA/Bridgeman Images

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Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (3)

The Election of 1824 • Corrupt bargain?

• None of the four candidates received a majority of the popular vote

• Jackson finished first in the Electoral College • House was to select a president from the top three

candidates • Henry Clay rallied votes for a win for John Quincy

Adams and then became Adams’s secretary of state, prompting calls of a “corrupt bargain”

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MAP 11.1: ELECTION OF 1824

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Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (4)

Social Sources of the New Politics • Panic of 1819 and new attitudes toward government

• Connection made between government policy and economic well-being

• Mounting pressure to open up the political process • From democratic reforms to presidential candidate selection • Soaring voter turnout

• Emergence of a new type of politician • Devotion to party • Politics as mass entertainment

• Limits to the “Age of the Common Man”

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Jackson’s Rise to Power (1)

John Quincy Adams’s presidency • Not politically savvy

President of the People

• Beginning of two-party politics • Jackson’s character • Jackson’s defense of the spoils system

Jackson’s election, 1828

• As head of the new Democratic Party

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Jackson’s Rise to Power (2)

The Political Agenda in the Market Economy • With the demand for new lands, increased pressure

was placed on Indians • As economies specialized, rival interests forced a

confrontation over tariff • New attention to the role of credit and banking in

society

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Democracy and Race (1)

New attitudes toward race • Increasing stress on “innate” racial differences

Accommodate or Resist?

• New, aggressive attitudes of white Americans • Indians in the Old Southwest were placed in a

precarious position • Changing nature of Cherokee society

• Expansion of cotton and slavery

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Democracy and Race (2)

Trail of Tears • Increasing pressure for Indian removal

• Worcester v. Georgia (1832) ignored by Jackson • Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws

removed from the Southeast • Cherokees held out the longest

• Some chose resistance • Sauk and Fox • Seminoles

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MAP 11.2: INDIAN REMOVAL During Jackson’s presidency the federal government concluded nearly 70 treaties with Indian tribes in the Old Northwest as well as in the South. Under their terms, the United States acquired approximately 100 million acres of Indian land.

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Democracy and Race (3)

Free Blacks in the North • Rising discrimination

• About 171,000 free blacks in the North in 1840 • Political and civil rights denied • Segregation widely practiced

The African American Community

• Settlements in West Africa established • With rising white support, black enthusiasm diminished

• More confrontational tactics

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Democracy and Race (4)

Racism Strikes a Deeper Root • Increasingly virulent racism among whites after

1820s • Race riots in Pittsburgh, Boston, Cincinnati, and

New Haven • Racist attitudes were reflected in popular culture,

especially minstrel shows • Racism was stimulated by the unsettling changes

of the era • Equality was part of the nation’s creed, but it steadily

receded as a social reality in Jacksonian America

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MAP 11.3: THE SPREAD OF WHITE MANHOOD SUFFRAGE White manhood suffrage became the norm during the Jacksonian era, but in a number of states free black males who had been voting by law or by custom lost the right to vote. After 1821 a $250 property requirement disenfranchised about 90 percent of adult black males in New York.

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The Nullification Crisis (1)

The Growing Crisis in South Carolina • State hit hard by the depression of 1819

• Central issue: the tariff • Denmark Vesey’s 1822 conspiracy added to

insecurity • Tariff of Abominations, passed in 1828, provoked a

severe response • Calhoun’s theory of nullification

• Argued that states could nullify federal laws • Daniel Webster: federal government had sovereign powers

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The Nullification Crisis (2) This political cartoon of 1833 warns that Calhoun’s doctrine of nullification was only the first step in a path toward “Despotism,” with Calhoun reaching for its crown. At right, Andrew Jackson tries to restrain one of Calhoun’s followers, declaring “Stop, you have gone too far, or by the Eternal, I’ll hang you all.” ©The New York Public Library/Art Resource, NY

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The Nullification Crisis (3)

The Nullifiers Nullified • Jackson threatened military action against

South Carolina for its legislature’s nullification of the tariff • Congress passed the Force Bill

• Compromise of 1833 ended the crisis by lowering the tariff

• Sense of southern isolation grew

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The Bank War (1)

The National Bank and the Panic of 1819 • Second Bank of the United States

• Exacerbated economic problems in 1819 • Nicholas Biddle made president of the Bank, 1823

• Used Bank to regulate the amount of credit available • Specie: coined money of gold or silver • Expanded the Bank’s influence and provided the nation

with sound paper currency

• Opposition to paper • Workers complained of depreciated state banknotes and

called for “hard money” currency

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The Bank War (2)

The Bank Destroyed • In 1832, Biddle pushed for early renewal of

the Bank’s charter • Recharter bill passed by Congress but vetoed by Jackson

• After reelection in 1832, Jackson acted to cripple the Bank • Ordered all federal deposits withdrawn • Bank charter expired in 1836

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The Bank War (3)

Jackson’s Impact on the Presidency • Presidential powers strengthened

• In many ways, the modern presidency began with Jackson

“Van Ruin’s” Depression

• Spiraling inflation set in • Specie Circular: government would only accept specie for purchase of public

land • Martin Van Buren, Democrat, elected in 1836

• Economy collapsed • Public identified hard times with Democratic Party policies

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The Bank War (4) This Whig cartoon blames the Democratic Party for the depression that began during Van Buren’s administration. Barefoot workers go unemployed, and women and children beg and sleep in the streets. Depositors clamor for their money from a bank that has suspended specie payments, while the pawnbroker and liquor store do a thriving business. ©Museum of the City of New York, USA/Bridgeman Images

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The Bank War (5)

The Whigs Triumph • First modern presidential campaign

• Use of imagery • Women took a new, more public political role • Record voter turnout (nearly 80 percent) • Van Buren defeated by William Henry Harrison

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MAP 11.4: ELECTION OF 1840

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The Jacksonian Party System (1)

Democrats, Whigs, and the Market • Democratic ideology

• Rested on perceived conflict between “the people” and greedy aristocrats

• Believed in limited government • Whig ideology

• Rested on belief in continued commercial development • Believed in active government

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The Jacksonian Party System (2)

The Social Bases of the Two Parties • Both needed support among farmers and workers • Attitudes toward the market economy differed

• Whigs promoted the market economy, while Democrats feared it

• Religious and ethnic factors • Whigs attracted high-status native-born religious groups • Democrats attracted more Germans and Irish religious

groups, particularly Catholics

  • Chapter 11: �The Rise of Democracy 1824 to 1840
  • The Rise of Democracy 1824 to 1840
  • What’s to Come
  • Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (1)
  • Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (2)
  • Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (3)
  • MAP 11.1: ELECTION OF 1824
  • Equality, Opportunity, and the New Political Culture of Democracy (4)
  • Jackson’s Rise to Power (1)
  • Jackson’s Rise to Power (2)
  • Democracy and Race (1)
  • Democracy and Race (2)
  • MAP 11.2: INDIAN REMOVAL
  • Democracy and Race (3)
  • Democracy and Race (4)
  • MAP 11.3: THE SPREAD OF WHITE MANHOOD SUFFRAGE
  • The Nullification Crisis (1)
  • The Nullification Crisis (2)
  • The Nullification Crisis (3)
  • The Bank War (1)
  • The Bank War (2)
  • The Bank War (3)
  • The Bank War (4)
  • The Bank War (5)
  • MAP 11.4: ELECTION OF 1840
  • The Jacksonian Party System (1)
  • The Jacksonian Party System (2)

Discussion #8

History has ranked Andrew Jackson as one of the nation’s greatest presidents.  His opponents, however, denounced his dictatorial use of power and joined together to form an opposition party. Jackson himself asserted that the executive branch should be supreme because the president was the only member of the government elected by all of the people, and he openly challenged and disregarded the Legislative and Judiciary branches.  Although his actions and decisions as president did not reduce his popularity, they did create a series of regional crises.   

In order to prepare for this discussion, you must first complete the following readings.

·

. Review and identify the relevant sections in Chapter 11.

. Read the linked essay titled,  DEBATING THE PAST: Jacksonian Democracy.    

. Read  Article II  of the Constitution which discusses the Executive Branch.

After you have completed your readings, please post your responses to only ONE of the following questions. 

1. In your opinion, does Jackson deserve his position in history as a great president or King Andrew, as his opponents named him?  Explain your position by addressing a particular action or decision that was part of his presidency.

2. In your opinion, did Jackson lose his first run for the presidency because of “a corrupt bargain”?  Explain your position. 

3. According to Jackson, the Executive branch was “the only one directly elected by all of the people.”  How would you respond to this assertion?  Make sure that you support your argument.

https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs

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