+1 (208) 254-6996 [email protected]
  

Please see the attached paper and provide the following as a continuation this project. Please ensure to have at least 20 references which is to include an annotated bibliography of 4 to 6 complete sentences. There should be at least a page of FACTUAL information for each (4) color-coded section and must have references and citations. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ADMINISTRATIVE POSITION PAPER

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Each student must turn in their Administrative Position Paper on your scheduled date.

One letter grade will be deducted automatically for each week a Position Paper is

late.

The Administrative Position Paper must be no less than twelve (12) discussion pages

but no more than sixteen (16) discussion pages in length. Margins which are too wide

will reduce your page count.

The Administrative Position Paper must be completed in Microsoft Word (products

such as Word Pad, Word Perfect and other similar software will not be accepted),

typed and double-spaced, using one of the following fonts Calibri-11, Arial-11,

Lucida Sans Unicode-10, Times New Roman-12, and Georgia-11 with one-inch

margins.

Use the same font throughout the text of the paper.

While extensive research is not the object of the Administrative Position Paper,

students shall use and list no less than fifteen (15)  

different scholarly reference sources, using a standard APA** format. Multiple uses of a single source reference will detract from your grade. Only one website is allowed. No news sources are acceptable.

Students are expected to use proper grammar and punctuation.

Proper APA-7th edition style citations must be used.

No more than 15% percent of the paper can be QUOTED material.  This paper is

designed to be the author’s original work. 

All facts must be cited with an in-text citation.  

No material before 2005 is permitted.

References- You are not permitted to use material that is any earlier that 2005 in this

paper.  Information before that date may not be relevant today.

The Administrative Position Paper Format  must be followed exactly as described.

DRAFT #2 SUBMISSION: 

You are required to submit an attachment a Partial Draft Submission #2 which is a copy of

your project that includes the following:  Cover page, The Problem and Factors Bearing on

the Problem, and as much as is completed of the discussion by March 14, 2021.  The Partial

Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion

(whatever has been done) and your Annotated Bibliography 

          **The annotated bibliography MUST have 4 to 6 COMPLETE sentences**

– DO NOT INCLUDE A CONCLUSION or ACTION RECOMMENDED

 Title each section of your paper as outlined in the submission requirements.   I am not expecting that these four items be completed, but what I am looking for is the formation flow of your paper.  

2

Wrongful Convictions in the Criminal Justice System

Charlene D. Parker

Saint Leo University

CRJ 590: Applied Project in Criminal Justice Administration

Dr. Karin May

February 21, 2021

I. The Problem

Wrongful convictions among the innocent can be the cause of multiple things that went wrong during their conviction. When a suspect is facing accusations or being allegedly suspected and accused of committing an alleged crime, they are rightfully deserving of a fair trial and conviction. Receiving a fair trial or conviction is not always rendered, as there are so many people serving jail time as a result of wrongful convictions. A wrongful conviction means that errors that occurred during the investigation or somewhere after led an innocent person to be incarcerated. These acts inhibit justice by denying innocent people their freedom while the guilty go free. The various causes of wrongful convictions need to be addressed to prevent errors and ensure that every individual accused of committing a crime is rightfully convicted.

II. Factors Bearing on the Problem

The factors bearing on the problem are four items that causally relates to this issue and for this paper, I will only be dealing with these four issues.

· Eyewitness misidentification- Eyewitness misidentification occurs whereby victims or eyewitnesses are confident that a crime was committed, yet there was mistaken identity. There is an over-reliance on eyewitnesses; however, since the human mind is not like a surveillance video, eyewitnesses have wrongfully identified people who have led to wrongful convictions.

· Police investigations- Sometimes there are erroneous procedures or incomplete investigations during their processing of an incident or crime scene. Wrongful identification and tarnished evidence of an accused perpetrator can be the main factor of misleading an investigation.

· False confessions- During an investigation or trial bears a great deal on obtaining a conviction. Incidences in which perpetrators are being coached or intimidated to lie about committing a crime.

· Committing perjury – There are times where individuals will knowingly commit perjury during a trial or criminal hearing to sway the judge or jury. Wrongful identification and tarnished evidence of an accused perpetrator can be a main factor of misleading an investigation.

III. Discussion

Eyewitness misidentification is a common occurrence in the justice department that has adverse outcomes. It can get considered as the reason that causes many wrongful convictions since trials often rely on witness testimony. When eyewitnesses provide inaccurate data, the outcome is usually innocent persons getting arrested, while the real perpetrators go free (Albright, 2017). Criminal trials often rely on eyewitness accounts since they provide a real view of an occurrence of an event. The human memory can get relied on during criminal cases since their observation is accurate. Issues arise whereby the human memory can be malleable in nature and thus result in inaccurate perceptions of events. The issues become worse in cases that cannot get refuted. It is imperative to assess the effectiveness of human memory especially when under pressure to explain criminal acts.

Eyewitness misidentification also occurs due to the stress and anxiety that witnesses often face when they get questioned by the police. This can occur more when the case is critical and emotional for the witness causing to feel obligated to ensure the police capture culprits. The police can also be responsible for eyewitness misidentification since they may become suggestive when assessing eyewitnesses. This tactic is negative for the police procedures since it influences witnesses to construct testimonies based on the police expectations. The issue also occurs whereby the police influence eyewitnesses to give testimonies based on race. It is common for the witnesses to wrongfully identify perpetrators due to racism towards certain races.

Eyewitness misidentification is highly detrimental since innocent persons often get arrested and police investigations get terminated earlier than advisable (Albright, 2017). Whenever police conduct investigations, suspects can get lined up and witnesses get asked to pick the perpetrator. The eyewitnesses can also get provided with photos of common criminals. In such cases, it is common for the eyewitnesses to get influenced by the appearance of the suspects in terms of dressing style, body art such as tattoos, and race. Eyewitnesses are also influenced by the types of weapons that witnesses carry. This causes them to focus more on giving a testimony concerning the weapon while failing to identify the person behind the attack.

The misidentification can also occur when the eyewitnesses get influenced by gender of the perpetrators. Female eyewitnesses may often get influenced to identify male perpetrators as the main suspects in crimes. This inaccuracy often misleads an investigation since the real criminal would go free. This is negative for the whole police department since resources for investigations would be directed to the wrong persons.

Police investigations at times cannot get relied on since they may be inaccurate when conducted by unscrupulous law enforcement agents. Wuthichai (2017) stated that police investigations can get inaccurate information when there is imbalance of manpower, unfair promotion, unsuitable equipment, and delays in government resources provision. The issues usually result in wrongful convictions of individuals since it is difficult for investigations to be accurate when the persons conducting research do not have enough resources and manpower. Police investigations also cannot be depended on especially when the police lacked probable cause to arrest some individuals. When investigations are inaccurate, police reports would be inadmissible in court.

The inclusion of police reports in the justice system is critical since the reports ensure officers can conduct research of the crime scenes which then gets recorded as reports. The police are required to submit their reports to their departments so that the court case that would proceed afterwards would be conducted with highest degree of integrity. The police investigations also provide prosecutors with the decision of the most appropriate case to begin court proceedings. Issues can occur during investigation stages whereby the police might take notes of the crime scenes then type of different information in the reports. It is common for the note taking process to be inaccurate as the police type the information hurriedly. When the initial investigation gets conducted with errors, it is common for the whole investigation to be inaccurate leading to a wrongful conviction.

Wrongful convictions usually occur due to false confessions whereby people get pressured to give testimonies by the police, their families, or due to pressure from the society. False confessions often occur when potential suspects get interrogated by the police who may using improper interrogation techniques (Niland & Ortu, 2020). The issue occurs more when defendants feel guilty depending on the type of crime committed. Whenever a person getting interrogated provides a confession, it is common for the jurors, judges, and attorneys to believe them. This usually overrides any information from investigations since providing contradictory information questions the validity of an investigation. Once a suspect confesses to a crime, the media, public, jurors, and officials dealing with the case would treat the suspect harshly often overlooking critical information in the case that would prove the true perpetrator.

The mental status of potential criminals usually affects criminal proceedings since it is common for the people to give wrongful convictions in order to limit interrogation sessions. False confessions can also occur due to mental issues such borderline intellectual disability which causes people to behave in ways that are not a standard (Garrett, 2018). Stress and trauma mostly cause individuals to give false confessions so that they would end the police investigations regardless of accuracy of the testimonies.

Wrongful convictions usually occur when individuals commit perjury after getting swayed the court proceedings and persons involved in criminal proceedings. The credibility of witness accounts is mainly based on the quality of witnesses and their ability to remain truthful even when faced with stressful lawyer inquisitions. The credibility of witnesses is not always guaranteed, as such, the criminal of act of perjury gets committed when the accounts change (FindLaw, 2019). Wrongful convictions further occur when witnesses get bribed or threatened before they give testimonies in court. Such cases of perjury are common especially when the cases involve criminals who are hardcore and have much influence that enables them to get to witnesses.

The mental status of a suspects affects the validity of their statement. There are suspects would deliberately lie to the court so that they create urgency in their cases based on the level of guilt they feel or the part they played in the occurrence of the crime. The existence of knowledge concerning a court case often influences potential suspects to commit perjury since they are aware of the type of punishment they would receive (Griffin, 2019). This knowledge can influence suspects to commit perjury without realizing the negative effect that would have on their cases. The presence of knowledge also influences suspects to commit perjury when they are fully aware of the severity of punishment for crimes.

It is assumed that the criminal justice system is flawed. There are many individuals that have been wrongly convicted across the country. The criminal justice system is meant to be considered indifference to innocence and errors. With these assumptions, there are as well, more innocent individuals in the jail and prison system today than there ever was.

Annotated Bibliography

Albright, T. (2017). Why eyewitnesses fail. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences114(30), 7758-7764. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706891114.

The article studies eyewitness misidentification and focuses on how court proceedings can get influenced by any wrongful witness account. The author explains the correct way that eyewitness should get interrogated so that the accuracy of court cases would not be limited.

FindLaw (2019). Nothing but the Truth: What Happens When You Lie Under Oath. Retrieved 30 January 2021 from https://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-charges/perjury.html.

The article examines common examples of perjury and the effect they have on court proceedings. Perjury is detrimental to the entire justice system since criminals often go free while some individuals remain incarcerated.

Garret, B. (2018). Brendan Dassey’s false confession shows we need to be more careful when interrogating juveniles. Retrieved 30 January 2021 from https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/policing/2018/06/09/brendan-dasseys-false-confession-supreme-court-column/652915002/.

The interrogation of juveniles is criticized by the article since there often negative outcomes of such court cases. The article focuses on the false confession by Brendan Dassey where he stated that he murdered a woman yet further research revealed that the lady did not die due to any physical altercation.

Griffin, L. K. (2019). Why Republicans Are Refusing to Testify. Retrieved 30 January 2021 from https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/12/perjury-truth-courts/603727/.

Griffin explains that many Americans, especially Republicans have been often committing perjury due the level of knowledge concerning court cases. The acts are usually committed under oath as the suspects do not have high regard for the justice system and consider it to be like interviews and social media.

Niland, H. & Ortu, D. (2020). Confessions Selected by Consequences: An Operant Analysis of False Confessions and Interrogation Techniques. Behav. Soc. Iss. 29, 162–194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42822-019-00025-8.

The cases of false confessions have been common in the U.S.A. since criminals often confess to crimes then later get exonerated after DNA investigations get conducted. The article focuses on analyzing how false confessions impact negatively on the wellbeing of criminals and the validity of the justice system.

Rossmo, D. K. (2018). Criminal Investigative Failures. Salus Journal6(1), 82-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706891114. Retrieved 2 February 2021 from https://salusjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/McKinley_Salus_Journal_Volume_6_Number_1_2018_pp_82-84.pdf.

Failures during police investigations often occur due to the mental status of the suspects, discrepancies during interview processes and errors that can occur in the justice system based on the techniques used to solve the case. The article proposes that investigators exercise more care when dealing with court cases so that it would be possible to maintain the credibility of police investigations during court cases.

Wuthichai T. (2017). Factors affecting the effectiveness of police performance in Metropolitan Police Bureau. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38(1). 39-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss.2016.07.001.

The article explains that discrepancies in police investigations often occurred to the lack of equipment for conducting effective research. The lack of proper manpower also affected validity of court proceedings since that influences the capability of accuracy in court proceedings.

Saint Leo University

College of Education and Social Services

Graduate Studies in Criminal Justice

CRJ 590

Applied Project in Criminal Justice Administration

Spring 2021

Professor: Dr. Robert J. Diemer

Telephone: 352-588-8974

Office Location: Saint Edward Hall, Room #113

Office Hours: Mondays: 2:00 – 9:30 pm (Eastern Time)

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Christine Sereni-Massinger

Telephone: Will be provided by instructor

Email: christine.sereni-[email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Karin May

Telephone: Cell (813) 434-6859

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Forrest Beach

Telephone: will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Willie Newkirik

Telephone: will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Steven Chernick

Telephone: will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

Course Dates: Starts: January 11, 2021 Ends: May 2, 2021

Class Meetings: ZOOM Meetings dates and times listed below

Credit Hours: 6

Prerequisites :

Successful completion of all courses in the Master of Science in Criminal Justice Program

Required Text

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: (2019). 7th Edition, Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Recommended Textbooks/Academic Journals:

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (2015). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Ravenio Books.

Houston, J. G., Bridgmon, P. B., & Parsons, W. W. (2008). Criminal justice and the policy process. University Press of America.

Maxfield, M. G., & Babbie, E. R. (2014). Research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Cengage Learning.

Posavac, E. J. (2015). Program evaluation: Methods and case studies. Routledge.

Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Henry, G. T. (2018). Evaluation: A systematic approach. Sage publications.

Welsh, W. N., & Harris, P. W. (2016). Criminal justice policy and planning: Planned change. Routledge.

Course Description:

This course is designed to be a capstone project in which the student will use all the skills, attitudes and knowledge acquired from the program curriculum to address an important problem or launch a program initiative related to the administration of criminal justice. The objective of this course is primarily an outcomes assessment for the Graduate Program. For successful completion of this course and the Master of Science in Criminal Justice Administration degree requirements, students must demonstrate both a mastery of the curriculum content, and an articulated ability to apply what has been learned to professional endeavors.

The current criminal system is complex and places critical demands on those who must supervise and manage its organizations. The criminal justice administrator must possess highly developed analytical and problem-solving skills. In this course the student is expected to demonstrate the highest level of academic and professional skills as applied to a “real-world” problem. Upon completion of this course students should be able to:

A. Demonstrate the skills, attitudes and knowledge acquired from the Master of Science in Criminal Justice Administration program curriculum to address a problem or to launch an initiative.

B. Apply what has been learned in the curriculum content to a “real-world” situation.

C. Define a problem specific to the student’s agency or community.

D. Summarize factors bearing on the problem or initiative identified.

E. Elaborate on the factors identified and critically analyze their significance.

F. Produce a list of possible solutions to the problem.

G. Evaluate the possible solutions and conclude which solution (s) is most persuasive.

H. Recommend a final recommended action or series of actions.

I. Write a draft of an Administrative Position Paper detailing your problem-solving proposal according to specific guidelines provided by your professor.

J. Write the final Administrative Position Paper according to specific guidelines that reflects the highest academic and professional standards.

Course Grades:

The following represents the point values assigned for the various course assignments as well as the final grade scale.

Information Gathering and Analysis: The student must utilize supporting documentation for the paper that includes library, networking, and computer-based research for the gathering of sufficient information to successfully complete the paper.

Paper Organization: The student must demonstrate the ability to organize and present a coherent paper.

Theoretical Integration and Application: The student must demonstrate the ability to integrate theoretical knowledge with concrete information and to apply the strategies that will support the paper. The work should represent student own originality of information.

NOTE : Excluding the reference page, no more than 15% of the entire document can be direct quoted material. Any submission that fails to follow this requirement will not be accepted and the student will receive a grade of “Fail”.

The following grading criteria will be used to measure each student’s performance on the Applied Project.

Information gathering and analysis (30 maximum points)

Organization: (30 maximum points)

Theoretical Integration and Application: (40 maximum points)

NOTE: Failure to submit the problem, draft copies of your project by the required dates could reduce your final grade by a total of 20 points. The critiquing of your colleagues’ paper must be done.

Grades

Pass= 75 points or above

Fail = 74 points or below

Academic Dishonesty:

Other than those papers that were developed within the Master of Science in Criminal Justice Program at Saint Leo University; nopreviously submitted papers, articles, reports or projects, in whole or in part, to any university or college will be accepted.

Academic dishonesty is representing another’s work as one’s own, active complicity in such falsification, or violating test conditions. Plagiarism is stealing and passing of ideas and words of another as one’s own or using the work of another without crediting the source.

The sanctions for academic dishonesty such as cheating on an examination, plagiarism, forgery of academic documents (including signing another’s name), the copying of computer programs or information, and similar offenses are as follows:

1. The minimum sanction for the first offense is an “F” for the test or assignment, but the usual sanction is an “F” in the course where the violation took place.

2. The minimum sanction for the second offense is an “F” in the course, but the usual sanction is suspension of the student from St. Leo University.

Student with Disabilities:

Students with disabilities, who need accommodation, should contact Amanda Becker in the Office of Disability Services (room #207, second floor of the Student Activities Building), 352-588-8464, or email [email protected].

The use of Wikipedia as a resource for any assignment will not be accepted.

Critique of Papers

Assignments maybe critiqued by your professor on the message board. The critiques include areas of deficiencies, needing improvement as well as positive attributes. The comments are to promote further student learning. No grade will be posted on any assignments where other students can see and will only be posted in the Gradebook within the class.

During the next 16 weeks, you will have three assignments that will require you to provide feedback to your classmates on their writing. These assignments are nothing more than an attempt to provide constructive feedback as well as provide learning to the individual doing the critique. Below is the list of assignments that will require critiquing.

Schedule

AssignmentOriginal to be PostedCritique to be posted
Post ProblemNo later than January 17No later than January 19
Post FactorsNo later than January 24No later than January 26
Post Draft 1No later than February 21No later than February 23
Post Draft 2No later than March 14No later than March 16
Post Draft 3No later than April 4
Post Final PaperNo later than April 25

Critiquing Process

The process for critiquing is simple as long as each of you read the requirements. Each critique will be done in Microsoft Track Changes and will be posted the following week on message board in the area identified as “Critique of Problem, Critique of Draft 1 and Critique of Draft 2”.

1. By Wednesday of Week #1 you are to locate a partner within the class to work with on critiquing each other’s paper.

2. When you post your assignment, for example: Post Problem on the discussion board, you are to post it as an attachment using Microsoft Word. I will review your paper and I will make comments, but these comments will be general in nature.

3. You will then download your partner’s paper and begin to critique it using Microsoft Word Track Changes. You will be looking for grammatical errors, content errors, APA formatting errors and scholarly writing. Your critique is to be complete, as you will be graded on how well you provided feedback.

4. You will post the critique on the message board in the area identified as “Critique of ____”. The area will always be listed under the section that was posted.

.

5. The individual that has been critiqued will be able to review the comments and hopefully gain further insight and learning. The paper is NOT to be redone or reposted. The critique is only for your information.

Critiquing Eloquence

I do not want anyone taking the critiquing personal. This is strictly being used to provide critical feedback to your work. As a graduate student, you will be evaluated on your writing and these assignments will hopefully prepare you for this journey and enable you to become better. I do not want to see sarcasm or derogatory wording by the individual critiquing. If you read your paper and do not agree with the assessment, you can converse with your partner if you wish. There is no need to have a discussion or to do a reprint. Any comments made on your papers do not have to be accepted—meaning that you do not have to make the suggested changes. Again, the comments are to be used as a tool.

It is my sincere hopes that this process will assist you in two ways: Learning how to develop a quality paper and identify potential problems in your own writing.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ADMINISTRATIVE POSITION PAPER

· Each student must turn in their Administrative Position Paper on your scheduled date. One letter grade will be deducted automatically for each week a Position Paper is late.

· The Administrative Position Paper must be no less than twelve (12) discussion pages but no more than sixteen (16) discussion pages in length. Margins which are too wide will reduce your page count.

· The Administrative Position Paper must be completed in Microsoft Word (products such as Word Pad, Word Perfect and other similar software will not be accepted), typed and double-spaced, using one of the following fonts Calibri-11, Arial-11, Lucida Sans Unicode-10, Times New Roman-12, and Georgia-11 with one-inch margins.

· Use the same font throughout the text of the paper.

· While extensive research is not the object of the Administrative Position Paper, students shall use and list no less than fifteen (15) different scholarly reference sources, using a standard APA** format. Multiple uses of a single source reference will detract from your grade. Only one website is allowed. No news sources are acceptable.

· Students are expected to use proper grammar and punctuation.

· Proper APA-7th edition style citations must be used.

· No more than 15% percent of the paper can be QUOTED material. This paper is designed to be the author’s original work.

· All facts must be cited with an in-text citation.

· No material before 2005 is permitted.

· References- You are not permitted to use material that is any earlier that 2005 in this paper. Information before that date may not be relevant today.

· The Administrative Position Paper Format must be followed exactly as described herein.

SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS

PROBLEM SUBMISSION:

You are required to submit within the first week of class, and no later than midnight (Eastern Time), January 17, 2021 the Problem section of your project. The Problem is to be posted on the discussion board (found under the activities tab) in the area designated as “POST PROBLEM STATEMENT HERE”.

Attach the Problem in a Microsoft Word document.

FACTORS BEARING ON THE PROBLEM

You are required to submit an attachment in Microsoft Word to the discussion board that includes, both the problem statement and the factors bearing on the problem by January 24, 2021. The Factors Bearing on the Problem link on the discussion board.

DRAFT #1 SUBMISSION:

You are required to submit an attachment a Partial Draft Submission #1 which is a copy of your project that includes the following: Cover page, The Problem and Factors Bearing on the Problem, and as much as is completed of the discussion by February 21, 2021. The Partial Draft Submission #1 is to be posted on the message board in the area designated as “POST DRAFT #1 HERE”.

Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion (whatever has been done) and your Annotated Bibliography – DO NOT INCLUDE A CONCLUSION or ACTION RECOMMENDED . You will number them as outlined in the submission requirements. I am not expecting that these two are completed, but what I am looking for is the formation of your paper. The Partial Draft Submission #1 does two things, it allows you to begin to put your thoughts on paper and it allows me to review your progress. Any comments made by me to you will be communicated in a reply email.

You are required that during all of the drafts you color coat each of the factors a different color, other than the color “RED” or an extremely bright color like “YELLOW”. Then when you research each factor, the information that you write on the factor, within the discussion section, the font matches that color of the factor. This way, you can see how much information you have on each factor and it is a good way to judge what resources or information is needed. Remember the final submission should contain the colors. If this is not clear, please get with your instructor.

DRAFT #2 SUBMISSION:

You are required to submit an attachment a Partial Draft Submission #2 which is a copy of your project that includes the following: Cover page, The Problem and Factors Bearing on the Problem, and as much as is completed of the discussion by March 14, 2021. The Partial Draft Submission #2 is to be posted on the message board in the area designated as “POST DRAFT #2 HERE”.

Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion (whatever has been done) and your Annotated Bibliography – DO NOT INCLUDE A CONCLUSION or ACTION RECOMMENDED . Title each section of your paper as outlined in the submission requirements. I am not expecting that these four items be completed, but what I am looking for is the formation flow of your paper. The Partial Draft Submission #2 does two things, it allows you to begin to put your thoughts on paper and it allows me to review your progress. Any comments made by me to you will be communicated in a reply email.

DRAFT #3 SUBMISSION:

You are required to submit a copy of your project by April 4, 2021, to the assignment board located under the activities tab, identified by DRAFT #3 ONLY and to the Message Board in the area identified as “Post Draft #3.” This draft copy must follow the project guidelines set forth in the Administrative Position Paper requirements. The Second Reader will not critique your draft Administrative Position Paper. In order for the paper to be reviewed, it MUST be posted in the Assignment Section.

Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion, and Conclusion (include Action Recommended) and the Annotated Bibliography.

FINAL SUBMISSION:

No Later than, April 25, 2021, you are required to:

1. Post final copy of the Administrative Position Paper to the Message Board in the area marked “POST FINAL PAPER” to the assignment board under the activities tab and to Chalk and Wire. The Chalk and Wire submission is located in Module 8 and titled “Administrative Position Paper”. Your paper will be graded ONLY in Chalk and Wire, therefore, If you do not SUBMIT to CHALK and WIRE you will receive an “F” Failure grade for this assignment—NO EXCEPTIONS.

NO CREDIT IS GIVEN IF THESE REQUIREMENTS ARE NOT FOLLOWED BY THE SPECIFIED DATES.

Administrative Position Paper Definition

The Administrative Position Paper defined as “the overview of a problem and the presentation of a proposed solution(s) for others to consider.”

Steps to Follow

The student’s task is to place yourself in the position of a member of a Criminal Justice planning staff; to review an approved agency problem; to summarize some research on the topic, and to write a paper for a chief or other criminal justice executive to act on. You must provide one or more recommended solutions for the problem you select.

Your writing must be clear and concise so the criminal justice executive can readily understand the problem, review the facts, comprehend the reasoning behind the solution/recommendations and be prepared to take action. Your research must reflect high academic quality.

The Administrative Position Paper Format – DO NOT DEVIATE FROM THIS FORMAT

Cover Page

The Administrative Position Paper must have a cover page using the APA format:

– No Running Head: For student papers

– Page Number (Top Right)

– Title of your Administrative Position Paper

– Your name

– University

– Number of course and name of the course

– Instructors name and title

– Assignments due date

(Note- DO NOT include anything else on your paper)

The cover sheet does not count in the total number of pages required.

The remainder of the format for the Administrative Position Paper is divided into five (5) sections as follows: Title each section to identify the five (5) sections, use capital letters to identify paragraphs (or factors in section II)

The Problem

The statement of the problem tells the criminal justice executive what the difficulty is; what problem is to be solved. No discussion is necessary at this point. In later sections you will be elaborating on the facts, issues, solutions, etc.

The Problem does not count in the total number of pages required.

Factors Bearing on the Problem

This section includes facts or statements of truth which can be substantiated. For example, “The average education level of the police officer in this city is 14.5 years (or high school plus 2 1/2 years college).” Another example might be, “Last year the citizens of this county only reported 200 crimes in progress to the police” or “the jail population averaged 20% above maximum capacity in fiscal year 1983/84.”

List each fact separately. (Use bullets to identify factors, however each factor MUST be a complete sentence). Each bullet item must ONLY be two sentences. You are to have 4 factors and if you require more, you must get permission from your instructor. Also, you must have an introductory statement to this section explaining what the section means. This introduction must be 2 -3 sentence ONLY. As an example, the introduction statement could be: This section of the paper will identify the four (4) issues that are directly related to the problem.

Also, at the end of the listed factors, the student must list any assumptions which lend weight to their final recommendation/solutions. Example: Assumption- It is assumed that if the victims of crimes are compensated for their time spent testifying in court, more citizens will be willing to become involved in prosecutions; or, it is assumed that better trained officers will be able to more effectively communicate with the public. The assumption goes after the last factor. The assumption must not be any more than four (4) complete sentences.

You are to color each of the factors. Then when you are writing your information on a factor in the discussion section, you color the wording to match the factor. This way you have a clear visual on how much information you have written on the topic. You may keep the colors on the paper for each of the submissions, except the final submission.

The Factors do not count in the total number of pages required.

Discussion

The discussion section is the “meat and potatoes” of the Administrative Position Paper. It contains the critical analysis of the problem and all possible factors researched. This is the critical area for the student to show the professor and your administrator you have done your research properly. This is the longest section. Cite all facts by using in-text citations. Nothing in the Discussion Section should contain personal knowledge, experience, or opinion from the author. Only facts—and —each fact must be formatted with an in-text citation according to the APA 7th edition format. Do not uses case studies and if you are going to use a personal communication, you are only permitted to use one and it should be no more than one (1) short paragraph. No charts, diagrams, case studies or long quoted material is to be used in the Discussion area. If you need to use charts, diagrams, case studies or quotes, you must put them into an Appendix and only refer to them in the Discussion Section. Material must be paraphrased and provided a citation; however, we will allow 15% of your entire paper to have quotes. If you are unsure of what the difference is between paraphrasing and direct quoted material, get with your instructor. No recommendations, action recommended information or solutions are to be discussed in this section. Only issues that are related to each of the factors as problems are to be discussed.

The Discussion does count in the total number of pages required. The Discussion should be no less than twelve (12) pages and no more than sixteen (16) pages.

Rule: Four (4) Factors- Each factor should have 3 to 4 pages for each one.

Conclusion

Now that you have shown how you reasoned through the problem, state a conclusion. The conclusion is nothing more than a brief statement of the best possible solution or solutions which you have described in detail in the Discussion section. You do not need to continue the discussion. You should not introduce new material in this section. Example: “Although new jails could be constructed to house more inmates, a new program of community custody for first offenders convicted of nonviolent crimes would prove more cost-effective.”

The Conclusion does count in the total number of pages required. The Conclusion should be only one (1) complete page.

. Action Recommended In this section you tell the instructor (and the criminal justice executive) what your final recommended action is. Alternate possible actions have already been reviewed in your Discussion section. You are making a commitment to a single course of action. Example: “It is recommended that the city hire five more prosecuting attorneys and three more judges in order to make the court system more expedient.” You include several steps that must be done in support of your action recommended, including a time frame for possible action steps, and a budget if appropriate. Ensure that you have addressed in your Action Recommended each of the factors so that the reader understands how your recommendation is related to what you indicated was a problem

The Action Recommended does not count in the total number of pages required; however, it must not be less than two (2) pages. Be detailed in your assessment.

References:

Finally, include a section entitled References which lists all of your references as an annotated bibliography using the APA 7th edition format. If you are unfamiliar with how to write an annotated bibliography, please review the following website for this information

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=APA+7th+edition+annotated+bibliography&&view=detail&mid=16ABAB18996E1A88A03316ABAB18996E1A88A033&&FORM=VRDGAR&ru=%2Fvideos%2Fsearch%3Fq%3DAPA%2B7th%2Bedition%2Bannotated%2Bbibliography%26FORM%3DHDRSC3 The references must be in alphabetical order.

Your paper WILL NOT be accepted if the references are not annotated.

The References do not count in the total number of pages required.

Appendix:

If applicable, must be located after the References and identified by letter.

The Appendix does not count in the total number of pages required.

Class Assignments:

Unlike traditional content-oriented courses, this final course represents a capstone requirement for the master’s degree in Criminal Justice Administration and as such is more independent in nature. Therefore, after agreement is reached between the professor and the student on the problem, in subsequent weeks, the student will conduct independent research, if appropriate develop a draft Administrative Position Paper and work on revisions suggested by the professor.

ZOOM Meetings: There will be four ZOOM Meetings, which are non-mandatory and will be held at the below indicated dates and times. Each ZOOM Meeting will last approximately one hour, and you will be required to discuss your paper with your fellow students and me. While I serve as a mentor and facilitator, the student is ultimately responsible for the quality of their paper and the discussions that we have. It is your responsibility to understand the ZOOM Meeting system, BEFORE you join the session call, therefore I would set up your computer in advance of the meeting.

We have 1st ZOOM session on January 11, 2021 at 7:00pm.  Please click the following link 15 minutes before to ensure that you have set up the software.

Robert Diemer is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Join 1st Zoom Meeting

Topic: CRJ 590 Fall 1- First ZOOM Session

Time: January 11, 2021 at 07:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Topic: CRJ 590 – First Meeting

Time: Jan 11, 2021 07:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting

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Meeting ID: 928 5706 2286

Passcode: 039027

One tap mobile

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Dial by your location

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Meeting ID: 928 5706 2286

Passcode: 039027

Find your local number: https://saintleo.zoom.us/u/alXyVCvXo

We have our 2nd ZOOM session on January 25, 2021 at 7:00pm.  Please click the following link 15 minutes before to ensure that you have set up the software.

Robert Diemer is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Join Zoom Meeting

Topic: CRJ 590 Second Meeting

Time: Jan 25, 2021 07:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting

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Meeting ID: 913 2716 0183

Passcode: 463092

Find your local number: https://saintleo.zoom.us/u/au4MNgqSh

We have our 3rd ZOOM session on February 15, 2021 at 7:00pm.  Please click the following link 15 minutes before to ensure that you have set up the software.

Robert Diemer is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Join Zoom Meeting

Topic: CRJ 590 Third Meeting

Time: Feb 15, 2021 07:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting

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Dial by your location

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+1 669 900 6833 US (San Jose)

Meeting ID: 917 3568 4575

Passcode: 110689

Find your local number: https://saintleo.zoom.us/u/adKSeGGdip

We have our 4th ZOOM session on March 29, 2021 at 7:00pm.  Please click the following link 15 minutes before to ensure that you have set up the software.

Robert Diemer is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Join Zoom Meeting

Robert Diemer is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Topic: CRJ 590 Fourth Meeting

Time: Mar 29, 2021 07:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting

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Meeting ID: 956 3548 7300

Passcode: 923422

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Dial by your location

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Meeting ID: 956 3548 7300

Passcode: 923422

Find your local number: https://saintleo.zoom.us/u/aduBdOa1yy

Saint Leo University Non-Discrimination EEO Statement

Saint Leo University has a strong commitment to principles of equal employment opportunity and equal access to education. Saint Leo University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, ethnic origin, genetic information, sex, gender, national origin, race, religion, or veteran status, or any other category protected by federal, state, or local law in its educational programs, admissions policies, financial aid, employment, or other school administered programs.

The policy is enforced by Saint Leo University and by applicable laws such as Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title VII and Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Americans with Disabilities Act, Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992.

Contact Information

The Title IX coordinator information is as follows:

Name: Beverley DiGiacobbe

Office Location: Benedictine Hall, 3rd Floor room 327 and

Kirk Hall, 2nd Floor room 221 (by appointment only)

Email Address: [email protected] and [email protected]

Telephone Number: (352) 588-7429

Mailing Address: Saint Leo University Human Resources

ATTN: Beverley DiGiacobbe Title IX Coordinator,

33701 S.R. 52, PO Box 6665, Saint Leo, FL 33574

The Director of Accessibility Services and The Section 504 Coordinator, Michael Bailey, may be contacted at [email protected]

If you are a pregnant or parenting student and are in need of assistance, please contact the Title IX Coordinator and the Director of Accessibility Services.

Important Term Dates:

January 11, 2021 Term Begins

January 11, 2021 First ZOOM Meeting – 7:00 pm (Eastern Time)

January 13, 2021 Sign up for a Critique Partner Complete

January 17, 2021 Problem Due – Post on Message Board

January 19, 2021 Critique of Problem due – Post on Message Board

January 24, 2021 Factors Bearing on the Problem- Post on Message

January 25, 2021 Second ZOOM Meeting – 7:00 pm (Eastern Time)

January 26, 2021 Critique-Factors on the Problem-Post on Message Board

February 15, 2021 Third ZOOM Meeting – 7:00 pm (Eastern Time)

February 21, 2021 Post Draft #1- Post on Message Board- Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion (whatever has been done) and References – DO NOT INCLUDE A CONCLUSION or ACTION RECOMMENDED

February 23, 2021 Critique of Draft #1- Post on Message Board

March 14, 2021 Post Draft #2- Post on Message Board- Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion (whatever has been done) and References – DO NOT INCLUDE A CONCLUSION or ACTION RECOMMENDED

March 16, 2021 Critique of Draft #2- Post on Message Board

March 29, 2021 Fourth ZOOM Meeting – 7:00 pm (Eastern Time)

April 4, 2021 Post Draft #3 Turnitin Submission–Post on Message Board and turnitin.com- Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion (whatever has been done), Conclusion and References, your instructor will critique in Grademark or Track Changes

April 25, 2021 Post Final Project – Message Board & www.turnitin.com

Post should include: Cover Page, Problem, Factors Bearing on the Problem, Discussion, and Conclusion (include Action Recommended) and References

May 2, 2021 Semester Ends- Grades Entered

12

Saint Leo University

College

of Education and Social

Services

Graduate Studies in Criminal Justice

CRJ 590

Applied Project in Criminal Justice Administration

Spring

202

1

Professor:

Dr. Robert J. Diemer

Telephone

:

352

588

8974

Office Location

:

Saint Edward Hall, Room #

113

Office Hours

:

Mondays: 2:00

9:30 pm (Eastern Time)

Email:

[email protected]

AND

/OR

Instructor

:

Dr.

Christine

Sereni

Massinger

Telephone:

Will be provided by

instructor

Email:

christine.sereni

[email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor

:

Dr. Karin May

Telephone:

Cell (813) 434

6859

Email:

[email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor

:

Dr.

Forrest Beach

Telephone:

will be provided by instructor

Email:

[email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor

:

Dr.

Willie Newkirik

Telephone:

will be provided by instructor

Email:

[email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor

:

Dr.

Steven Chernick

Telephone:

will be provided by instructor

Email:

[email protected]

Course Dates:

Starts

:

January

11,

202

1

Ends

:

May 2,

202

1

Class Meetings:

ZOOM Meetings dates

and times listed below

Credit Hours:

6

Saint Leo University

College of Education and Social Services

Graduate Studies in Criminal Justice

CRJ 590

Applied Project in Criminal Justice Administration

Spring 2021

Professor: Dr. Robert J. Diemer

Telephone: 352-588-8974

Office Location: Saint Edward Hall, Room #113

Office Hours: Mondays: 2:00 – 9:30 pm (Eastern Time)

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Christine Sereni-Massinger

Telephone: Will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Karin May

Telephone: Cell (813) 434-6859

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Forrest Beach

Telephone: will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Willie Newkirik

Telephone: will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

AND/OR

Instructor: Dr. Steven Chernick

Telephone: will be provided by instructor

Email: [email protected]

Course Dates: Starts: January 11, 2021 Ends: May 2, 2021

Class Meetings: ZOOM Meetings dates and times listed below

Credit Hours: 6

Running Head: DESCRIPTOR 1

Title

Author

University

(AUTHOR, YEAR)

The Descriptor

is in all capital

letters and is

shorter than the

title.

Page number is

right justified.

The Rule of Thumb Items that DO NOT count towards page number

 Cover page – Page 1

 The Problem Statement- Page 2 (should be more than one paragraph but not more than two

 Action Recommended- After Conclusion (should be comprehensive and no less than two pages

 References- Must be annotated

 Appendix

The Rule of Thumb Items that DO count towards page number

 Factors Bearing on the Problem- Page 3 (No less than four bullets and no more than six bullets)

 Discussion- Page Four (no less than 12 pages

 Conclusion (no less than one page and no more than 2 pages)

Notice throughout the paper you will

see the light blue information with

author, year and in some cases page

numbers. These are the different

ways you can do in-text citations.

DESCRIPTOR 2

Notice the Roman numeral and the

section name.

I. The Problem

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx

xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx

xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx

xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

The Problem Statement

states clearly the problem

with the topic. It outlines

all of the issues and should

be no more than two

paragraphs.

DESCRIPTOR 3 An introductory sentence

to section. II. Factors Bearing on the Problem

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x

xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x

xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

 xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx

xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

 xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx

xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

 xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx

xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx

xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x

xxxxx xxxx.

 xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx

xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

Each factor is more than just a bullet

idea. It is a complete sentence that

explains the problem you are

describing.

No more than 6 factors and not less than

4 factors. Remember, you must discuss

ONLY the factors in the Discussion

section.

DESCRIPTOR 4

III. Discussion

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. (Author, Year) Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx

xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x

xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx

xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x

xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Author, Year) “Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx

xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.” (Author, Year, p. #)

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. (Author, Year) According to Author, Year, Xxxxxx xxx

xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x

xxxxx xxxx. (Author, Year) Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x

xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx

xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x

xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

Only the information

relating to the FACTORS

may be in the Discussion.

No personal opinions, experiences

or thoughts are permitted in the

discussion section—ONLY FACTS!

NO graphs, charts

or diagrams. They

must go in an

appendix.

DESCRIPTOR 5

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Author, Year)

Author, Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx

xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx

xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Year)

As state by Author, Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx

xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Year) Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx

xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x

xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Author, Year) “Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx

xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x

xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.” (Author, Year, p. #) Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx

xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx

xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx

xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx

xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. (Author, Year) Author and Author Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx

xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx

xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Year)

Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx

xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x

xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Author, Year) “Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx

xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx

Opinions, personal

thoughts and

experiences are only

permitted in the

conclusion

NO Subheadings

NO Case Studies-

Only Facts

DESCRIPTOR 6

Block quotes do not use

quotation hash marks.

xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx

xxxx xxx.” (Author, Year, p. #) Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x

xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x

xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. (Author, Year)

Name (Year) Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx

xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx

xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx

xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx

xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (p. #)

Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx

xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx

xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Author, Year) Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx

xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx

xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. (Author, Year)

“Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx

x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx

x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.” (Author, Year, p. #) Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx

xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx

FACTS and only FACTS

with in-text citations are

permitted

Quotes should ONLY be used

if you are unable to

paraphrase, as it would loose

meaning.

References more than 10

years old are too old—Use

current information.

DESCRIPTOR 7

xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx

xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. (Author, Year)

IV. Conclusion

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx

xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx.

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx

xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx

xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx

xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

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Personal opinions, experiences or

thoughts ARE permitted in the

Conclusion Section.

This section should be no less than

one page and no more than two.

DESCRIPTOR 8

Action Recommended

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

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xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx

xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x

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xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx

This should be a comprehensive

recommendation. If there is

money involved with this project

you must discuss in this section.

Cost is an important issue with any

project.

Notice there is NO Roman numeral.

Your Action Recommended should

be no less than two pages.

DESCRIPTOR 9

xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x

xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

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xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

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xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx

xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx

xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx

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Xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx

x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx

x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

DESCRIPTOR 10

References

Diemer, R. (2010). Title. City: Publisher (ONE AUTHOR)

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

Diemer, R., & James, X. (2010). Title. Retrieved from NAME, website: http://eieiruriruyeoe.com

(INTERNET)

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

Diemer, R., & James, X. (2010). Title. City: Publisher (TWO AUTHOR)

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx. Xxxxx xxxx

xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxx xxxx. Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx

xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

If you list a reference there

must be an in-text citation or

the reference must be removed.

Annotation IS required. It is a

paragraph about the text.http://eieiruriruyeoe.com/

DESCRIPTOR 11

Diemer, R., & James, X. (2010). XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Title XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

City: Publisher (SECOND LINE INDENTED)

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

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xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx xx x xxxxx xxxxx xxx x xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x xxxxx

xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

Diemer, R., James, X. & Harris, T. (2010). Title. Journal of the Moose, 50, 173-190 (JOURNAL)

Xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x x xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

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xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxx.

DESCRIPTOR 12

IMPORTANT INFORMATION In-text Citations Above:

The in-text citations above are in bold letters only to show as an example. They are not to be bold in your paper.

Cover Page:

Running Head: DESCRIPTOR IN CAPS (it is NOT the title of the paper- short descriptor) – Left Side; Page Number- Right Side; Title, Author, University- Centered under each other.

The Problem:

This is a Sub-Heading and starts on Page 2 and should be about one paragraph. Double Spaced The Factors Bearing on the Problem: You must start with a sentence to tell the reader what the section is about. Discussion:

No opinions, personal thoughts, or things about the author. Double Spaced. This section is strictly for research. Each thought must be attributed to someone (Not YOU) and you tell the reader where you got the information from by using an in-text citation. The most common is the (Author, Year). Remember, you may have three different thoughts in one paragraph, so you would need three in-text citations after each thought. Examples are shown above.

Conclusion:

This is a sub-heading and is after the end of the Body of the Report. Double Spaced. This is where you can put your opinion as long as it is supported by facts stated in the Body. The conclusion should just sum up the information in the Body.

References: This is a sub-heading and is on its own page after the Conclusion. Double Spaced and second line is indented

DESCRIPTOR 13

Appendix A

This section is where you would place surveys,

charts, diagrams, laws, etc….

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