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Module 4 – What is Traditional Pottery (Click here to post)

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New Mexico: Marie Martinez

 .   pottery  . 

India: Kummari Tradition

pottery

North Carolina: Mark Hewitt

Traditional Pottery: Pottery has been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. From prehistoric storage jars to ceremonial bowl, pottery has played a key role in innumerable human endeavors.Pottery is generally considered to be containers made from clay. “Pot” is a term used for any number of container forms. Both words derive from the Old English potian, “to push”. When we consider how the potter pushes as they throw the clay on the wheel, it is easy to see how the process got its name. The term “pottery” may also be used as an adjective with some objects, such as small figurines. (About.com Pottery)  

Assignment

In this assignment you are going to learn how each culture has a difference way of visually expressing itself through the tradition of pottery. After reading Chapter 2.6 in your textbook and watching the 3 videos below write 3 paragraphs  think about how each culture has a different way of visually expressing itself through the tradition of pottery. Use the questions below to inform your discussion.  

· What interested you most about each pottery tradition?

· What makes each culture recognizable to the outside world?

· How are some traditions and potters similar to each other?

· How are they different?

· Are the reasons for carrying on tradition the same? How?

Grading Criteria (300 Words)

· Three paragraphs

· Descriptive comments about each culture’s pottery traditions.

· What you found interesting about the different potters.

· Examples of how they are different and similar.

· I will also be looking for answers that show you have reviewed all the material and have organized your thoughts before writing.

· I will look for facts, fact-based opinions and personal responses.

Gateways to Art – Chapter 2.6

Resources

Resources

Attached Files:

·   thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-06_20181017.pptx  thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-06_20181017.pptx – Alternative Formats (35.372 MB) 

·   thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-05_20181017.pptx  thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-05_20181017.pptx – Alternative Formats (40.075 MB) 

·   thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-04_20181017.pptx  thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-04_20181017.pptx – Alternative Formats (36.061 MB) 

·   thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-03_20181017.pptx  thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-03_20181017.pptx – Alternative Formats (29.19 MB)

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction

Printmaking allows the same design to be reproduced and distributed to many people

If an artist creates the master image, supervises the process, and signs the work, it is considered an original print

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Printing with inks was first used in China to print patterns on fabrics in the third century ce

Original prints differ from commercial reproductions of an artwork, where the artist may not be involved in the process

The production of two or more identical images, signed and numbered by the artist, is called an edition; when an artist produces one print, it is called a monoprint

Each printmaking technique involves a different matrix, or origination point from which the print is derived

There are four main printing processes: relief, intaglio, lithography, and serigraphy

Artists choose a particular technique because they think it will suit the kind of effect they want to achieve

2

Context of Printmaking

Ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia reproduced images using incised stones

The earliest printed artworks on paper were created in China

By the 15th century, woodblock printing workshops became common in Europe as paper became less expensive

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Relief Printmaking

This type of printmaking is achieved by carving away from a block of material, such as wood or linoleum, to create a raised image

Ink is applied to the raised surface (carved areas are not inked)

Image is transferred to paper or similar material by applying pressure

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Relief Printing Process

2.3.1 A brief overview of the relief printing process

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Woodblock

Traditionally, wood has been used for relief prints because it is readily available, familiar to work with, and holds up under the pressure exerted by the printing process

Prints are known as woodcuts

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Albrecht Dürer, “The Four Horsemen”

2.3.2 Albrecht Dürer, “The Four Horsemen” from The Apocalypse, 1498. Woodcut, 15¼ × 11″. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Albrecht Dürer, “The Four Horsemen”

From Dürer’s illustrated Book of Revelation

Craftsmen created a printing block from his original drawing

Resulted in thin lines and detail that could withstand the compression of repeated printings

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) created a series of fifteen illustrations from the Book of Revelation, a symbolic piece of writing that prophesies the Apocalypse

The horsemen represent Death, Plague, War, and Famine

Unlike cutting from a solid block of wood, a print craftsman stacks and glues a series of thin, sliced layers of wood to create a more stable printing block (similar to plywood) that will be less likely to splinter or crack

The labor was expensive, but the series made Dürer wealthy

8

Artwork: Kitagawa Utamaro, Lovers in an Upstairs Room

2.3.3 Kitagawa Utamaro, Lovers in an Upstairs Room, from Uta Makura (Poem of the Pillow), 1788. Color woodblock print, 10 × 14½”. British Museum, London, England

Kitagawa Utamaro, Lovers in an Upstairs Room

Utamaro uses multiple blocks in different colors; each color is carefully printed in sequence on the same sheet of paper

Popular in Japan, ukiyo-e means “pictures of the floating world”

References to a young urban cultural class

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Kitagawa Utamaro (1753–1806) is regarded as one of the greatest Japanese printmakers

He made images for the Japanese middle and upper classes of figures, theaters, and brothels

10

Artwork: Emil Nolde, Prophet

2.3.4 Emil Nolde, Prophet, 1912. Woodcut, printed in black, composition 12⅝ × 8¾”. MoMA, New York

Digital rights not available for this image. See p. 228 of the textbook.

Emil Nolde, Prophet

Nolde uses the natural character of the wood to suggest the hardships of an austere life

Relief printmaking favors dark images with strong contrast

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Emil Nolde (1867-1956) was a German Expressionist printmaker.

12

Artwork: Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa”

2.3.5 Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,” from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Hokusai: Using the Woodblock Printing Method

Hokusai relied on skilled craftsmen who carved his original image into cherry wood

Nine blocks were used in this print; each color required its own relief block

Gateway to Art:

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The work of Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849) is a fine example of the printmaker’s art

“The Great Wave” was one of ten prints in the series Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji to use a new blue color, imported from Europe, known as Prussian blue

The sequence of printing was done with great skill, ensuring that each print in the edition matched the others

The blocks of wood were used so many times that the carving eventually deteriorated

Although it is unknown how many prints were made, it is estimated there were more than 5,000

14

Linocut

Linoleum is softer than woodblocks and does not show a wood grain

Linoleum (“lino”) printmaking is done by carving into the surface, then printing the raised surface left behind

The resulting prints are called linocuts

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Stanley Donwood, “Hollywood Limousine”

2.3.6 Stanley Donwood, “Hollywood Limousine,” from the Lost Angeles series, 2012.

Black screenprint on a silver foil layer, 22 × 35¾”

Stanley Donwood, “Hollywood Limousine”

Donwood is best known for his artwork for the rock band Radiohead

Produced a series that depicts the last days of the city of Los Angeles

Cut into sheets of soft linoleum and printed on fine Japanese paper

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Real name is Dan Rickwood (b. 1968)

The soft linoleum allowed Donwood to capture the myriad of fictional events in great detail, with the kind of clarity that a storybook illustration might have

17

Intaglio Printmaking

Intaglio means “cut into” in Italian

A burin cuts or gouges into a metal or Plexiglas plate

The Ink on the raised surface is wiped away, leaving ink in the scarred surface

The pressure of the printing press squeezes the plate against the paper, transferring the ink

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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Intaglio Printmaking Process

2.3.7 A brief overview of the engraving process (intaglio): 1. An image is designed for the plate. 2. Using a sharp tool, the artist incises the image into the plate.

3. The plate is inked.

4. The surface of the plate is wiped, removing all ink except in the grooves

5. Paper is placed on the plate and it is pressed.

6. The paper lifts the ink out of the grooves and the ink is imprinted on the paper

7. The final image is complete. (In most printmaking methods the final image is reversed from the plate or block.)

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19

Engraving

Based on the careful scoring of a metal plate so that clean gouges are created in the surface

An engraving can achieve fine detail, making the resulting print more like the artist’s original drawing

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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Artwork: Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve

2.3.8 Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504. Engraving on paper, 9⅞ × 7⅞”.

Metropolitan Museum

of Art, New York

Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve

Dürer had a financial reason for choosing to engrave his work:

Because a metal plate is much more durable than a woodblock, he could make and sell many more copies of his image

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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Portal Artwork: William Hogarth, False Perspective

4.5.6 William Hogarth, False Perspective. Engraving from Dr. Brook Taylor’s Method of Perspective Made Easy, Both in Theory and in Practice, 1754

William Hogarth’s False Perspective is an example of an engraving with fine detail.

23

Drypoint

In drypoint the cutting tool is pulled, leaving a rough edge, or burr

When the plate is wiped the ink is caught under the burr

The result is a less precise line that has more irregularities

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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Artwork: Max Beckmann, Adam and Eve

2.3.9 Max Beckmann, Adam and Eve, 1917, published 1918. Drypoint, 9⅜ × 7″. Private collection, New York

Max Beckmann, Adam and Eve

Beckmann’s uneven line expresses unpredictability and an organic naturalness

The irregular, rough lines of drypoint suit the subject matter

Adam and Eve are becoming aware of their nakedness, uncertain about their future

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Max Beckmann (1884–1950) was a German Expressionist artist.

26

Etching

A metal plate is covered with an acid-resistant coating, into which the artist scratches the design

The plate is immersed in acid

The acid “bites” into the metal where the covering has been removed, making grooves that hold the ink

PART 2

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Artwork: Rembrandt van Rijn, Adam and Eve

2.3.10 Rembrandt van Rijn, Adam and Eve, 1638. Etching, 9¾ × 7″. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Rembrandt van Rijn, Adam and Eve

The Dutch artist Rembrandt van Rijn was a master of intaglio printmaking, especially etching

Rembrandt brings out details by marring the plate surface more in the areas that will appear darker in the print

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Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606–1669).

29

Aquatint

The image is created in a coating of powdered rosin (a tree sap)

The rosin is melted onto the surface of the plate, creating a mottled, acid-resistant barrier into which the design is etched

Creates a soft organic texture similar to that of brush and ink

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Another process that requires the use of an acid bath to etch the surface of the plate is aquatint

Despite the name, water does not play a role in aquatint printmaking

Since the rosin leaves irregular areas of the plate exposed, a soft organic texture (similar to that created when one uses brush and ink) dominates the image

30

Artwork: Francisco Goya, Giant

2.3.11 Francisco Goya, Giant,

c. 1818. Burnished aquatint,

first state, sheet size 11¼ × 8¼”. Metropolitan Museum of Art,

New York

Francisco Goya, Giant

This print shows the wash-like appearance of the aquatint process

Goya controlled the distribution of rosin to create dark values

Soft, rich implied texture emphasizes that this is a mythical creature

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32

Mezzotint

The entire surface of the plate is roughened with a rocking tool (a metal object with a spiked, curved bottom)

Areas where light tones are desired are then smoothed

Ink is removed from the smoothed areas when the plate is wiped

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Mezzotints often produce dark, rich values because the ink has many places to settle.

33

Artwork: Dox Thrash, Defense Worker

2.3.12 Dox Thrash, Defense Worker, c. 1941, Carborundum mezzotint over etched guidelines, 9¾ × 8″. Print and Picture Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia

Dox Thrash, Defense Worker

Thrash uses mezzotint over etched guidelines

The dark values reflect the seriousness of the war effort and the spirit of the American worker during World War II

Sponsored by the Works Projects Administration

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African-American artist Dox Thrash (1893–1965) used more than one printmaking method

The Works Projects Administration was a government program originally created during the Great Depression to employ Americans at a time when jobs were hard to find

Artists, writers, musicians, and others contributed to American culture and infrastructure by applying their skills, first in support of rebuilding America and then, during World War II, in support of the war effort

35

Collography

Collography is created by building up (rather than cutting into) a surface

Artist glues or “collages” materials to a rigid support (e.g. wood or cardboard)

The image can then be inked and printed

PART 2

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36

Artwork: Glen Alps, Roll-Up #2

2.3.13 Glen Alps, Roll-Up #2, 1956. Collagraph, 26¼ × 32½”

Glen Alps, Roll-Up #2

Alps is most closely associated with the development of the collagraph

Pieces of material are glued in a spontaneous way

Surface can be easily manipulated

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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Glen Alps (1914–1996) was a longtime faculty member at the University of Washington in Seattle

Alps first used the term collagraph to describe the process

Although Alps did not invent the collagraphic technique, he was the first printmaker to succeed in mastering and promoting the process

38

Lithography

From the Greek for “stone writing”

A planographic process – the print is made from an entirely flat surface

German author Alois Senefelder devised the process in 1796

Allows the artist to draw a design in the same way they do a drawing

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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German author Alois Senefelder (1771–1834) was out of money and looking for a cheaper method to print his newest play

The complex presses used nowadays by commercial printers for producing newspapers, magazines, and brochures (“offset lithography”) use thin sheets of zinc or aluminum instead of stone, but the basic principles are the same

Contemporary artists’ lithographic prints are still made on the kind of stone used by Senefelder

39

Lithography Process

2.3.14 A brief overview of the lithography process:

The artist designs the image to be printed.

Using a grease pencil, the design is drawn onto the limestone, blocking the pores.

The stone is treated with acid and other chemicals that are brushed onto its surface. Then the surface is wiped clean with a solvent, such as kerosene.

The stone is sponged so that water can be absorbed into the pores of the stone.

Oil-based ink is repelled by the water and sits only on areas where the oil crayon image was drawn.

Paper is laid on the surface of the stone and it is drawn through a press.

The print is removed from the stone.

The completed image appears in reverse compared with the original design.

PART 2

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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834

2.3.15 Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834, 1834. Lithograph, 11½ × 17⅝”.

Metropolitan Museum, New York

Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834

Daumier uses the lithographic process to tell the citizens of Paris about an incident of police brutality

He worked for a monthly magazine

PART 2

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Thinking that an attack had come from a residence, authorities entered and ruthlessly killed everyone inside

Honoré Daumier (1808–1879), a great critic of the French government’s treatment of workers, drew this massacre in gruesome detail

42

Portal Artwork: Toulouse-Latrec, La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge

2.7.16 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge, 1891. Lithograph in black, yellow, red, and blue on three sheets of tan wove paper, 6’2½” × 3’9⅝”. Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec used lithography for a light-hearted purpose in his poster promoting a famous Parisian destination.

43

Serigraphy (Silkscreen Printing)

A versatile process, capable of placing ink on a wide variety of surfaces

First developed in China during the Sung Dynasty (960–1279)

Uses a stencil process

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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Artists value, amongst its many other virtues, serigraphy’s potential for printing strong colors

Can be used to create a large number of prints

The silkscreen itself is nowadays a fine mesh, usually made out of nylon

As the printmaker moves the squeegee over the screen, the mask prevents ink from passing through in unwanted areas

44

Artwork: Andy Warhol, Four Marilyns

2.3.16 Andy Warhol, Four

Marilyns, 1962. Acrylic, silkscreen ink, pencil on

linen, 29 × 21½”. Sold at Phillips, New York 2014

Andy Warhol, Four Marilyns

Warhol deliberately repeats the image to comment on the nature of mass-produced images in advertising

Emphasizes the flatness and lack of depth in the image of Marilyn

Photographic silkscreen over aluminum paint

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

American artist Andy Warhol (1928–1987) reproduces a photo taken at the height of the actress’s career

Shows how her image has become a commodity rather than a genuine attempt to capture her individuality

The repeating “clones” of Marilyn also accentuate the degeneration that occurs when an original is copied

46

Artwork: Melanie Yazzie, Untitled

2.3.17 Melanie Yazzie, Untitled, 2016. Screen print. Mesa Contemporary Art, Arizona

Melanie Yazzie, Untitled

Yazzie uses a spontaneous and expressive approach to her work

Explores her Navajo heritage and the human condition

Multi-layered work with two images; the second is superimposed over the first layer

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Navajo printmaker Melanie Yazzie (b. 1966)

Yazzie’s spontaneous approach to the screen-printing process contrasts with the well-planned methods that most printmaking demands

She uses an impulsive approach to express the human condition combined with an intimate view of her people’s history

The energetic character of her work projects an optimistic vision of the future, in contrast to the past hardships imposed on indigenous people

48

Editions

Prints are produced in limited numbers of identical impressions, called editions

Each print in the edition is assigned a number in the production sequence

Although they could create more, most artists decide to print a set number of prints: a limited edition

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

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The printmaker has the ethical responsibility for making sure each print is similar enough to the others so that each person who buys a print has a high-quality image

A print marked 2/25 is the second print in an edition of twenty-five

Artist’s proofs (A/P) are used by the printmaker to check the quality of the process

Destroying the plates protects the integrity of the edition, making each print rarer and therefore more valuable

49

Monotypes and Monoprints

These print techniques enable an artist to produce a one-of-a-kind image

A monotype image prints from a polished plate (e.g. glass or metal)

Monoprints can be made using any print process

PART 2

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Chapter 2.3 Printmaking

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Hedda Sterne, Untitled (Machine Series)

2.3.18 Hedda Sterne, Untitled (Machine Series), 1949. Trace monotype, design 12 × 16⅜”.

Harvard Art Museums, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Hedda Sterne, Untitled (Machine Series)

Sole woman in a group of abstract painters called the Irascibles

Although abstract, her monotype makes associations with architectural and mechanical images

Probably employed a straightedge to maintain the regularity of line

PART 2

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Hedda Sterne (1910–2011).

52

Artwork: Kathy Strauss, Kepler Underneath 1

2.3.19 Kathy Strauss, Kepler Underneath 1, 2007. Monotype over India-inked calculations, Somerset velvet paper, each panel 30 × 23″. Collection of the artist

Kathy Strauss, Kepler Underneath 1

Strauss first utilized the intaglio process to incise and ink calculus problems in a metal plate

She then painted the Milky Way in ink directly onto the same plate by hand

The result can never be re-created exactly in a second print

PART 2

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Kathy Strauss’s (b. 1956) monoprint Kepler Underneath 1 painstakingly depicts the Milky Way Galaxy.

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Print Shops and Digital Reproduction Services

Printmakers sometimes rely on the technical expertise of craftsmen

Print shops work with the artist to find the right paper, surface appearance, and archival qualities

Some shops provide digital reproductions of the original work

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For example, Printmakers Chicago is a commercial printing service that works with artists and other creative professionals to re-create original imagery

They also provide digital reproductions that replicate the character of the original work, be it a print, painting, or other two-dimensional piece

55

Drying racks at Skyline Art Editions

2.3.20 Drying racks at Skyline Art Editions, Austin, Texas

Contemporary Directions in Printmaking

Freedom of expression and new technologies have inspired printmakers to innovate

Much of the innovation rises out of collaborative print shops redefined the nature of printmaking

PART 2

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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

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Artwork: Rufino Tamayo, Perro de Luna

2.3.21 Rufino Tamayo, Perro de Luna, 1973. Mixograph, edition of 100, 22¼ x 30¼”

Rufino Tamayo, Perro de Luna

This work was printed on heavily textured hand-made paper

Pushed the boundaries of printmaking beyond a flat surface

Relief surface

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• Mixografia®, founded in Mexico City by Luis Remba (b. 1932) as Taller de Gráfica Mexicana (TGM), was early innovative print shop that worked with Mexican artists

• Tamayo integrated paper pulp into the process calling it the Mixografia® printing technique

• Moved to Los Angeles in 1984

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Artwork: Ilana Raviv, Doll with Toys

2.3.22 Ilana Raviv (Oppenheim), Doll with Toys, 2003. Acrylic on canvas, 29 x 37″

Ilana Raviv, Doll with Toys

Raviv reproduces her original work for commercial distribution using the giclée print process

The color permanence and resolution of this method insures a lasting piece of art

Encapsulates her gestural style

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• In the 1980s the introduction of computer graphics introduced new possibilities for artists

• Inkjet printers made it possible for artists to create a fixed image and by the 1990s high-resolution permanent prints became possible

• Jack Duganne (b. 1942) introduced the giclée print process and now runs his own print shop Duganne Atelier

• Israeli artist Ilana Raviv (b. 1945), works in a number of different media

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Artwork: Kurt Dyrhaug, Unterschieden Tonka

2.3.23 Kurt Dyrhaug, Unterschieden Tonka, 2017. Three-dimensional print, metal coating, and acrylic paint, 7 × 3 × 3″. Museo de Arte Contemporano Costa da Morte, Corme, Spain

Kurt Dyrhaug, Unterschieden Tonka

Dyrhaug is an American sculptor

His original computer graphic design is used to create this three-dimensional print

Uses an iron metal coating on the finished print, then applied acrylic paint for textural and surface finish

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• American sculptor Kurt Dyrhaug (b. 1966)

• The introduction of 3-D modeling software and printers brought a new dimension to printmaking

• 3-D modeling software allows an artist to “draw” a three-dimensional object on a computer

• 3-D printers use a glue-like liquid that is systematically printed in a series of printed layers until the object is created

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Printmaking

(Media/Processes)

Video:

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Chapter 2.3 Copyright Information

This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.3

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Third Edition

By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.3

2.3.1 Ralph Larmann

2.3.2 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Junius Spencer Morgan, 1919, 19.73.209

2.3.3 British Museum, London

2.3.4 Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously (by exchange), 119.1956. Photo 2012, Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence. © Nolde Stiftung Seebüll

2.3.5 Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Prints & Photographs Division, H. Irving Olds collection, LC-DIG-jpd-02018

2.3.6 Courtesy Stanley Donwood/TAG Fine Arts

2.3.7 Ralph Larmann

2.3.8 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Fletcher Fund, 1919, 19.73.1

2.3.9 © DACS 2018

2.3.10 Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Mr. and Mrs. De Bruijn-van der Leeuw Bequest, Muri, Switzerland

2.3.11 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1935, 35.42

2.3.12 Print and Picture Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia. Courtesy Fine Arts Program, Public Buildings Service, U.S. General Services Administration. Commissioned through the New Deal art projects

2.3.13 Courtesy Martin-Zambito Fine Art, Seattle

2.3.14 Ralph Larmann

2.3.15 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund, 1920, 20.23

2.3.16 Photo Courtesy Phillips Auctioneers. © 2018 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc./Licensed by DACS, London

2.3.17 Collection the artist, © Melanie Yazzie

2.3.18 Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Art Museums, Margaret Fisher Fund, M25276. Photo Imaging Department © President & Fellows of Harvard College. © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2018

2.3.19 © Kathy Strauss 2007

2.3.20 Photo courtesy Skyline Printing LLC, Austin, Texas

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.3 (contd.)

2.3.21 Photo courtesy Denis Bloch Fine Art, Los Angeles. © D.R. Rufino Tamayo/Herederos/México/Fundación Olga y Rufino Tamayo, A.C. 2018

2.3.22 © Ilana Raviv (Oppenheim), www.ravivart.com. All rights reserved

2.3.23 Museo de Arte Contemporano Costa da Morte, Corme. Courtesy Kurt Durhaug

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction

Sculptures can be made from many materials: e.g. glass, wax, ice, plastic, neon lights, animals

Sculptures exist in three dimensions and occupy physical space

We can walk around them or become immersed in an environment

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Sculptors’ methods today still include chiseling (as Michelangelo did), carving, molding, assembling, and constructing

Inventive sculptors are finding new ways to create their art, and new materials to make it with

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Approaches to Three Dimensions in Sculpture

Sculpture can be freestanding: sculpture in the round

Relief is a type of sculpture specifically designed for viewing from one side

The image in a relief either protrudes from or is sunk into a surface

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Freestanding Sculpture

An approach to sculpture that invites us to examine a work on all sides is known as freestanding, or sculpture in the round

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Artwork: Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy

2.4.1 Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy, 1971–1926 BCE. Granite, 67 × 45¾ × 18”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts

Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy

This freestanding sculpture is designed to be seen from the front

We can get a sense of the original block of granite

Egyptian figure sculptures often sit very straight and upright, with arms and legs close to the body

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Lady Sennuwy was the wife of a very powerful governor of an Egyptian province.

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Artwork: Giambologna, Rape of a Sabine

2.4.2a and 2.4.2b Giambologna, Rape of a Sabine, 1582. Gesso, height 13’8”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, Italy

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Giambologna, Rape of a Sabine

This work forms a spiral that draws the viewer around its changing planes

A piece of political propaganda that re-creates an ancient story about the foundation of Rome

Announces that, like Rome, Florence had risen to become a powerful force

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Giambologna (1529–1608), a Flemish artist working in Florence, Italy, designed the Rape of a Sabine at the request of Florence’s ruler, Francesco de’ Medici

The foundation of Rome happened around 753 bce

Most of the early founders of Rome were male; for the city to grow, the Romans needed wives

They solved this problem by inviting their neighbors the Sabines to a festival, during which the Romans seized the Sabine women and forced them to marry

This story symbolized the ability of a small community to become the most powerful city in Italy—as Rome was by Giambologna’s time

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Bas-Relief and High Relief

In bas-relief (bas means “low” in French) the sculptor’s marks are shallow

When a sculptor chooses to carve more deeply, he or she is working in high relief

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Artwork: Dying Lioness

2.4.3 Dying Lioness, limestone relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, Assyrian period, c. 650 BCE. British Museum, London, England

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Dying Lioness

This relief was found in the North Palace of King Ashurbanipal in Mesopotamia

Assyrian kings ruled over a large territory and had powerful armies

Intended to reflect the great strength and bravery of the king as he hunted and killed the fearsome beast

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Found in the ancient city of Nineveh in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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Artwork: Susan Durant, Memorial to King Leopold of the Belgians

2.4.4 Susan Durant, Memorial to King Leopold of the Belgians, 1867, in Christ Church, Esher, England

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Susan Durant, Memorial to King Leopold […]

Durant’s relief commemorates the death of Belgium’s first king

The king and lion (representing power and bravery) are sculpted in high relief

They protrude more deeply than the angels, carved in low relief

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Susan Durant (1827–1873) was unusual in being a successful sculptor at a time when it was not easy for women to break into such a profession

She was in demand for her portraits, which included a bust of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of the anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Durant became a favorite sculptor to the British royal family, and her memorial to King Leopold I was originally installed in his niece Queen Victoria’s chapel at Windsor Castle in 1867 but was moved to Christ Church, Esher, in 1879

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Artwork: Maya Lintel showing Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc

2.4.5 Maya lintel showing Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, c. 725 CE. Limestone, 43 × 30¾ × 2⅜”. British Museum, London, England

Maya Lintel: Varying Degrees of Relief for Emphasis

This lintel is carved in high relief

Emphasis of major shapes is created by carving deeper into the stone

Series of glyphs caption the work

Use of different degrees of relief contributes to the image’s realism

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Probably chiseled using stone hammers and wooden drills

Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc reigned from 681-742 CE

Glyphs make up an elaborate written language

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Michelangelo, Prisoner

2.4.6 Michelangelo, Prisoner, known as the Awakening Slave, 1519–20. Marble, height 8’9⅛”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, Italy

Artwork: Michelangelo, Separation of Light and Darkness

2.4.7 Michelangelo, Separation of Light and Darkness, 1508–12,

detail of the vault, Sistine

Chapel, Vatican City, Italy

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Artwork: Michelangelo, Tomb of Julius II

2.4.8 Michelangelo, Tomb of Julius II, detail of Moses, 1513–16. Marble, height 7’8½”. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy

Michelangelo

Michelangelo had a unique mastery of freeing the figure from the stone

He believed sculpture was the finest, most challenging of all the visual arts

Wanted to finish the Sistine Chapel quickly and return to sculptures for the tomb of Pope Julius II

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564) used an unconventional technique to “release” the figure, as he saw it, from the stone

His unfinished sculpture, Awakening Slave, gives an insight into the artist’s technique

Michelangelo also excelled in architecture and painting, yet he saw these arts through the eyes of a sculptor

The tomb of Pope Julius II was never completed in the way that Michelangelo intended, but some finished sculptures survive, such as Moses

The figures in the Sistine Chapel ceiling have the appearance of mass, leading some to believe they are looking at sculptures rather than a painting

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Methods of Sculpture

Subtractive: a sculptor uses a tool to carve, drill, chisel, chip, whittle, or saw away unwanted material

Additive: processes of modeling, casting, or constructing in which sculptors add material to make the final artwork

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Videos about Sculpture

(Media/Processes)

Additive Sculpture

(Media/Processes)

Subtractive Sculpture

Video:

Video:

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Carving

The most ancient works of art that still exist were made using subtractive methods

Most were made of stone or ivory

Worked by chipping, carving, sanding, and polishing

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Artwork: Figure of the war god Ku-ka’ili-moku

2.4.9 Figure of the war god Ku-ka’ili-moku, Hawaii, 18th or 19th century. Wood, height 8’11”. British Museum, London, England

Figure of the war god Ku-ka’ili-moku

This figure of the Hawaiian war god Ku-ka’ili-moku is carved from larger pieces of wood

A second god, Lono, is symbolized in the figure’s hair

Originally created for the powerful King Kamehameha I

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This figure of the Hawaiian war god Ku-ka’ili-moku is nearly nine-foot tall

War god’s name translates as “Ku, the land-grabber”

Exhibits an open mouth (a disrespectful gesture) and was probably intended to gain divine favor

The second god, Lono (god of prosperity) is symbolized by pigs’ heads in Ku’s hair

The combination of the two gods may have represented Kamehameha’s invasions and conquests of adjacent kingdoms

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Portal Artwork: Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure

4.9.15 Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure, 1938. Green Hornton stone, 35 × 52¼ × 29”. Tate, London, England

Carving is not limited to the ancient world. Twentieth-century sculptor Henry Moore also carved large stone sculptures, such as Recumbent Figure.

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Artwork: Borglum, Mount Rushmore National Memorial

2.4.10 John G. de la Mothe Borglum, Mount Rushmore National Memorial, 1927–41. Keystone, South Dakota

Borglum, Mount Rushmore National Memorial

Mt. Rushmore is one of largest and most famous sculpted portraits

Borglum searched for a mountain with the right kind of carving stone

Mostly carved by miners using dynamite

Image of four US Presidents

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John G. de la Mothe Borglum (1867-1941) was the son of Danish Mormon immigrants

Project was originally conceived by Doane Robinson, who was the superintendent of the South Dakota State Historical Society

Robinson envisioned images of Chief Red Cloud, Buffalo Bill Cody, Lewis and Clark

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Modeling

Modeling is an additive process; the artist builds up the work by adding material

Some materials, such as clay or wax, require a temporary skeletal structure for support, called an armature

When clay is dried and fired in a kiln, it becomes very hard and durable

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Many works from antiquity made from clay still exist.

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Artwork: Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

2.4.11 Sarcophagus from Cerveteri, c. 520 BCE. Painted terra-cotta, 3’9½” × 6’7”. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome, Italy

Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

Four separate terra-cotta pieces make up this sarcophagus, which contains the ashes of the deceased

The couple are relaxed, enjoying themselves at an Etruscan banquet

Tells us that women actively participated in social occasions

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Terra-cotta is baked clay

The expressions are stylized and not a likeness of the deceased

Since this sculpture is part of a tomb, it suggests that celebrations took place upon the death of loved ones, although the figures’ joyful expressions may simply indicate the deceased in an eternal state of happiness

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Casting

This process involves adding a liquid or pliable material to a mold

First, a model of the final sculpture is made; this is used to make a mold into which a casting liquid is poured

When it hardens, the result is a detailed replica of the original model

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Artwork: Riace Warrior A

2.4.12 Riace Warrior A, c. 460 BCE. Bronze with copper, silver, and ivory, height 6’6”. Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia, Reggio di Calabria, Italy

Riace Warrior A

This sculpture is a fine example of the lost-wax method of casting in bronze (copper and tin)

Discovered in 1972 by scuba divers off the coast at Riace, Italy

Made when the Greeks emphasized the perfection of the human body

Posed in relaxed contrapposto

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Bronze is an alloy, or mixture, of copper and tin; it melts at a relatively low temperature (an average of 1,750ºF)

Once formed and cooled it is light (compared to stone) and durable

Contrapposto (Italian for “opposite”) is a pose that uses the natural curvature of the body to enliven the design

By shifting the weight to the right leg, the hips are set at a slight angle, which is countered by small shifts in the shoulders, with the head fractionally tilted

May have been cast to celebrate the victory of the Athenians over the invading Persians

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Lost-wax Casting Process

2.4.13 Seven steps in the lost-wax casting process

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Lost-wax casting process

The artist begins by building an armature (1)

Then the artist adds clay to it to create the form (2)

A thick layer of wax is added to the armature, and any detail the sculptor wishes to see in the final work is carved into the wax (3)

Clay, sand, and ground-up pieces of old molds are used to cover the surface of the wax form, preserving all the detail. This hard coating, which needs to be strong enough to bear the heat and weight of the metal until it cools, will be the mold (4)

Small holes are drilled in the bottom of the mold, which is then placed in a kiln. In the oven, the wax melts out through the holes in the bottom of the mold, leaving a hollow space inside the mold (5)

Immediately after the mold has been removed from the kiln, very hot molten metal—in this case, bronze—is poured into it (6)

When the metal has cooled, the mold is removed (usually by breaking it with a hammer) to reveal the work—which is still not finished (7)

The artist cuts off any extra metal, then sands and polishes

Over time, exposure to the elements can add surface color, called a patina, to bronze sculpture

Lost-wax casting is called a substitution process because the molten metal takes the place of the wax

Other materials, such as foam or wood, are occasionally used as substitution materials instead of wax, because they can be burnt out of the mold

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Principal Materials of Sculpture

Marble (Metamorphic Stone)

Hardwood (Wood)

Plaster (Sulfate of lime)

Ceramic (Clay)

Beeswax (Wax)

Bronze (Metal)

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Marble (Metamorphic Stone)

The sculptor can subtract material from the block until it has been reduced to the intended final shape

Finishing can be done by sanding and polishing

Tools: Chisels, files, sandpaper, polishing cloths

Hardwood (Wood)

The sculptor can subtract through carving and sawing or construct by gluing or nailing

Finishing can be done by sanding, polishing, oiling, and then varnishing

Tools: Chisels, wood rasps, sandpaper, penetrating oils, varnish

Plaster (Sulfate of lime)

The sculptor can cast the form or carve a cast block

Finishing is done by sanding

Plaster is sometimes used as a preliminary form if casting clay

Tools: Chisels, files, sandpaper

Ceramic (Clay)

The sculptor can model this pliable material into any shape, or cast it in a mold

Finishing can be done by drying, heating in a kiln, then adding a clay and chemical compound before re-firing to achieve a glaze

Tools: Wire, smoothing tools (like a thin rounded piece of flexible metal called a rib), kiln

Beeswax (Wax)

The sculptor can model this pliable material or make a cast using the material in liquid form

Finishing is achieved by heating the surface and polishing

Wax is sometimes used as the preliminary form for bronze casting

Tools: Carving tools, heated surface (like a griddle), heat gun

Bronze (Metal)

The sculptor can cast molten bronze, weld pieces together using a torch, or hammer, usually with some heat, until it reaches the desired form

Finishing is done by adding a chemical compound to the surface to stabilize oxidation

Tools: Hammers, furnace, welding torches, grinders, sandpaper

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Pushing beyond Traditional Methods

Artists have found other ways to enliven sculpture that go beyond conventional additive and subtractive techniques

Earthworks, construction, assemblage, readymades, kinetic and light sculptures, and installation

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Earthworks

This type of art uses the surface of the Earth as material

Because of their enormous size, earthworks need the collaboration of many artists and workers

Many believe earthworks should represent a sense of harmony between nature and humanity

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Today, earthwork projects are obliged to have permits and community approval, and to involve large groups of workers and heavy equipment

Artists do not earn money from their artworks, but create them as a service to the community

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Land Art

(History/Themes)

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Artwork: Great Serpent Mound

2.4.15 Great Serpent Mound, c. 800 BCE–100 CE, 1330 × 3’, Locust Grove, Adams County, Ohio

Great Serpent Mound

Prehistoric artists heaped piles of earth to “sculpt” this work onto the Ohio landscape

Resembles a snake with its mouth open, ingesting an egg

Position and alignment suggest that it was used in making solar observations

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The identity of the people who created it is still debated

The head of the serpent and the egg are aligned to the position of the setting sun on the summer solstice (the longest day of the year)

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Artwork: Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty

2.4.16 Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1969–70. Black rock, salt crystals, and earth, diameter 160’, coil length 1500 × 15’.

Great Salt Lake, Utah

Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty

In the 1960s, artists again became interested in earthworks

The spiral is a shape naturally found in shells, crystals, and even galaxies

The artwork is not static – it constantly evolves as it interacts with nature

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The best-known modern earthwork is Robert Smithson’s (1938–1973) Spiral Jetty in the Great Salt Lake in Utah

The coiled artwork was made using 6,550 tons of rock and dirt, sourced from dump trucks, to pave a spiraling roadbed out into the salt lake

The artwork drowns and then rises with a new encrustation of salt crystals

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Construction

Uses a variety of methods to create and put together components

Idea is relatively new; proliferated with the growth of engineered materials, such as plastic and sheet metal

Soviet Constructivists created an entire movement based on these techniques

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Constructivists considered art to be a scientific investigation of the social needs of the time

Their sculptural construction techniques were associated more with a factory than with an art studio

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Artwork: Naum Gabo, Constructed Head No. 2

2.4.17 Naum Gabo, Constructed Head No. 2, 1916. Cor-ten steel, 69 × 52¾ × 48¼”. Tate, London, England

Naum Gabo, Constructed Head No. 2

The Constructivist artist Gabo investigates the sense of space and form implied by flat planes

More interested in showing interior construction than the exterior surface

Welded the intersecting planes of metal together

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Soviet Constructivist Naum Gabo (b. Naum Neemia Pevsner, 1890–1977), had studied physics, mathematics, and engineering.

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Artwork: Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living

2.4.18 Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, 1991. Glass, painted steel, silicone, monofilament, shark, and formaldehyde solution, 7’1½” × 17’9⅜” × 5’10⅞”

Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living

A large tank of formaldehyde holds a suspended dead shark

Hirst is known for creating unusual sculptural objects that contrast life and death

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Contemporary artists have adopted modern-day industrial techniques and unconventional materials to create their sculptures, challenging traditional notions of what sculptures can be

British artist Damien Hirst (b. 1965) did not construct the shark; he had it caught by fishermen

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Assemblage

The practice of gathering objects and fabricating them into a work of art is called assemblage

The gathered objects (called found objects) are repurposed so that they support the visual ideas of the artist

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Artwork: Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima

2.4.19 Betye Saar, The

Liberation of Aunt Jemima,

1972. Mixed media assemblage, 11 ¾ × 8 × 2¾”. Collection University of California, Berkeley Art Museum, California

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Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima

Saar collected a variety of found objects, such as cotton, syrup labels, and a stereotypical “Mammy” doll

Explores themes of identity: her art examines the survival of African traditions in black culture

Challenges stereotypes

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MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Contemporary African-American artist Betye Saar (b. 1926)

The objects symbolize the relics and memorabilia of both personal and societal history as it relates to issues of gender and race

These pieces represent influences that were important to traditional African groups

50

Readymades

This artistic approach was pioneered by Marcel Duchamp as a way of challenging traditional ideas

He argued that when chosen and presented by an artist, any found object can become a work of art

Appropriation: the object is altered in a way that changes its original meaning or purpose

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

For French artist Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968) the act of discovery (or of conceiving the artwork) was the most important part of the artist’s process

Appropriation: the deliberate incorporation in an artwork of material originally created by other artists

Creates endless possibilities for artists to redefine art and helps us see things differently

51

Artwork: Pablo Picasso, Bull’s Head

2.4.20 Pablo Picasso, Bull’s Head, 1942. Assemblage of bicycle seat and handlebars,

13¼ × 17⅛ × 7½”. Musée Picasso, Paris, France

Pablo Picasso, Bull’s Head

This readymade work by Picasso combined the handlebars and the seat of a bicycle

They resemble a bull’s head, yet they are also recognizable as bicycle parts

His intent was both a serious and a humorous attempt to redefine art

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) was following in the footsteps of the French artist Marcel Duchamp.

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Kinetic and Light Sculpture

Sculpture that moves is called kinetic sculpture

These moving and lighted works rely on mechanical engineering as well as the creative input of the artist

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Sculptors who work with movement and light express their ideas in ways that would not have been possible just a century or two ago.

54

Artwork: George Rickey, Breaking Column

2.4.21 George Rickey, Breaking Column, 1986 (completed by the artist’s estate, 2009). Stainless steel, 9’11⅜” × 5½”. Contemporary Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii

George Rickey, Breaking Column

Carefully balanced so that it can pivot in a variety of directions

Provides an infinite number of constantly changing views

Moved by the slightest current of air; also has a motor, and moves even when there is no wind

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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American artist George Rickey (1907–2002).

56

Artwork: László Moholy-Nagy, Light Prop for an Electric Stage

2.4.22 László Moholy-Nagy, Light Prop for an Electric Stage, 1929–30. Exhibition replica, constructed 2006, through the courtesy of Hattula Moholy-Nagy. Metal, plastics, glass, paint, and wood, with electric motor, 59½ × 27⅝ × 27⅝”. Harvard Art Museums, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts

László Moholy-Nagy, Light Prop for an Electric Stage

Initially created as a stage lighting device, it became the main character in a film by the artist

A motor moves a series of perforated discs that cross in front of a light

These changes in lighting influence the surrounding environment

PART 2

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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Hungarian László Moholy-Nagy (1895–1946) was one of the first artists to merge movement, lighting, and performance into a single work

He was interested in the work of the Constructivists and wanted to incorporate technology into his art

Through the use of light an artist can change how a viewer perceives a three-dimensional space

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Installations

Involve the construction of a space or the assembly of objects to create an environment

The audience is encouraged to experience the work physically using all of the senses, and perhaps by entering the work itself

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Artwork: Athena Tacha, Star Fountain

2.4.23 Athena Tacha in collaboration with EDAW of Alexandria, Virginia, Star Fountain (night view), 2009. Sandstone, cast stone, granite, brick, glass, animated RGB-LEDs. Muhammad Ali Plaza, Louisville, Kentucky

Athena Tacha, Star Fountain

Tacha’s vertical glass columns are organized into a spiraling shape

Colors change over a four-minute time span

Movement in the work recalls the action of dance, as the rhythms of the installation flow in graceful patterns

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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An installation work by the Greek-born artist Athena Tacha (b. 1936) deals with action

The reflecting water and the adjacent work, Dancing Steps (also by Tacha) enliven the surrounding plaza

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Artwork: Antony Gormley, Asian Field

2.4.24a Antony Gormley, Asian Field, work in progress, 2003. Clay from Guangdong Province, China.

Hand-sized clay elements made in collaboration with people from Xiangshan village. Xiangshan, China

Installation view of Asian Field

2.4.24b Antony Gormley, Asian Field, 2003.

210,000 hand-sized clay elements, installation view, warehouse of former Shanghai No. 10 Steelworks, China

Antony Gormley, Asian Field

Gormley handed out balls of clay and instructed participants to form an image of their own bodies

“They are simply lived moments made into matter”

“My work is at its best when inserted into the stream of everyday life”

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Perspectives on Art:

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Antony Gormley (b. 1950) is a British sculptor whose work is concerned with the human form. He developed the vast installation, Asian Field (1991–2003), as an art project beginning in 1983.

“The figures in my work are not portraits, they are corpographs: a three-dimensional equivalent of a photograph but which is left as a negative, as a void.”

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Sculpture Videos

For more great sculpture made with a range of processes and for a variety of locations and functions, watch:

(History/Themes)

Ancient Rome: Capital of an Empire

(History/Themes)

Gianlorenzo Bernini:

The Ecstasy of St. Teresa

Video:

Video:

PART 2

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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Sculpture Videos (contd.)

(History/Themes)

The Master Sculptors of Benin and Ife

(History/Themes)

Memorial and Controversy: Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Video:

Video:

PART 2

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

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MoMA Videos

To learn more about sculpture, watch these videos of MoMA lecturers talking about sculptures in the

MoMA collection:

Constantin Brancusi

Umberto Boccioni,

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space

Dynamism of a Soccer Player

MoMA Video

MoMA Video

PART 2

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

MoMA Videos (contd.)

Donald Judd,

Untitled (Stack)

Marcel Duchamp,

Bicycle Wheel

MoMA Video

MoMA Video

PART 2

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Chapter 2.4 Copyright Information

This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.4

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Third Edition

By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Picture Credits for Chapter 2.4

2.4.1 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts/Harvard University – Museum of Fine Arts Expedition/Bridgeman Art Library

2.4.2a Ex S.S.P.S.A.E e per il Polo Museale della città di Firenze – Gabinetto Fotografico

2.4.2b Ex S.S.P.S.A.E e per il Polo Museale della città di Firenze – Gabinetto Fotografico

2.4.3 British Museum, London

2.4.4 Photograph Jacqueline Banerjee, Associate Editor of the Victorian Web www.victorianweb.org

2.4.5 Photo Trustees of the British Museum, London

2.4.6 Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali

2.4.7 Photo 1998/Mondadori Portfolio/akg-images

2.4.8 Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali

2.4.9 Photo Trustees of the British Museum, London

2.4.10 Photo © Lynn Bystrom/123RF.com

2.4.11 Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome

2.4.12 Nimatallah/akg-images

2.4.13 Ralph Larmann

2.4.14 top to bottom: © nagelestock.com/Alamy; Photo courtesy Andrew Early; The New York Historical Society, New York City; Museo del Templo Mayor, Mexico City, CONACULTA- INAH, 10-220302; Undercroft Museum, Westminster Abbey, London; © The Estate of Alberto Giacometti (Fondation Annette et Alberto Giacometti, Paris and ADAGP, Paris), licensed in the UK by ACS and DACS, London 2018

2.4.15 © Richard A. Cooke/Corbis

2.4.16 Photo Tom Smart

2.4.17 Photo Tate, London 2012. The works of Naum Gabo © Nina Williams

2.4.18 Photographed by Prudence Cuming Associates. © Damien Hirst and Science Ltd. All rights reserved, DACS 2018

2.4.19 Collection University of California, Berkeley Art Museum; purchased with the aid of funds from
the National Endowment for the Arts (selected by The Committee for the Acquisition of Afro-American Art). Photograph Joshua Nefsky. Courtesy Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.4 (contd.)

2.4.20 © Succession Picasso/DACS, London 2018

2.4.21 Photo Mark Pollock/Estate of George Rickey. © Estate of George Rickey/DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2018

2.4.22 Harvard Art Museums, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Hildegard von Gontard Bequest Fund, 2007.105. Photo Junius Beebe, President & Fellows of Harvard College

2.4.23 Commissioned by Parking Authority of River City, Louisville; glass fabrication by AGA of Louisville; fountain consulting by Waterline Fountains of Austin, TX; RGB animation by Color Kinetics of Boston. Photo Richard E. Spear. © Athena Tacha

2.4.24a Photograph by Zhang Haier

2.4.24b Photo Dai Wei, Shanghai © the artist

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction

Architecture is three-dimensional design that surrounds and influences us

Connects us to our history

Suggests feelings of permanence

Produced by architect, interior designer, and landscape architect

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Buildings inevitably have an effect on people who see or enter them, whether or not they are aware of this

Thoughtful design reflects a building’s function and its intended role in the community

The architect is the master planner who creates a building’s overall design

Sometimes an interior designer is responsible for making the space inside appropriate for the building’s intended use

A landscape architect may be employed to organize the outdoor spaces around the building

2

Structure, Function, and Form

Architectural engineers work to create a balance between tension and compression (push equals pull)

Each building material resists compression or tension differently

If balanced correctly, a building can stand for thousands of years

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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An architect collects information about the planned location of the building, its place in the community, and its purpose

An architect also selects the appropriate building techniques and decides which materials are needed to construct it

Structural integrity dictates some of the design decisions

For example, wood-frame buildings may require waterproof external cladding to protect the timber from damp and rot

The location, or site, influences the design

Artists must consider the availability and cost of building materials

3

Artwork: Süleymaniye mosque

2.5.1 Sinan, Süleymaniye

mosque, 1557, Istanbul, Turkey

Süleymaniye mosque

Designed by Turkish architect Sinan

Elaborate architectural space includes dome and half-domes

Perfectly balanced, enduring design (more than 500 years old)

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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The Turkish architect Sinan (1489–1588) was chief architect to the Ottoman court under Sultan Süleyman, who commissioned him to design the magnificent Süleimaniye mosque in Istanbul.

5

Artwork: Fumihiko Maki, Sketch of Four World Trade Center

2.5.2 Fumihiko Maki, Sketch of Four World Trade Center, 2006

Fumihiko Maki, Sketch of Four World Trade Center

Maki’s complicated buildings begin from the simplicity of drawing

Design for the New World Trade Center in New York City

Shows how his building will fit in with other buildings by continuing a spiral design

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Fumihiko Maki (b. 1928).

7

Artwork: Taos Pueblo

2.5.3 Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, pre-1500

Taos Pueblo

In successful architectural work, the structure reflects the community

Buildings made of adobe brick

Character derives from the available materials (sand and clay)

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: SoHo lofts

2.5.4 SoHo lofts, New York City

SoHo lofts

People have admired the coherent composition of the forms of New York City’s skyscrapers and other types of buildings

Resembles a Cubist painting

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Ancient Construction

Ancient cultures derived their building materials from the earth

Stone, wood, and clay must be modified for use in construction

These raw materials can result in architecture that transcends time

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Basic Load-Bearing Construction

This form of construction follows the direct process of piling one stone or brick on top of another

Massive load-bearing works have been built throughout history

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Artwork: Temple I in the Great Plaza

2.5.5 Temple I in the Great Plaza, Maya, c. 300–900 CE, Tikal, Guatemala

Temple I in the Great Plaza

This is one of hundreds of pyramids found in the Guatemalan rain forest

Maya pyramids served as platforms for temples

A carefully organized stack of stones

Required sophisticated engineering and mathematical skills to construct

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15

Diagram of Maya pyramid

2.5.6 Basic load-bearing architecture: Maya pyramid

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16

Post-and-Lintel Construction

To create an interior space, an architect must create a span, or a distance between two supports

In basic post-and-lintel construction the lintel rests on top of two posts

PART 2

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Diagram of Post-and-lintel construction

2.5.7 Post-and-lintel construction

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Artwork: Great Court at Temple of Amun-Re

2.5.8 Great Court at Temple of Amun-Re, Middle Kingdom, c. 950–730 BCE, Karnak, Egypt

Great Court at Temple of Amun-Re

Hypostyle hall, a room created by using a series of columns to support a flat ceiling

Used by Egyptian priests for rituals to worship the god Amun-Re

One of the largest religious structures in the world

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Ancient Egyptian architects built the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak by placing a series of post-and-lintel spans side by side to create a spacious interior.

20

2.5.9 Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike, c. 421–415 BCE, Acropolis, Athens, Greece

Artwork: Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike

Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike

This ancient Greek temple was built using post-and-lintel construction

The architects must have been aware of similar majestic structures in the Nile Valley

Ancient Greek architects adapted the systems invented by the Egyptians

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This ancient Greek temple was designed by Kallikrates

Uses thin variant of the Ionic column

The ancient Greeks made a lasting impact on Western traditions in architectural style

Adopted by the Romans

Influenced Renaissance and Baroque

Revived in the 18th century to celebrate the rise of democracy (in the US and France)

22

2.5.10 Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals

Details of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals

Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals

Ancient Greek architects standardized the basic column, an essential point of compression to support the weight of a building

Column: capital, shaft, and base

Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

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The Doric order is characterized by a simple, round “pillow” capital, a wide, heavy shaft, and the original form did not have a base

The Ionic order is capped with a scroll-like shape called a volute, and has a thin shaft and an ornate base

The Corinthian order’s showy capital is made up of two rows of acanthus leaves with four volutes that protrude out near the top; columns are thin and have an ornate base

24

Portal Artwork: Diagram of the Classical architectural orders

3.1.21 Diagram of the Classical architectural orders

The use of post-and-lintel architecture by the ancient Greeks can be seen in three distinct styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.

25

The Acropolis and Parthenon of Athens

(History/Themes)

To explore further the buildings of the Acropolis complex, watch:

Video:

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Arches in Ancient Architecture

In early architecture, lintels could not span large spaces; stone would snap under heavy pressure

Instead, architects used the arch:

Corbeled (Babylonians, Mycenaeans)

Rounded (perfected by the Romans)

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27

Corbeled Arch

2.5.11 Corbeled arch

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The stepping inward of successive layers of stonework over the doorway allows for the compression created by the weight of the building to be directed outward through cantilevered (secured at only one end) stones, rather than downward

This reduces the pressure on the structure and allows the architect to design and span larger spaces

28

Artwork: Treasury of Atreus

2.5.12 Entrance, Treasury of Atreus, c. 1250 bce, Mycenae, Greece

29

Entrance, Treasury of Atreus

Early Greek construction using a corbeled arch

Progressive cantilevering of stones above the lintel

Allows more light to enter the chamber

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Early inhabitants of the Greek coastline experimented with ways to open up interior spaces through the use of corbeled arches

The entrance to the Treasury of Atreus (also called the Tomb of Agamemnon), built around 1250 bce, provides a glimpse into ancient construction

30

Arch Construction

2.5.13 Arch construction

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The Romans perfected the rounded arch

More efficient way of distributing compressive stress over the whole of the structure by distributing the weight of the building outward along the entire span of the arc

Its efficiency helped the Romans span wider spaces than any previous architects had managed

31

Artwork: Pont du Gard

2.5.14 Pont du Gard, first century CE, Nîmes, France

32

Pont du Gard, Nîmes

Ancient Roman structure in southern France: an aqueduct and bridge

No mortar; stones perfectly cut to fit

Benefitted the local community and projected Roman imperial power

PART 2

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The goal of the aqueduct was to create a consistent downhill path for the water: one inch down for every thirty-three inches along

After conquering an area, the Romans often built aqueducts and roads to allow their armies to move quickly around the new territory

33

Vaults

A vault is an arch that has been extended like a long hallway to create an open space overhead

Common example: barrel vault

Can span larger areas of interior space

Important during the European Middle Ages

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Roman architects used three important architectural structures: the arch, vault, and dome.

34

Barrel Vault

2.5.15 Barrel vault

PART 2

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The most common type of vault, the barrel vault, consists of a long, semicircular arch.

35

Church of Sainte-Madeleine

2.5.16 Church of Sainte-Madeleine, 12th century.

Vézelay, France

36

Church of Sainte-Madeleine

Romanesque church

A stop on a Christian pilgrimage route

Barrel vaults accommodated large numbers of visitors

Required thick walls; windows must be small (dreary interior)

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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The Church of Sainte-Madeleine at Vézelay in France was a stop along the Christian pilgrimage route to the holy church Santiago de Compostela in Spain

Vaulted aisles counteract the outward pressure on the walls and support both sides of the central nave

Dark and gloomy interior spaces due to the need for thick supporting walls

37

Diagram of Gothic Architectural Features

2.5.17a Gothic architectural features

Diagram of Gothic architectural construction

2.5.17b Gothic architectural construction, showing flying buttresses

Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France

2.5.18 Elongated stained-glass windows and soaring rib vaults, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France

Abbot Suger and the Dynamics of Gothic Architecture

Abbot Suger believed worshipers:

Should be bathed in divine light

Flying buttresses allowed for large stained-glass windows

Should feel lifted up toward heaven

Pointed arches, rib vaults

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Abbot Suger (1081–1151) had the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, near Paris, France, rebuilt from its original Romanesque style to provide a much grander place for worship

The Abbey Church of Saint-Denis was the national church of France; it housed the remains of the country’s patron saint, Saint Denis, and many French kings

41

Portal Artwork: Chartres Cathedral

3.2.25 Chartres Cathedral, completed 1260, France

More about Gothic engineering and the role of flying buttresses can be seen the exterior of Chartres Cathedral, France.

42

The Gothic Cathedral of Chartres

Video (History/Themes)

To explore further the features of Gothic architecture, watch:

Video:

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Domes

Structurally, a dome is like an arch rotated 360 degrees on its vertical axis

Very strong structure

Can span large areas because the weight is dispersed outward toward the walls

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Most dome constructions require the support of thick walls or some other system for distributing the weight.

44

Artwork: Hagia Sophia

2.5.19 Hagia Sophia, 532–35 CE, Istanbul, Turkey

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

Byzantine structure

Impressive, enormous dome roof

Largest interior space of any cathedral for nearly 1,000 years

Illuminated by clerestory windows

Pendentives transfer the load of the circular dome to four massive pillars

PART 2

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

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Abbot Suger had said he wanted his church to be more impressive than the Church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey)

The Hagia Sophia is a magnificent Byzantine (late Roman, with Eastern influences) structure that had already been standing for more than 500 years by Suger’s time

Clerestory windows: a row of windows high up in a church to admit light into the nave

Pendentive: a curving triangular surface that links a dome to a square space below

46

Portal Artwork: The Pantheon

3.1.35 Pantheon, interior view, c. 118–125 CE, Rome, Italy

The Pantheon is an iconic Roman domed building that influenced similar structures that came after it.

47

Pendentives

2.5.20 Pendentives

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Portal Artwork: Hagia Sophia

3.2.6 Hagia Sophia (exterior), 532–35 CE, Istanbul, Turkey

The Hagia Sophia is an architectural marvel that has pendentives to transition from a round dome to a square support.

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Post-and-Beam (Wooden) Architecture

The post-and-beam construction technique has been used to build some of the world’s finest wooden architecture

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Post-and-beam architecture

2.5.21 Post-and-beam architecture

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51

Horyu-ji (Horyu Temple)

2.5.22 Horyu-ji (Horyu Temple), Kondo and pagoda, c. 7th century, Nara, Japan

Horyu-ji (Horyu Temple), Kondo and pagoda

First temple in the complex built in 607

Example of the durability of well-constructed wooden buildings

Cross-beams and counter-beams create a series of layers supporting the roof

Enabled impressive height

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The construction of the Horyu-ji complex was the idea of the Japanese emperor Yomei, who hoped to gain spiritual favor so he could recover from illness, but died before work started

In 607 Empress Suiko and Crown Prince Shotoku fulfilled the emperor’s dying wish and built the first temple in the complex

The main building of the complex, the Kondo, is almost 61 feet long by 50 feet wide

The Goju-no-To (Five-story Pagoda) is 122 feet tall

The pagoda’s height was designed to impress rather than serve any practical purpose, since it is not possible to enter the top four floors

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View of the Taj Mahal

2.5.23 View of the Taj Mahal from the Yamuna River, Agra, India

Taj Mahal Support Structure

2.5.24 Diagram illustrating the support structure of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal Engineering Eternity

Created as a symbol of love

Masterpiece of Islamic symmetry

Built next to the Yamuna River

River levels are dropping, jeopardizing the wooden support structure

Gateway to Art:

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In 1631, the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan’s third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, died in childbirth

Jahan’s grief was so profound he dedicated all of his vast resources to the creation of a mausoleum complex in her honor that would endure throughout eternity

The central dome is 58 feet in diameter and 213 feet tall

Four domed chambers emanate from this central dome, balanced on an octagon-shaped platform

Four towers called minarets, each 162 feet high, frame the corners of the large structure

Because the building was so close to the river, which would rise and fall with the seasons, a clever combination of stone filler material and wooden supports was constructed to hold the foundation in place

Many fear that this building, which has so far transcended time, may not be able to survive the realities of the mortal world for ever; the marble is suffering discoloration from polluted air, and cracks are appearing on the surface

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“The Abode of Paradise”: The Taj Mahal

Video:

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Classical Architectural Styles

Greek and Roman architectural styles

Endured the ravages of time

Inspired Western civilization

Renaissance architects

Revived again in the mid-18th century (Neoclassicism)

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Artwork: Tempietto of San Pietro

2.5.25 Donato Bramante,

Tempietto of San Pietro,

c. 1502. Rome, Italy

Donato Bramante, Tempietto of San Pietro

High Renaissance architect

Built a memorial where St. Peter was believed to have been crucified

Centrally planned church in Rome

Reflects influences from ancient Roman domed structures

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One of the great architects of the High Renaissance who drew inspiration from the ancients was Donato Bramante (1444–1514)

The Tempietto (Italian for “small temple”)

Bramante, like many Renaissance architects, particularly sought to design works that used geometric shapes and forms, such as circles, spheres, and cylinders

60

Chiswick House

2.5.26 Lord Burlington, Chiswick House, 1729, Chiswick, London, England

61

Lord Burlington, Chiswick House

Neoclassicism (mid-18th century)

Reaction against opulent Baroque and Rococo styles

Gives orderly attention to simple geometric shapes and forms

Inspired by Classical styles, but also integrates contemporary elements

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One of the first expressions of Neoclassical architecture was designed by an English aristocrat named Richard Boyle, better known as Lord Burlington

His design for Chiswick House reflects an interest in the historical beginnings of Western architecture combined with the practical concerns of the 18th century (which are in evidence in the chimneys that straddle the domed central roof)

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The Emergence of the Methods and Materials of the Modern World

In the 19th century, iron, steel, and concrete became commonly used

Architects found new ways to control tension and compression

New materials; new types of buildings

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Stick Style house

2.5.27 Stick Style house using balloon framing, Brockville, Ontario, Canada

Stick Style house

Balloon framing, invented in 1832, commonly used in the US today

Lightweight wooden frames support the structure

Fabricated using power saws

The Stick Style: decorative design, asymmetry with steep roofs

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Cast-Iron Architecture

Cast iron has been available since ancient times

Molten iron can be cast in a mold to almost any shape

It was not until the 18th century that it could be smelted in large quantities for building

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Artwork: Crystal Palace

2.5.28 Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851, London. 19th-century engraving

Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace

Designed for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London

Skeletal cast-iron structure supports glass walls and roof

Inspired other architects to work with iron, including Gustave Eiffel

Destroyed by fire in 1936

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An important example of the use of cast iron during the Industrial Revolution was the Crystal Palace, designed by Sir Joseph Paxton (1803–1865)

The building was more than a third of a mile long; it was completed in only 8 months by 2,000 men; and it used 4,500 tons of cast iron and 990,000 square feet of glass

It was eventually dismantled and reassembled in south London, where it became an exhibition center and concert hall

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Steel-Frame Construction

Steel is a material made from iron and a small quantity of carbon

Stronger than pure iron and had even greater potential

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Wainwright Building

2.5.29 Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building, 1890–91, St. Louis, Missouri

Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building

Sullivan, the “father of Modernism”, pioneered the use of steel and the creation of skyscrapers

“Form follows function,” versatile interior space

Exterior of the building reflects the elements of a column

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Louis Sullivan (1856–1924) participated in the rebuilding of Chicago after the Great Fire of 1871

Chicago provided fertile ground for creative young architects, and Sullivan pushed the use of steel frame to new heights

Because the steel frame supports the building, and because it is mostly located at its outer edges, the space of the interior can easily be reconfigured to meet the specific needs of the user

The middle and tallest area shows strong vertical emphasis, with its projecting rectangular-section shafts and high, narrow windows.

The lower section (base) shows little ornamentation and reflects ideas of the time about the frivolous nature of ornament.

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Neue Nationalgalerie

2.5.30 Mies van der Rohe, Neue Nationalgalerie, 1968, Berlin, Germany

Mies van der Rohe, Neue Nationalgalerie

Mies van der Rohe: “Less is more”

Because steel frames carry the load of the building, many Modernist architects realized there was no need to use a facing material (stone, brick)

The entire side of the building could be sheathed in glass

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Adrian Smith and Bill Baker, Burj Khalifa

2.5.31 Adrian Smith and

Bill Baker (Skidmore,

Owings & Merrill),

Burj Khalifa, 2010. Dubai,

United Arab Emirates

Burj Khalifa, Dubai

Became the tallest man-made structure when it opened in 2010

Design was derived from the spiraling minarets of Islamic architecture

Structural framing is tubular steel, making the support lighter

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Designed and built by the architecture and engineering firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill under the supervision of American architect Adrian Smith (b. 1944) and engineer Bill Baker (b. 1953).

75

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye

2.5.32 Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, 1928–31, Poissy, France

Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater

2.5.33 Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater, 1939, Bear Run, Pennsylvania

Contrasting Ideas in Modern Architecture: Villa Savoye and Fallingwater

Le Corbusier (International Style)

Buildings are a “machine for living”

Inexpensive industrial materials

Strong geometry, unadorned

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Le Corbusier’s (1887–1965) Villa Savoye

The Villa Savoye in Poissy, France was completed in 1931 as a weekend residence for a family that lived in Paris during the week

Le Corbusier was a Swiss–French architect

The International Style was promoted as a universal aesthetic form that could be built in any geographical or cultural environment relatively inexpensively

Le Corbusier wanted nature to be viewed from a comfortable vantage point, and believed that buildings should be designed around the lifestyle of the occupants

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Contrasting Ideas in Modern Architecture: Villa Savoye and Fallingwater (contd.)

Frank Lloyd Wright believed in the organic relationship between site and building

Location, materials, design

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater

American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) was commissioned to build Fallingwater in Bear Run, Pennsylvania, as a weekend getaway for the Kaufmann family

Wright placed the house right on top of a waterfall

Many of the materials collected from the surrounding countryside

The design mimics the layers in the rocks around the site, and the reinforced concrete is colored to fit in as well

79

Frank Lloyd Wright and the Guggenheim Museum

(History/Themes)

Video:

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Reinforced Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of cement and ground stone

It is reinforced through the use of a fibrous material or steel rods called rebars; to prevent cracking

Widespread use since the nineteenth century

Poured into a “form”

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Architects began to use reinforced concrete as a way of avoiding the hard, right-angled edges of buildings made from blocks or bricks

In architecture, steel rebar is shaped to the architect’s design specifications; builders make a large wooden mold, and then pour the concrete into the “form”

Reinforced concrete gave rise to shell architecture, which is the use of a solid shell that also provides support for the structure

81

Artwork: Sydney Opera House

2.5.34 Jørn Utzon, Sydney Opera House, 1973, Sydney, Australia

Jørn Utzon, Sydney Opera House

Testament to the expressive character of reinforced concrete

The rooflines resemble billowing sails

The “sails” were created over precast ribs and then set into place

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When Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918–2008) designed the Sydney Opera House, overlooking the harbor of Sydney, Australia, he broke away from Modernist rectangular designs

Owing to a succession of technical problems with this innovative building, the project cost fourteen times its intended budget

As controversy surrounding the project escalated, Utzon resigned nine years before its completion

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The Postmodern Reaction to Modernism

Postmodernism was a new approach to architecture that began in the 1980s

Postmodernism combined the hard rectangles of Modernism with unusual materials and features of styles from the past

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Artwork: Humana Building

2.5.35 Michael Graves, Humana Building, 1985, Louisville, Kentucky

85

Michael Graves, Humana Building

Mix of historical styles and references:

Greek: implied columns, portico, cornice and triangular glass structure (pediment)

Baroque: curved portion of the upper building

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The Humana Building in downtown Louisville, Kentucky was designed by American Michael Graves (1934–2015)

Color and texture is varied, unlike the simplicity and purity of Modernism

A piece of Modernist architecture would not include influences from Greek or Baroque architecture because the Modernist idea was to create a new style that was not based on the past

86

Artwork: Quadracci Pavilion

2.5.36 Santiago Calatrava, Quadracci Pavilion, Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin, 2001

Santiago Calatrava, Quadracci Pavilion

Exhibition space for contemporary art at the Milwaukee Art Museum

Expresses the character of the site (shores of Lake Michigan)

Reminiscent of ships passing by

Kinetic: a moveable sunscreen slowly rises and lowers, like a flapping bird

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In Postmodernist architecture, form no longer follows function

Sometimes the building seems like a huge toy, a playful exploration of what we expect a building to be

Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava (b. 1951)

A cable-suspended bridge over a beautiful expanse of water also connects the museum to downtown Milwaukee

88

Model of Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati

2.5.37a Zaha Hadid, Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. Study model by the architects, experimenting with different structural ideas

Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati

2.5.37b Zaha Hadid,

Contemporary Arts Center,

2003, Cincinnati, Ohio

Zaha Hadid: A Building for Exciting Events

Designed the gallery spaces as a three-dimensional “jigsaw puzzle”; offers organizational flexibility

Visitors are drawn in by the dynamic public space

Seen from the street, the building appears weightless and sculptural

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Perspectives on Art:

Zaha Hadid (b. 1950) was born in Iraq and trained as an architect in London

She describes how an architect thinks about a new building for art exhibitions, performances, and installations in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio

91

Currents in Architecture

Concerns over limited resources, energy conservation, and sustainability have become important issues that will shape the future of architecture

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Artwork: Michelle Kaufmann, Glide House

2.5.38 Michelle Kaufmann, Glidehouse, 2004. Marin County, California

Michelle Kaufmann, Glide House

Inexpensive alternative to costly California homes

Based on a prefab module made of sustainable wood

Double pane windows, roof solar cells, recyclable materials

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American architect Michelle Kaufmann (b. 1962)

Was Artist-in-Residence at Google where she worked on new company buildings and developed innovative ideas through research and development

94

Portal Artwork: Contemporary Architecture

3.9.32 Michael Graves, Portland Public Services Bulding, 1980–82, Portland, Oregon

For more information about the roots of contemporary architecture see: 3.9.16, p.543.

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Architecture

Video:

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Ancient Rome: Capital of an Empire

Video:

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Architecture Videos

To explore the construction of some more of the greatest buildings in the world, watch:

St. Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel

Teotihuacan:

Ancient Mexico’s “Place of the Gods”

Video:

Video:

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Chapter 2.5 Copyright Information

This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.5

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Third Edition

By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.5

2.5.1 © Jon Arnold Images Ltd/Alamy

2.5.2 Maki and Associates. Courtesy Silverstein Properties

2.5.3 iStockphoto.com

2.5.4 iStockphoto.com

2.5.5 DeAgostini Picture Library/Scala, Florence

2.5.6 Ralph Larmann

2.5.7 Ralph Larmann

2.5.8 Bridgeman Art Library

2.5.9 Index/Bridgeman Art Library

2.5.10 top to bottom: A. Vergani/DeAgostini Picture Library/Diomedia.com; Marco Simoni/imagebroker RM/Diomedia; Photo © Spyros Arsenis/123RF.com

2.5.11 Ralph Larmann

2.5.12 © Natalia Pavlova/Dreamstime.com

2.5.13 Ralph Larmann

2.5.14 © Christophe Boisvieux/Corbis

2.5.15 Ralph Larmann

2.5.16 Photo Scala, Florence

2.5.17a Ralph Larmann

2.5.17b Ralph Larmann

2.5.18 © John Kellerman/Alamy Stock Photo

2.5.19 © Robert Harding Picture Library Ltd/Alamy

2.5.20 Ralph Larmann

2.5.21 Ralph Larmann

2.5.22 © Photo Japan/Alamy

2.5.23 © Martindata/Dreamstime.com

2.5.24 Ralph Larmann

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.5 (contd.)

2.5.25 SuperStock

2.5.26 © Anthony Shaw/Dreamstime.com

2.5.27 Photo Shannon Kyles, ontarioarchitecture.com

2.5.29 Photo Sandak Inc, Stamford, CT

2.5.30 © Interfoto/Alamy

2.5.31 © Jose Fuste Raga/Corbis

2.5.32 © Bildarchiv Monheim GmbH/Alamy

2.5.33 © Richard A. Cooke/Corbis

2.5.34 © Free Agents Limited/Corbis

2.5.35 Photo courtesy Michael Graves & Associates

2.5.36 © Chuck Eckert/Alamy

2.5.37a Courtesy Zaha Hadid Architects

2.5.37b © Roland Halbe/artur

2.5.38 Photo © John Swain

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Doric Order Ionic Order Corinthian Order

acroterion

metope triglyph

architrave

abacus echinus

necking

stylobate

stereobate

pediment

gable raking

cornice cornice

frieze

entablature

capital

shaft

base

molding

dentil

volute

acanthus leaf

volute

Chapter 2.6 The Tradition of Craft

PART 2

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Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction

During the Renaissance, a distinction came to be made between art and craft

Unique to Western culture

Crafts came to mean hand-made items meant to be used rather than simply looked at

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Certain media, notably painting and sculpture, came to be considered as art, while ceramics, weaving, and embroidery were termed crafts

Some handcrafted objects, because of their ingenuity and refinement, stand out as artworks that transcend mere utility

The distinction has now broken down in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries

Ask yourself whether you think the objects discussed can be considered art or craft

At the same time, think about whether the makers of the objects, and the people they made them for, could tell the difference either

2

Artwork: Hyo-In Kim, To Be Modern #2

2.6.1 Hyo-In Kim, To Be Modern #2, 2004. Metal screen, wire, porcelain, acrylic paint, and found objects, slightly over lifesize

2.6.2 Hyo-In Kim

Hyo-In Kim, Art or Craft: What’s the Difference?

A hanbok is a traditional Korean dress worn by women of upper classes

Kim has subtly transformed the materials of the dress and its display

She wants us to see that traditional cultural values are fading away

Perspectives on Art:

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Dress is made out of silver-colored wire mesh (instead of cloth)

Upon close-up inspection, the decoration turns out to be tiny versions of fashionable Western clothing: jeans, skirts, shoes, purses

She decided to suspend it with its sleeves outstretched so that its transparency and weightlessness would be emphasized

What Kim wants us to see and appreciate, both literally and figuratively, is that those traditional cultural values that give structure and form to people’s lives, including our own, are fading away and disappearing as globalization spreads

4

Ceramics

Ceramic comes from the Greek word meaning “pottery,” keramos

Manufacture requires the shaping of clay, a natural material dug from the earth, which is then baked at high temperatures to make it hard

Basic technique date back thousands of years

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5

Pinch Method

This technique is one of the most basic ways of working with clay

Process of squeezing clay between the fingers to push and pull it into the desired shape

A spontaneous and effective way to create a clay object

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6

Artwork: The Mother Goddess Men Brajut (Hariti)

2.6.3 The Mother Goddess

Men Brajut (Hariti), Indonesian, c. 14th–15th century. Terra-cotta, 18⅞ × 8½ × 8″, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

7

The Mother Goddess Men Brajut (Hariti)

Uses the Pinch method of clay construction

Work created to honor Hindu gods and goddesses

Originally created as a pillar ornament

Hariti is “protector of children”

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Created during the Majapahit period in Indonesia (1293-1520)

Represents one of the manifested goddesses of Hinduism

8

Ceramics

Video:

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Chapter 2.6 The Tradition of Craft

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Coil Method

This method has been in common usage since ancient times

A coil is created by rolling the clay on a flat surface so that it extends into a long rope-like shape

The coil is wrapped around itself and then fused together by smoothing

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Artwork: Seated Figure

2.6.4 Seated Figure, Oaxaca, Mexico, Zapotec style, 300 BCE–700 CE. Ceramic,12⅝ × 7 × 7⅜”. Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio

Seated Figure, Oaxaca, Mexico

This work is from the Zapotec culture of Mexico

Handcrafted using the coil method

Buried in the tomb of a Zapotec ruler

May portray a god or possibly a companion for the deceased

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On its headdress and chest the artist has carved two calendar dates in Zapotec writing.

12

Throwing

A potter’s wheel consists of a round disk that revolves while the ceramist shapes his or her object

In use by the Chinese since 3000 BCE

The process of making pottery on a wheel is known as throwing

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13

Artwork: Porcelain flask with decoration in blue underglaze

2.6.5 Porcelain flask with decoration in blue underglaze, Ming Dynasty, 1425–35. Palace Museum, Beijing, China

Porcelain Flask with decoration in blue underglaze

The Chinese invented porcelain

Produced on a potter’s wheel during the Ming Dynasty

Multiple glaze layers: first, a blue glaze and then a clear one to provide a luxurious glossy finish

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The Ming Dynasty was almost 600 years ago

Their wares were so fine that the users of Ming Dynasty porcelain included the emperor of China himself

15

Maria Martinez

2.6.6 Maria Martinez, San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico, c. 1930–40

16

Julian Martinez

2.6.7 Julian Martinez, San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico, c. 1925–45

17

Artwork: Bowl with plumed serpent

2.6.8 Maria Martinez and Julian Martinez, bowl with plumed serpent, c.1925.

Coiled and burnished earthenware, 6″ × 9½”. Newark Museum, New Jersey

18

San Ildefonso-Style Pottery

Native American pottery is made using hand-building methods

The Martinez family revived the pottery traditions of their ancestors

Famous for their distinctive style

A favorite motif is the avanyu, a water guardian serpent god

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Chapter 2.6 The Tradition of Craft

Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett discovered sherds of pottery near San Ildefonso Pueblo in New Mexico and asked a local potter to produce replicas of the originals

That potter, Maria Martinez (1887–1980), whose Tewa name was Po’ve’ka (“Pond Lily”), and her husband Julian (1879–1943) re-created ceramic objects that their distant ancestors had made

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Slab Method

In this technique clay is rolled into a flat sheet and cut into shapes

The corners of the different shapes are carefully joined

Lends itself to making boxes and other forms that have large flat sides

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Artwork: Peter Voulkos, Gallas Rock

2.6.9 Peter Voulkos, Gallas Rock, 1960. Stoneware with slip and glaze, 84 × 37 × 26¾”. University of California at Los Angeles, Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden

Peter Voulkos, Gallas Rock

Voulkos is known for using clay’s naturalness–its tendency to take on organic forms–and plasticity

Slab construction is evident in the flat planes

Organic and Expressionistic

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American sculptor Peter Voulkos (1924–2002) created this eight-foot-tall sculptural object.

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Glass

Glass is produced by melting silica (sand) with lead at intense heat

Probably first used in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt (3500 bce)

To create a vessel by forcing air into molten glass is called glassblowing

Used by Syrians in the first century BCE and later perfected by Romans

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Forcing air into molten glass is usually achieved by blowing through a tube.

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Glass

Video:

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Artwork: Portland Vase

2.6.10 Portland Vase, Roman c. 1–25 CE. British Museum, London, England

Portland Vase

This vase was created in the Roman Empire during first century CE

Made using the dip-overlay method

The blue glass forms the background to the figures in white

Amazing degree of detail

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An elongated bubble of blue glass was partially dipped into a crucible of white glass, before the two were blown together

After cooling, the white layer was cut away to form the design

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Artwork: Rose window and lancets, Chartres Cathedral

2.6.11 Rose window and lancets, north transept, 13th century. Chartres Cathedral, France

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Rose window and lancets, Chartres Cathedral

Fine example of Gothic stained glass

Bath the cathedral in colored light

The brilliant blue color is one of the most extraordinary artistic achievements of the early thirteenth century

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The large decorative window is 43 feet in diameter

They are so valued that to prevent them from being damaged during World War II, they were removed and placed in storage until after the war

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Artwork: Dale Chihuly, Fiori di Como

2.6.12 Dale Chihuly, Fiori di Como, 1998. Hand-blown glass and steel, 70 × 30 × 12′.

Bellagio Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada

Dale Chihuly, Fiori di Como

This ceiling was created by the American glass artist Dale Chihuly

2,000 individually blown glass flowers

Strong color enlivens and invigorates the reception area at the Bellagio Hotel in Las Vegas

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Metalwork

Metalwork was especially important in the Bronze and Iron Ages

Metal can be heated to a liquid state and poured into molds

It can also be hammered into shape or bent to fit the needs of the artist

Important medium for utilitarian purposes

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Some metals, such as iron or copper, are natural materials

Others are alloys, combinations of two or more naturally occurring metals

Tin mixed with copper produces bronze

Most metals are strong but malleable

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Metalwork and Jewelry

Video:

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Artwork: Death mask from Mycenae

2.6.13 Death mask from Shaft Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. Also known as Mask of Agamemnon, c. 1550–1500 BCE. Gold, height 12″. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

Death mask from Mycenae

This mask was created by laying a thin sheet of gold over an object carved to resemble a human face

The artist then hammered the surface until the shape and texture of the design was imprinted in the metal

Process is called chasing

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Artwork: Chalice with Apostles Venerating the Cross

2.6.14 Chalice with

Apostles Venerating

the Cross, c. 600 CE,

Syria (Byzantine). Silver repoussé, partial gilt, 6⅝ × 5½” diameter at rim. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore

Chalice with Apostles Venerating the Cross

To achieve this relief design the artist hammered a blunt tool against the back of the image

The opposite side was pushed out to form the images

Technique is called repoussé

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Artwork: Benvenuto Cellini, Salt Cellar of Francis I

2.6.15 Benvenuto Cellini, Salt Cellar of Francis I, 1540–43. Gold, enamel, ebony, ivory, 11¼ × 8½ × 10⅜”.

Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

Benvenuto Cellini, Salt Cellar of Francis I

The Italian goldsmith Cellini created this piece for the king of France

Complex process where molten gold was poured into a mold

Salt was held next to Neptune (god of the sea) and pepper next to the symbolic image of Mother Earth

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Magnificent example of Renaissance metalwork

It took Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571) more than two years to make it

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Portal Artwork: Riace Warrior A

2.4.12 Riace Warrior A, c. 460 BCE. Bronze with copper, silver, and ivory, height 6’6”. Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia, Reggio di Calabria, Italy

More information about the process of metal casting can be found in chapter 2.4: see 2.4.12, p.250.

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Fiber

Fibers are threads made from animal or vegetable materials (fur, wool, silk, cotton, flax, or linen) or synthetic materials (nylon, polyester)

Can be spun into yarn, string, or thread, then woven or knitted into textiles

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Fiber Art

Video:

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Artwork: Mary Linwood, detail from Hanging Partridge

2.6.16 Mary Linwood,

detail from Hanging

Partridge, late 18th century. Crewelwork embroidery, approximately 24½ × 28″. Private collection

Mary Linwood, detail from Hanging Partridge

To create this work Linwood used crewel embroidery: a process that uses free-form, fine wool-thread stitching on a drawn design

Like “painting with thread”

Intricate and slow; artist shows great patience and skill

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Embroidery is the process of stitching an image into a fabric surface using a needle and thread (or yarn)

British artist Mary Linwood (1755–1845) was held in high esteem, and was popular with royalty in England and Russia

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2.1.21 Hishikawa Moronobu, Papermaking in Japan, showing the vatman and the paper-drier, 1681. Woodblock print from the four-volume Wakoku Shōshoku Edzukushi, 1681

Portal Artwork: Hishikawa Moronobu, Papermaking in Japan

A diverse range of materials can be used in the creation of fiber art, including paper.

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Artwork: Faith Ringgold, Tar Beach

2.6.17 Faith Ringgold, Tar Beach, 1988. Acrylic on canvas, bordered with printed, painted, quilted, and pierced cloth, 6’2⅝” × 5’8½”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Faith Ringgold, Tar Beach

Tells the story of a girl named Cassie

Ringgold relates the African-American experience through memories of her own childhood in New York

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Chapter 2.6 The Tradition of Craft

Made in collaboration with her mother: she painted the scene and her mother sewed the quilted border.

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Artwork: Tlingit Chilkat dancing blanket

2.6.18 Tlingit Chilkat dancing blanket, 19th century

Tlingit Chilkat dancing blanket

Woven entirely by hand from goat wool and cedar bark

Traditional Chilkat style: a weaving intended to be a two-dimensional portrayal of totem carving

Worn on ceremonial occasions by high-ranking Tlingit tribe members

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The Tlingit people live on the western coast of Canada and Alaska

These blankets are highly prized and very expensive

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2.6.19 Sheila Hicks, The Silk Rainforest, c. 1975. Silk, linen, and cotton, 96 × 270 × 3″,

Smithsonian American Art Museum, Renwick Gallery, Washington, D.C.

Artwork: Sheila Hicks, The Silk Rainforest

Sheila Hicks, The Silk Rainforest

This work by Hicks is a large-scale installation

Fiber is raw and irregular

Originally installed at the AT&T Headquarters in New Jersey

Conjures physical sense of touch paired with visual experience

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American born Sheila Hicks (b. 1934) is considered a modern master of fiber art.

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Artwork: MacAdam, Knitted Wonder Space II

2.6.20 Toshiko Horiuchi MacAdam, Knitted Wonder Space II, 2009. Braided nylon 6–6; hand crochet, 49’2″ × 29’6″ × 21’3″. Woods of Net Pavilion, Hakone Open Air Museum, Hakone, Japan

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MacAdam, Knitted Wonder Space II

Toshiko Horiuchi MacAdam knits large-scale interactive environments, such as children’s playgrounds

Viewers are invited to touch the artwork

Challenges preconceived ideas of what fiber art can be

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Knitting is a process of creating a fabric using loops and stitching

Japanese artist Toshiko Horiuchi MacAdam (b. 1940) builds these large-scale fiber constructions in her studio in Canada

Installs them in many countries

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Wood

This material deteriorates over time, so few ancient examples exist

Trees provide different woods that vary in color and hardness

Innate beauty can be brought out by cutting, carving, sanding, and polishing

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Artwork: Detail of studiolo, Ducal Palace

2.6.21 Detail of studiolo from the Ducal Palace in Gubbio, Italy, by Giuliano da Maiano, after a design by Francesco di Giorgio Martini, c. 1480. Walnut, beech, rosewood, oak, and fruit woods in walnut base, 15’11” × 16’11” × 12’7¼”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Detail of studiolo, Ducal Palace

To create this work the artist used the technique of intarsia, a kind of mosaic using woods of different colors

Creates an illusion of depth

Symbols are included to reflect the Duke of Urbino’s achievements as a ruler, military commander, collector of books, and patron of the arts

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The Italian artist Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439–1501) used intarsia in the design of this studiolo (a private room, often a library or study), which he created in c. 1480

Guiliano da Maiano executed the work with such skill, it is not clear where reality ends and illusion begins

Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino, commissioned Martini to create this work

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Artwork: Captain Richard Carpenter, bent-corner chest

2.6.22 Captain Richard Carpenter, bent-corner chest, c. 1860. Yellow cedar, red cedar, and paint, 21¼ × 35¾ × 20½”. Seattle Art Museum, Washington

Captain Richard Carpenter, bent-corner chest

Created by a Native American of the Heiltsuk tribe

The wood was made flexible by steam, bent at the notches (kerfs), and joined

After that, the chest was carved and painted with an elaborate design

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Notches (kerfs) were cut at three corners of a smooth plank of cedar

A separate base and top were then fitted to the whole

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Artwork: Andrew Early, turned bowl

2.6.23 Andrew Early, turned bowl, 2010. Indian mahogany, 13¾ × 29½”

Andrew Early, turned bowl

Turning is the fashioning of a wooden object using a lathe (a power-driven spinning support)

Wood is prepared by seasoning (careful aging and drying)

Early leaves irregularities to preserve the innate “personality” of the wood

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Andrew Early, a South African wood turner (b. 1970), who learned the craft from his father, John, has become one of today’s most collected and exhibited wood turners.

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Chapter 2.6 Copyright Information

This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.6

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Third Edition

By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.6

2.6.1 Courtesy Trudy Labell Fine Art, Florida. © the artist

2.6.2 Photo Trudy Labell

2.6.3 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Jaap Polak, 2009, 2009.321

2.6.4 Cleveland Museum of Art, Gift of the Hanna Fund, 1954.857

2.6.5 Palace Museum, Beijing

2.6.6 Photo Tyler Dingee. Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), Neg. No. 073453

2.6.7 Photo T. Harmon Parkhurst. Courtesy Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), Neg. No. 055204

2.6.8 Newark Museum, Gift of Amelia Elizabeth White, 1937. 37.236 © 2014. Photo The Newark Museum/Art Resource/Scala, Florence

2.6.9 Courtesy the Voulkos & Co. Catalogue Project, www.voulkos.com

2.6.10 British Museum, London

2.6.11 © Angelo Hornak/Corbis

2.6.12 Photo Teresa Nouri Rishel © Dale Chihuly

2.6.13 National Archaeological Museum, Athens

2.6.14 The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. Acquired by Henry Walters, 1929

2.6.15 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

2.6.16 Private Collection

2.6.17 The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 88.3620. Faith Ringgold © 1988

2.6.18 © Christie’s Images/Corbis

2.6.19 Photo Smithsonian American Art Museum/Art Resource/Scala, Florence. © Sheila Hicks

2.6.20 Collaborators: Charles MacAdam with Interplay Design & Manufacturing, Inc, Nova Scotia, Canada (design & production); Norihide Imagawa with T.I.S. & Partners., Co. Ltd, Tokyo (structural design). Photo Masaki Koizumi. Courtesy the artist

2.6.21 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1939, 39.153. Photo Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.6 (contd.)

2.6.22 Seattle Art Museum, Gift of John H. Hauberg and John and Grace Putnam, 86.278. Photo Paul Macapia

2.6.23 Photo courtesy Andrew Early

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