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4 key learning points


Principles of PMD






Learn to manage projects systematically and efficiently

Learn how a project can succeed or fail

Identify the core stages of a project management approach and follow it systematically

Schedule, breakdown tasks, brainstorm, identify risk and manage deliverables systematically

Use effective meetings to monitor the progress of the project and communicate with participants

Analyse risk systematically and formulate responses

Analyse your management technique based on a case study using the principles discussed in this course

Communicate more effectively with team members and increase the team’s inter-communications

Ask specific types of questions to obtain more information

Collect and process issues and observations efficiently



“If words of command are not clear and distinct, if orders are not thoroughly understood, the general is to blame. But if his orders are clear, and the soldiers nevertheless disobey, then it is the fault of their officers.”

Sun Tzu




A temporary organisation that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products/services according to a specified Business Case.

Result-oriented with well-defined objectives

Measurable products and deliverables

A plan consisting of a series of well-defined activities

Finite resources

Defined responsibilities for management of the project


Raise the question: “What is the definition of a project and get delegates to come up with a solution.”

[LOOK AT WORKBOOK: Definition]

To Tutor: Follow by group discussion and get the delegates to share their views.


Examples of HR Projects?

From the class, are there are examples of HR Projects?



Poor scheduling.

Weak Business Case.

Communications issue.

No clear objectives.

Lack of Quality.

Vague responsibility.

Incorrect Resource Estimation.

Vague progress.


[TRY][LOOK AT WORKBOOK: How Projects Fail]

To Tutor: Get the delegates to fill in the table on what they have observed already about project failures


To Tutor: Get each delegate to contribute what they have identified and discuss with the group.

Write the most common and critical failures on the flipchart and then show the failure cases in the slide.

Compare the slide list with what the delegates identified and discuss the differences in more detail.

Poor scheduling. Bad planning and coordination of resources that leads to suboptimal projects.

Business Case. There is no point to blindly go all the way to the end of a project only to realise that the market has vanished or that the project is no longer beneficial to the company.

Communications issue. Inefficient communication between anyone who has interests in the project can be disastrous. Clients need to talk to the project manager about their needs. Stakeholders need to know about the project, the management, the clients and the team members. The last thing anyone wishes is to deliver a product no one wants.

Clear objectives. The team needs to know exactly what they are trying to achieve. The clients need to know exactly what they are going to receive. Vague objectives are recipe for failure.

Quality. Insufficient attention to quality leads to potential failure, not to mention potential loss of future work.

Vague responsibility. A project manager who doesn’t know how responsible he or she is may find it difficult to be decisive when it is critical to make firm decisions. This is usually a failure on both sides; the project manager and the project manager’s boss.

Resource Estimation. A project can go over budget when unforeseen circumstances deplete the allocated resources and there is no clear contingency or backup plans. Resources and man power may also be required for other projects or tasks which can have a large impact on the success of both projects.

Vague progress. It is critical to know the end quantifiable objective so progress can be measured against the goal. Otherwise you may not know how far behind you are before it is too late.


Our objective was: Learn what a project is and how it can succeed or fail

We have learned about the failure cases, and now we are going to focus on skills that would help us avoid such issues.

Relay Application Confirmed

Have you found the failure cases useful? Once you have this in mind it is easier to see what needs to be done to avoid them.




Project Management is easy! For the initial planning phase, all you need to do is to answer these questions. During the course we will explore many techniques to answer these questions and as we find new ways we will cross them out.


What is this for?

Who wants the results?

Who is doing what?

What needs to be done?

When does it have to be done?

What happens if it not done by when it needs to be done?



One of the most classic models for product development, in particular software, is waterfall model.

Who is familiar with this model?

Based on the response decide on the details of your presentation.

The waterfall model suggests that development is seen as flowing steadily downwards much like a waterfall through the phases.

The idea is that once you know what the requirements are, you move ahead one step at a time through design and implementation until the product is verified and ready for delivery.

What do you think of this model? Is it going to work?

Expect to hear that this model may have problems since once requirements are set, you need to move forward and implement them without being able to go back. The system is inflexible.

Interestingly the model was first presented by Royce, who suggested it as a failed model and moved on to offer a better model that did not have this limitation. However, his original waterfall model was noticed strongly and became popular.

How do you think we can improve on this model? What is missing?

Expect to hear that we need to have an iterative process so we can go back and forward between the requirements and implementations to make sure what we make is going to be valuable to the end user or the client.

Does anyone know such a system?

Suggest RUP and move on to the next slide to explain it.









Explain the RUP model (Rational Unified Process).

Inception: (see workbook for detailed explanation for these stages).

Who is involved

Objective and clients expectation

Communication plan


Business case

Development plan



Use case model (This is modelling the usage of your product or service. It identifies the interface between the actors and the system and clarifies the boundaries and responsibilities)


Implementation and development phase, iterative approach.

Customers must be involved to make sure what is made is indeed what they want.

Several prototypes are produced to demonstrate key functions and de-risk critical components.


Product is prepared for delivery and deployment.

Documentations on validation, lessons learned, user manual, etc. are produced and delivered.

End users are trained if necessary

Note: Emphasise the importance of iteration and that this is critical considering the current market demands.

How do you make sure that the customer understands what you are making?

Give them prototypes during the development, so they can see for themselves how certain features are implemented. This way, they will be part of the development process and can easily shape the direction of the development at an early stage without too much cost.




Probably line manager in partnership with you

Leading the project

As a project manager, you need to interact with many people.


To Tutor: Ask delegates which people a project manager needs to interact with. Write these on the flipchart. Then show the circles in the slide and discuss.

Walk through each case and ask what is the critical relationship between that person and the project manager. Get all delegates to participate and understand the importance of each relationship and how it can drastically go wrong if they don’t pay enough attention to it.




Project Manager


Team members










Project Progress Report

Project Direction


This is a typical organisation chart. As a project manager you need to collect the feedback from the team and consultants and make sure the producer is informed and then lead the team based on your judgement and the direction you get from the ‘producer’.


Project Manager





Just to recap before we move on, we have covered two questions so far.


Who wants the results?

Who is doing what?

What needs to be done?

When does it have to be done?

What happens if it not done by when it needs to be done?

What is this for?



Responsible: You do it

Accountable: You are accountable for ensuring the the person who is responsible does it

Consulted: You seek their opinion and want to know their feedback

Informed: You keep them informed of the developments by using memos or any other means

These are the 4 types of people that are involved in a project: RACI

What is the difference between R and A?

Responsible: you do it.

Accountable: you are accountable for ensuring that the person who is responsible (R) does it.

Is it is possible to hold an A and an R simultaneously?

If you hold the A and someone else the R, it means the task has been delegated by you to them.

What does Consulted mean?

You seek their opinion and want to know their feedback.

What does Informed mean?

You keep them informed of the developments by using memos or by other means

[PRACTICE][H1_Handout_RACI_Case_Study][H55_Handout_RACI_Case_Study_Answers][PAIR][IF ODD: GROUP-3]

To Tutor: Distribute a copy of [H1_Handout_RACI_Case_Study] to each delegate. Get delegates to read the case study and then identify the roles and responsibilities of each individual involved. Next, they should identify each person’s role based on RACI. Allocate 5 minutes for this exercise. Bring back group together and ask them to present their results and discuss. You can distribute a copy of the [H55_Handout_RACI_Case_Study_Answers] if you wish.










Adair’s Model of management


Present John Adair’s model of management and explain each area.

Ask if any of the delegates are familiar with this model. If so, ask them to explain what they like about it and how this model helps them with their work.

What does this model try to show?

That, there are three areas that need to be looked at in balance.

To Tutor: Use the following questions to expand the discussion on the model and get delegates to see the importance of each area.

What happens if you neglect an area at the expense of another? Examples?

That area will suffer. For example you can focus continuously on the task, plan everything well and know everything required to achieve the task, but your team might be demotivated and not interested to actually carry out the task. Individuals may not be capable of doing the various tasks you have assigned to them.

Now what happens if you focus on the team at the expense of the task and individual?

You probably end up with a good team who is well-motivated and eager to work, but works on something that is not particularly useful for the client because you haven’t paid enough attention to what the task should be. Team members still need to be assessed, assisted and guided in the right direction for successful completion of the task.

What happens if you pay attention to individual at the expense of the task and the team?

People like working for you. They can connect to you. But they don’t like the team and there can be constant conflict and competition between team members. Besides, the team is off on a wrong track of work where everyone is arguing to go towards a different direction. It’s much like being on a ship with a captain who has a good personality and is likeable, but the ship is lost at sea and about to sink!


To Tutor: Get the delegates to identify the strength and weakness of their manager’s style and also their own management.

Then ask the delegates to share their ideas and say which areas they think are most critical. Get the group to discuss.





Individual leadership reflection

Think about your current or previous manager- what are/were their strengths and development areas?

Think about yourself as a manager/leader- what are your strengths and development areas?

This can be used for the PDP


Leadership in PM

In your groups (online/in-class) discuss the leadership scenarios and the best approach

How would you handle these situations from an HR perspective?

What support would you give PM Line Managers in these scenarios?

Feedback from the groups after discussion




Project purpose

Major benefits

Current solutions

Business case

Outcome and objectives

Options considered

Recommended approach

Resource analysis


Deadlines, constraints, limitations, assumptions, risks and standards


Feasibility Study

What is your experience in doing background research? How critical do you think it is?


To Tutor: Get delegates to suggests their experience and share their ideas.

A thorough background research is critical in the early stages of a project since you can identify quite early where issues may arise.

Hence we are going to focus on this a bit more to see what areas are important. Most of these elements are self-explanatory. The objective is not to miss one of the steps described in this slide.



To Tutor: Give handouts of the case study to the delegates. Explain that the case study is used throughout the course as various areas of project management are explored. Each group should go through the case study. Then go to you workbook and answer the questions in ‘Background Research’ section. Get groups to share their answer and discuss the results.




Product features

Development costs


Ease of use

Post deployment support

Ease of installation

Running costs

Hard limitations (where applicable) such as capacity, speed, weight, storage limitations

Appearance and look and feel


What is Acceptance Criteria and why do we need them?

These are measurable parameters that we can use to measure the project’s progress.


To Tutor: Before showing the list, first ask the delegates to suggest a few of these parameters and write them on a flipchart. This will warm them up for the exercise that follows.

Once the suggestions have been collected, show the list in the slide. Compare the suggestions with the slide and discuss.

What happens if we don’t know what needs to be delivered?


What happens if we haven’t thought about the deployment before initiating the project development?

We may not be able to deploy easily, it could be costly and time consuming. Maybe our product is not suitable for the intended market. A common example is when you want to launch internationally and you have to consider whole new set of issues and regulations.

What happens if you get the appearance wrong or different from what the customer was expecting?

The product may function very well, in fact you may even get away with it but there is a risk that every time that customer sees your product, they remember that you delivered something other than what they wanted. The chances that they will do a repeat business with you is very marginal.


To Tutor: Get delegates to go through the case study and identify acceptance criteria and fill in the table.


Our objective was : Identify the core stages of a project management approach and follow it systematically

In this part, we explored the various stages of project management and we also looked into some of the activities in the Inception and Elaboration phases. We now know what these stages are and which areas are critical.

Relay Application Confirmed

Now that you know these stages, do you have a better idea of how you are going to manage projects? What do you think of the RUP model? Does it make sense?


We have touched on the elaboration phase and identified who we need to interact with (stakeholders), what needs to be done (acceptance criteria) and we know how to carry out a background research.

As part of the elaboration phase, we also need to do a fair bit of planning which involves drill down of task, scheduling and making sure everyone knows what they should do. This is the subject of the next section.




So far, this is what we have covered. Now we want to focus on what needs to be done before we can address other questions.


Who wants the results?

Who is doing what?

What needs to be done?

When does it have to be done?

What happens if it not done by when it needs to be done?

What is this for?


Help to identify exactly how far you have to go

Identify milestones based on external events

Based on milestones, identify deliverables, timescales, resources, etc.


What are milestones?

Original meaning: distance signs.

Modern use: stages

Why when it comes to planning, you need to first identify milestones?

Because they are the major stages and are easier to identify. In addition, external event may dictate this.

We are now going to use the case study and draw up the milestones.

[PRACTICE][LOOK AT WORKBOOK: In-House Gym Milestones] [H51_Handout_GymMilestones] [PAIR] [IF ODD: GROUP-3][SAME]

To Tutor: Get the delegates to identify the major milestones for the in-House Gym case study and fill the table in the workbook. At the end of the exercise you can distribute a copy of the [H51_Handout_GymMilestones] as an example. Allocate about 10 minutes for this part. Follow up with a discussion.

Now that you have identified the milestone, how do you feel about the project?

In control. It is easier to see how it is going to progress and if the project is realistic because you can just focus on each milestone and evaluate its feasibility.

Note: When producing products you can use the RUP milestones in the planning phase. Service oriented projects such as the one discussed in the case study may benefit more from equivalent milestones rather than directly using the RUP milestones.



Expand as much as possible

Don’t take anything out; leads to more associations

Reconstruct and categorise

Let mind come up with absurd ideas

Don’t worry about repetition


Immerse yourself in the problem

2nd reconstruction and revision

Compare and combine your new map with your old map


There are a number of grand rules you need to follow to be an efficient mind mapper. -> Explain the slide.

Emphasise that re-structuring is critical when mind mapping as it opens up new associations.



Einstein instructed his students to systematically use incubation as part of their studies.


Edison wanted to take advantage of the power of relaxed mind to come up with great new ideas. He kept a metal ball in his hand before going to bed while the ball hanged over the edge of the bed. He placed a metallic sheet underneath his hand. As he was about to go to sleep, the ball would drop from his hand make a loud noise and wake him up. He would then run to his desk to write down his new ideas…No wonder why he made so many inventions…Now you know!



Mindjet Mind Manager

MindGenius Business

FreeMind (Free)

Matchware Open Mind


Here are some mind mapping tools recommendation. Look at Mind Maps in wikipedia for a long list of software developers.



Identify Work Packages (WP)

Cluster WPs


Is anyone familiar with this type of graphs?

What is the purpose of the WBS?

To capture the work required to complete a project. You want to cluster the related task together, identify relationships and drill-down to most basic activities.

You can use your mind map as the seeds for a WBS. You need to capture everything in WBS since it is the standard and everyone can read and understand. A mind map is a local capture of your knowledge. It is meant to be a creative tool and may not be very suitable as a knowledge distribution tool.

What is a Work Package?

It is subset of a project that contains all the information in relation with this specific task.


To Tutor: Give the handout and explain the content. It has PMP, WBS, WPs, Milestones and the Gantt chart. Get the delegates to get familiar with the information in the WPs.

[PRACTICE][H11_Handout_BlankWorkPackageForm][H52_Handout_GymWPS][PAIR][IF ODD: GROUP-3][SAME]

To Tutor: Give several blank Work Package forms to delegates and ask them to fill in the forms with the details that correspond to the In-House Gym project. Once everyone has completed the WPs, ask each group to present them and compare solutions. You can then distribute a copy of WP examples given in [H52_Handout_GymWPS] to further illustrate how WPs are used. Discuss the results.


Phase 1: Research on capabilities of current systems

Phase 2: Prototype of Visual tool simulation

Phase 3: Prototype to connect visual tool to aircraft engine via satellite

Showcase prototype tool in Air Tattoo exhibition

Integration of Visual Tool with current engine monitoring tools

WP16: Integrate prototype with engine monitoring tools

WP1: Market research

WP2: Research on 3D graphics systems

WP3: Research on communication systems

WP4: Research on GUI

WP5: Trade-off analysis

WP6: Architectural Design

WP7: Visual tool prototype

WP8: Test prototype tool

WP9: Simulate integration of prototype tool with the live system

WP10: Develope communication module

WP11: Test communication module prototype

Wp12: Integrate communication tool with the visualisation tool

WP13: Prepare prototype for exhibition

WP14: Trade-off analysis of exhibition customer feedback

WP15: Implement key customer feedback

WP17: Live test of final integrated system

WP18: Prepare and pack for customer delivery


Remember this grand rule. What goes into the WPs, should get done and will get done. What’s left out, will not be done. You need to be realistic as well. Don’t jam huge content into a WP, hoping that no one will notice. Somebody has to do it after all.

What happens if you mix the risky and not-so-risky development tasks into one WP?

It is likely that the WP may get delayed, and along with it the non-risky material may not be done. In addition, you cant easily move to the next WP that depends on this WP and other WPs may suffer as a result.

As a project manager, its your job to balance the WPs and make sure that the critical paths are smoothed out and that the project as a whole can move forward and does not come to a halt because of one WP.

This requires critical path analysis, which we will cover next.


The 100% Rule

The WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverables – internal, external, interim – in terms of the work to be completed, including project management.



Recap of what is covered so far.

Now we want to know when does it have to be done.


Who wants the results?

Who is doing what?

What needs to be done?

When does it have to be done?

What happens if it not done by when it needs to be done?

What is this for?



Who is familiar with a Gantt Chart?

You can use a Gantt chart to display the activities on a time axis. You can visually see how the project progresses over time. You can also view dependencies and modify the activities duration and start time and expect the rest of the schedule to be corrected accordingly. Tools such as Microsoft Project have many features to accommodate for a project manager.

You can draw a Gantt chart by hand, but it is highly advisable to use software tools as they are far more productive and let you change plans easily and efficiently with minimal efforts.

This is a typical display of a Gantt chart. It generally has information about the activities, the relationship between activities and time variables.

What kind of information is also useful to have in this view?

To Tutor: Expect a discussion and see what delegates can come up with.

It is also useful to know which person is doing what and capture that in the chart.

What is the best format to use when adding this kind of content?

We can apply the RACI model to the Gantt chart. This way we can know exactly when something needs to be done and also who is responsible or needs to be informed or consulted.

Gantt chart are also ideal to capture timing of external events? How does this work?

So far each WP can have a start time, a duration and an end time. It is not really related to the real world and somehow such information needs to be captured. This is when a Gantt chart can be very useful as you can place dependencies in the chart based on external events.


To Tutor: At this point, you cap pause and demo a Gantt chart software (such as MS Project) so delegates can better understand how it works in practice.









3 Month

2 Month

5 Month

1 Month

2 Month

4 Month

5 Month









Setting up the WPs input/outputs creates a number of dependencies between WPs. Using the Gantt chart you could show these dependencies while scheduling. Ideally you want to find out where the critical parts of the project are so you can be prepared for them.

For this activity, you can use a Critical Path Analysis.

As shown, WPs are placed on the map and connected based on their dependencies and the duration of time it takes to finish each WP.

To Tutor: Explain the graph and show how it is constructed based on WPs, dependencies and WP durations.









3 Month

2 Month

5 Month

1 Month

2 Month

4 Month

5 Month








10 Months


The critical path is the longest path in the network; therefore it represents the minimum time needed to finish the project.



Team Communications





Ask yourself …

What is your objective for this communication?

Who needs information, why, and when?

What type of information will they need and how much detail should it have?

What medium will best accomplish that?



How important is communication to the success of projects? What is your current experience?

To Tutor: Get the delegates to discuss the issues based on their past project and suggest methods. They need to see the issues clearly before any solutions are suggested to them.

What is a communication plan?

It is your strategy to communicate with stakeholder or anyone who has interests in the project.

What sort of information need to be communicated with the team?

To Tutor: Once delegates have presented their suggestions, show the ‘Team Communications’ part of the slide. Explain each kind of information:

Responsibility. Each member needs to know what they are supposed to do in the project

Coordination. You need to provide information so that the team members can work together efficiently.

Status. Regular updates between team members, the project manager and other stakeholder are critical to monitor the progress of the project and identify problems to implement corrective action.

Authorisation. Decisions made by customers, sponsors, and upper management relating to the project and its business environment needs to be passed to relevant parties so everyone involved is synchronized with the latest needs and priorities.

Obviously you need to communicate with many others in addition to your teams. What sort of parameters are important to consider in such communication?

To Tutor: Show the second part of the slide (Ask yourself…) and explain that these are the core questions to ask yourself when you want to communicate with interested parties.




Recap of what is covered so far.

Now we want to know when does it have to be done.


Who wants the results?

Who is doing what?

What needs to be done?

When does it have to be done?

What happens if it not done by when it needs to be done?

What is this for?


Pre-meeting preparation

Schedule kickoff meeting

Send kickoff meeting material to all participants

Prepare who needs to do what


How important is the kickoff meeting?

It is extremely important as it sets the scene for all of the future activities and meetings. If this meeting is disorganised, participants may be not be motivated to be involved with the project. You need to keep people interested and show them that you are in control right from the start. A clumsy project manager doesn’t look good from above or below.


What should you prepare for before a kickoff meeting?

To Tutor: Get delegates to come up with ideas on what they should do before the meeting.

Then show the slides and explain each item.



Discuss assumptions and document them

Emphasise Project Objectives and Deliverables

Assign Responsibilities and Roles for Team Members

Use the RACI model

Identify Key Success Factors

Identify Dependencies and Key Issues


When in a kickoff meeting, you need to be in charge.

Aim for balance. Don’t be too strict or too vague or too friendly. Don’t over-manage or under-manage.


Think of your role as a referee of a football match (soccer). For every little challenge, you can pause the game and give fouls, yellow cards or even red cards. On the other hand, you could be a referee who is not strict and players start to challenge each other more aggressively potentially making the game violent with no regard to the referee. You don’t want to end up with either of them. You just want to have a fun and fair match where all parties enjoy the show and achieve results; that’s your job.

How critical is it to talk about objectives?

Quite important, so that they are reminded of project objectives and can focus their energy on the right tasks.

How about dependencies of this project on other resources or events? How does that help?

You get to discuss the limitations upfront so people can help or provide solutions or suggest if they know someone who can help. Even if no help is found, it is still better for all participants to be aware of the limitations, so that no one is surprised later on.

For example, you want to develop a software component and you have allocated one man-month for the task. You need to explain that the scope of the activity is limited by the amount of effort you can allocate for this particular component. There might be excitement among the team to implement new technology that may take 6 months to finish. You need to make them aware of the budget restrictions which should set their pace and clarify what is required from them.

You also need to setup follow-up meetings so people know when they should meet up again. Ask delegates to look at the workbook for more information.


Relay Achievement

Objective was: Use effective meetings to monitor the progress of the project and communicate with participants

You now know how to hold effective meetings.

Relay Application Confirmed

So how do you plan to use these guidelines on holding meetings when back to work?


Expo 2020 Project

In your teams work through the Expo 2020 resourcing project

Every team member should contribute

Present your resourcing project plan back to the class

Class to give constructive feedback on the plan




Suppose you are a project manager:

What do you think is Strategic Risk?

How does your company compare with other companies.

Are you supposed to discuss this in public?


What do you think is political Risk?

This is organisation based. Do we get a budget cut? Do we have to relocate? Would we have access to machinery, IT staff, etc? Are we going to be merged with another group under a new management? Who would set priorities?

Are you supposed to discuss this in public?

Yes. But usually not to the client

What about personal risk?

This is about you and your personal and emotional needs. Do I have to work harder? Will I be marginalised? Do I have to work with a new boss? Do I have to develop new skills?

Do people discuss this in public?

No. This is too personal. Managers use other topics as a cover to get the answers they want to evaluate their personal risk. In fact they will go as far as it takes. It’s personal after all!

So how do you actually evaluate risk? Are there any methods that would help to systematically look at risk? It turns out that there are several methods, some more elegant than others.

To Tutor: Ask delegates how many do they know. Based on that you can focus on those which are more interesting to delegates or if they haven’t used them as much.

To manage risk within projects you can use two very common and elegant systems. One is called SWOT and the other called PEST. We will discuss both next.







Is anyone familiar with PEST?

Tune the presentation based on what the delegates know.

There are four type of risks that you need to be aware of. The next two types are show in the next slide. Walk through these for the delegates.



Ecological / environmental issues

Current legislation – home market

Future legislation

European / international legislation

Government policies

Trading policies

Funding, grants and initiatives

Pressure groups – home and abroad

Wars and conflict


Home economy situation

Home economy trends

Overseas economies and trends

General taxation issues

Taxation – specific to the product / services

Seasonality / weather issues

Market and trade cycles

Specific industry factors

Market routes and distribution trends

Customer / end-user drivers

Interest / exchange rates

International trade / monetary issues



PEST is primarily involved in identifying external risk.


As a project manager, why is it important to pay attention to such risks?

To Tutor: Encourage an open discussion on why a project manager needs to consider this kind of risks and how is it going to help the successful completion of the project.

You want to know how external events can impact your project so that you can deal with them effectively.

SWOT, which will be explained shortly is both internal and external risk. As a result it is better to do a PEST analysis first and then follow it by a SWOT analysis.



Lifestyle trends


Consumer attitudes and opinions

Media views

Law changes affecting social factors

Brand, company, technology image

Consumer buying patterns

Fashion and role models

Major events and influences


Competing technology development

Research funding

Associated / dependant technologies

Replacement technology / solutions

Maturity of technology

Manufacturing maturity and capacity

Information and communications

Consumer buying mechanisms / technology

Technology legislation

Buying access and trends

Ethnic / religious factors

Advertising and publicity

Ethical issues

Innovation potential

Technology access, licencing patents

Intellectual property issues

Global communications


Internal Origin

External Origin




Best way to explain the SWOT is by an example:


Draw four areas and as people suggest for answers, add to each box.

Example: TechTron produces high-tech software and wants to expand to the US market.

What are the strength?

No one can fully match the product yet.


What are weaknesses?

No US distributor

Cultural barriers

What are opportunities?

Vast market that is growing

They are focused on high end of the market which is more profitable

What are the Threats?

Software can be illegally acquired through pirated sites

Competitor can reduce prices

How can we Use each Strength?

How can we Stop each Weakness?

How can we Exploit each Opportunity?

How can we Defend against each Threat?

What are the benefits of this approach?

To Tutor: Explores different perspectives.

You will first frame the issues before doing a cost benefit analysis







As you can see, SWOT can be captured easily with mind maps. This way, you also take advantages of all the benefits of mind maps and brainstorming. It logically structures your new inputs in each category and helps you to come up with more which is exactly what you want in a SWOT analysis.


To Tutor: Use the SWOT analysis with the mind map and identify the risks for the case study. Each group should then present their analysis and discuss the issues.

Relay Achievement

Objective was: Analyse risk systematically and formulate responses

Have you achieved this objective?

Relay Application Confirmed

You know a few techniques such as PEST and SWOT to manage risk. Where can you use them back at work? How do you plan to use them?






Risk reduction




In the previous section you learned how to categorise risk using techniques such as PEST and SWOT analysis. Now that you know the risk, you need to do something about them. Here is what you can do.

Ask delegates what each particular category means and then explain each in details.

Acceptance. You may decide to accept the risk when you in the following situations.

It is an unlikely event to occur and you can live with the consequences.

The probability of risk occurring is very low but the cost of dealing with the risk is too high. You may decide to accept it, or in other words, risk it.

Contingency. You always need to have a contingency plan. Remember, there are two types. You devise Plan B for anything that may go wrong. This is for circumstances you can predict. In addition to this you need to prepare for unforeseen circumstances well. This is why you need to add 5% to the time budget of a task, because there is always something that can go wrong that you could not have been aware of to plan for.

Prevention. Set counter measures to stop the threat from occurring.

Risk reduction. Reduce the likelihood of risk occurring or reduce its effect on your project.

Impact. Take action to reduce the impact of risk on your project to acceptable levels.

Insurance. Get someone else to take the risk for a fixed price.

Ask the delegates, what is their current experience on these. Do they use this sort of risk mitigation in their project.




Explain Murphy’s law, which many are familiar with but is indeed an important consideration that all project managers need to have in mind.


What would you do to overcome Murphy’s Law?

To Tutor: Get delegates to suggest solutions. What processes would they consider as part of their management to make sure that all sides are covered. This is an open question aiming to get the delegates to talk about their own past experiences and on reflection learn new principles.


If it can go wrong, it will

If there’s more than one possible outcome of a job or task, and one of those outcomes will result in disaster or an undesirable consequence, then somebody will do it that way





“Well done James. Your work was brilliant. Otherwise we wouldn’t have been able to meet the deadline. Thanks”

This is supportive activity which reinforces a team member’s behaviour towards your desired direction.


“I think it should be done this way.” … “I don’t agree, this causes all sorts of problems.” … “No, that’s not a problem, we can fix it.” … “I don’t think so.” …

Sometimes arguments can go on for so long that the main topic of discussion is lost in the debate. A mediator tries to bring the two sides together by summarizing both sides of the argument and creates a constructive discussion. This also opens up the conversation for others to join in.


“Guys, James has carried out some research on this and he has been trying to make a point about it in the last 10 minutes.”

Gatekeepers try to balance the event by getting the less assertive people to contribute and also they try to slow down those who are dominating.



“Well done James. Your work was brilliant. Otherwise we wouldn’t have been able to meet the deadline. Thanks”


“I think it should be done this way.” … “I don’t agree, this causes all sorts of problems.” … “No, that’s not a problem, we can fix it.” … “I don’t think so.”


“Guys, James has carried out some research on this and he has been trying to make a point about it in the last 10 minutes.”




“Ok, guys. Let’s see how far we have come. Here are the main points discussed so far…”

Someone sums up everything. This gives the group breathing time and let’s them catch up on the general direction of the discussion.


“John, you keep talking over Jane.”

Confronting can be constructive when you challenge people’s behaviour in appropriate situations. Don’t confront on personality or presumed attitudes.


“Robert, I don’t think that’s what he meant. I think he means …”

This is particularly useful in meetings where meanings are not communicated effectively and good listening can solve the miss-communication issues. Remember, the meaning of communication is the results you get.


“We have only covered 2 out of 6 topics in the agenda and we haven’t got much time left. We need to move on.”

An observer makes sure that the group as a whole is functioning well and can help to break the herd mentality discussing an unnecessary topic.



“John, you keep talking over Jane.”


“Robert, I don’t think that’s what he meant. I think he means …”


“We have only covered 2 out of 6 topics in the agenda and we haven’t got much time left. We need to move on.”

“Ok, guys. Let’s see how far we have come. Here are the main points discussed so far…”





To Tutor: Ask delegates to go through the table and identify the helpful behaviour. Show this slide as a summary of the “helpful behaviours” so that the delegates can use it to complete the exercise. Answers are provided in [H56_Handout_AnswersForHelpfulAndUnhelpfulBehaviours].












Generally, these behaviours are confrontational and provocative. Just think proactive and win/win and you will easily avoid many of them.


Putting a label on someone moves the conversation from the topic to the label. Most of the time the label is negative, suggesting that the other person doesn’t have the right attitude. This will not help you move forward in your discussion.


A dominator has an agenda and wants to dominate the entire conversation to his or her benefit. The group naturally responds back on what is discussed which is biased towards the dominator. This is not a good use of group’s resources.

Shutting off

Before someone has finished stating their belief, someone else jumps in and carries on with the conversation. If done repeatedly or systematically, it can de-motivate other members and the team will suffer as a result. It can also lead to a retaliatory behaviour too.

Nay saying

Someone may constantly be pessimistic about what is being discussed and when challenged may declare that he is just playing “devil’s advocate”. Need to be careful with negativity and resistance, because it can bury good ideas before they can get any roots and show their true value.


Some people want to say No, but also want to soften the delivery of it so it is not too obvious. This can be very frustrating for the person who’s suggesting new ideas since the discussion can become vague over time. An effective discussion is when both sides try to solve issues and not to throw sticks in the wheels of the other guy’s thought process.

[PRACTICE][INDIVIDUAL][H56_Handout_AnswersForHelpfulAndUnhelpfulBehaviours][LOOK AT WORKBOOK: Unhelpful Behaviours]

To Tutor: Ask the delegates to go through the table and identify the unhelpful behaviours. You can optionally distribute a copy of [H56_Handout_AnswersForHelpfulAndUnhelpfulBehaviours] for answers. Follow with a discussion.


To Tutor: Follow the instructions given on the exercise sheet.


Our objective was: Communicate more effectively with team members and increase the team’s inter-communications

So have we achieved the objective?

Relay Application Confirmed

Now that you know about the issues in communications, how do you think is going to impact your communication style? How this fits in with the type indicator discussed earlier?

Next Steps

Next we will see how you can get more information from the team members by using effective questioning methods.




Shutting off

No saying





To Tutor: While walking through the question types, ask delegates to provide examples for each case. A number of examples are provided in the workbook, however delegates should provide their own answers before reading the workbook. You need to engage the delegates.

[PRACTICE][E2_Exercise_QuestioningMethodsCards][PAIR or GROUP-3]

To Tutor: Memory exercise: Get delegates to sort out the cards. See instructions.


To Tutor: Get a delegate acting as a project manager to deal with a problem the team member has by asking appropriate questions. See instructions for more details.


Our objective was : Ask specific types of questions to obtain more information

Have we achieved the objective?

Relay Application Confirmed

How are you going to use these questioning methods in a work context?

Next Steps

In the next step we are going to talk about documentation and handling issues encountered by project managers.


Open Questions

Specific Questions

Emotional Questions

Cut out logic, get to the heart of the matter

Reflection Questions

Avoid yes/no answers unless checking facts

Background Questions

Situation Questions

Check knowledge

Broad questions

Add details. Use examples.

Summary Questions

Reflect back to get more answers

Check understanding and agree to actions

Capture and Log Issue

Identify Type of Issue

Identify Priority of Issue


Escalate Issue

Identify Response

Resolve Issue

Analyse Impact

High Impact

Low Impact

Beyond Scope


Analyse Issue

Manage Issue


Explain that there are two main stages in processing issues. You first need to capture and analyse issues and then respond to them and ultimately resolve them.

Walk though the flowchart and explain. These stages are explained more in the next slides.




Request for change

Specification miss-match

External Event Issue

General issue


Must have

Important feature

Nice to have if time permitted

Cosmetic or look and feel



What types of issues a project manager needs to deal with?

To Tutor: Get the delegates to suggest the issues and write them on the flipchart. Then show the slide about types, compare and discuss.

Request for change. This is usually asked by the customer and is officially captured through a Change Note. For example, the customer may want to have a new feature present in the gadget you are producing.

Specification miss-match. This is an issue when something is not developed based on what was requested or expected. For example, you have used Philips screws in your product instead of the specified hex screws.

External Event Issue. As a result of some new external event you may need to change certain aspects of your product. For example, company bosses want to present a prototype in an exhibition and they want to showcase interconnectivity between this product and some other products of the company. They want you to include this interconnectivity even though it was not requested by the customer.

General issue. Any other issue that has an impact on the product or service you are producing. Typical examples are software bugs, gadget failures, supplier and mechanical issues.

Next show the priorities and explain that you need to assign these tags to each issue and process accordingly.



Impact on other products


New resources?

Impact on project schedule

Cost and benefit


Is it riskier to fix it than to leave it as it is?


Explain how to analyse impact of issues.

How does the new feature impact other aspects of the product?

How much time does it take to implement the new features?

Is it necessary to acquire new resources? How easy is this?

Does this new feature have an impact on the project’s schedule and the overall plan?.

What are the impacts of resolving this issue considering costs and benefits? In other words, is it worth it?

What are the risks associated with addressing this issue? The risk of resolving the issue needs to be compared with the risk of not doing anything about it.


To Tutor: Ask the delegates if they have any example of these in their workplace that they may like to share with the group. Encourage a discussion. This is a great opportunity to see how everyone thinks of issues and how they view the problems either as a project manager or as a team member. You, as the tutor, can learn new examples which can then be shared in your future courses.



Search for alternative solutions

Brainstorm for bigger issues to get more solutions

Escalate the issue to producer, or project sponsor if it is beyond the scope of your role as a project manager.


Explain that when you want to resolve an issue, you need to be ruthless and efficient in addressing those that matter most to the end result.

Ask the following questions and then show the corresponding guidelines in the slide.

What if you feel limited in dealing with an issue as a project manager?

Search for alternative solutions

What is the first step in dealing with a serious issue?

Brainstorm for serious large-impact issues to get more solutions

What if the issue was outside of the scope of your management?

Escalate the issue to producer, or project sponsor if it is beyond the scope of your role as a project manager.


To Tutor: Ask the delegates to go through the workbook and process the issues for the case study: “Bespoke Software Development”.

Get the delegates to present their results one by one and then initiate a discussion. If different solutions are proposed, get the delegates to discuss and select the best course of action.

As a tutor, evaluate their discussion and try not to interfere or provide solutions. At the end, give them feedback on their brainstorming activity.



Customer Acceptance

Deliverables submitted

Lessons learnt

Objectives achieved?

Post Implementation Review



To Tutor: Ask the delegates: What are your tasks when you want to close your project. Write their suggestions on the flipchart.

Now explain the closure of the project using the slide. These are self-explanatory, but you need to walk through them briefly for the delegates. If there is something that they haven’t identified, focus on that.

Customer acceptance. Naturally you need to make sure the customer is happy with the delivered products and that you have taken care of all the issues raised by them in the past.

Deliverables submitted. Make sure that all deliverables as stated in the work packages are submitted to the customer and approved by them.

Lessons learnt. During the course of the project you accumulate a number of lessons and approaches. All projects have some issues and how you resolve them can be very useful for the next project. This needs to be documented and archived for future reference and the best time to do it is just at the end of the project when you and your team are still fresh with the topic and can efficiently document the material. This usually contains information on how the project was managed, the novel technical approaches used, communication policies and the general process employed to successfully complete the project. Don’t forget to share these findings with other departments.

Objectives achieved? When you and your team started this project, you had an objective. Did you achieve that? Was the project worth the effort? Was it beneficial to the company either for profit or for know-how? Did the project live up to the business case? Sometimes the true benefits are difficult to evaluate immediately after the project closure and you need to wait for a while before these can be evaluated. This is achieved using the Post Implementation Review.

Post Implementation Review. These kind of review is held after the project has been closed and its primary objective is to evaluate the benefits of the project after the implementation and possibly use of the product in the field. This is usually documented in a ‘Lessons learnt’ report and archived for future reference.

Relay Achievement

Objective was: Collect and process issues and observations efficiently

Have you achieved this objective?

Relay Application Confirmed

Are the guidelines discussed here for handling issues are going to be beneficial to you when back at work? How about project closure process?




Ask what did you learn in this course so the delegates have to think about the course and tell you what they have got from it. This is also a good way of finding out what they liked most and what they didn’t consider important

Relay Achievement

What did you learn today and in this course

Relay Application Confirmed

Now that you have learned about project management, how do you intend to use it? How do you plan to use these skills back at work?

Next Steps

Explain what you want them to take from this course

Give Handouts on other courses (if applicable)

Talk about new courses delegates may find useful

Follow-on readings. Tell them where they can get more material.

Show them recommended books.

Give feedback form


Project Lifecycle

Stakeholder management

Planning Methods


Risk Management

Team Management

Issue Management


HRM4411 Principles of People Management and Development (PMD)

Session 4: My Development as an HR Professional. Reflective Practice


Learning outcomes

At the end of this workshop you should be better able to

Know, understand and apply four reflective and reflexive practice models to all the sessions in HRM4411 as part of Patchwork Text (Assignments 1 to 3).

Recognise the difference between Professional and Unprofessional Behaviour.



Donald Schön

John Dewey


(1) Reflective and Reflexive Practice


(1) Reflective Model: Rolfe and Freshwater




(description of events)



(what has been learned?

what is the impact of the learning?)



(unpacking the events)

Many authors claim ownership of this model. Rolfe et al are most probably the researchers.

Rolfe, G., Freshwater, D., Jasper, M. (2001) Critical Reflection in Nursing and the Helping Professions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


(2) Reflective Model: John Gibbs


(What happened?)


(What were you feeling? What were you thinking?)


(What was good or bad about the situation?)


(What have you learned in HRM4411 that could help you to make sense of the situation?)


(What else could you have done?)

Action Plan

(What would you do differently next time?)

John Gibb’s Reflective Model


Gibb’s model acknowledges that your personal feelings influence the situation and how you have begun to reflect on it. It is breaking down reflection into an evaluation of the events and analysis and there is a clear link between the learning that has happened from the experience and future practice.

However, despite the further break down, it can be argued that this model could still result in fairly superficial reflection as it does not refer to critical thinking/analysis or reflection. It does not take into consideration assumptions that you may hold about the experience, the need to look objectively at different perspectives, and there does not seem to be an explicit suggestion that the learning will result in a change of assumptions, perspectives or practice. You could legitimately respond to the question ‘What would you do next time?’ by answering that you would do the same, but does that constitute deep level reflection?


Finley, L. (2008) Reflecting on reflective practice. Open University: London.

(2) Reflective Model: John Gibbs

Identify any learning

(Which has occurred?)


(Of discomfort, or action/experience)

Describe the situation

(Include salient, feelings, thoughts, event or features)

Analyse feelings and knowledge

(Identify and challenge assumptions –imaging and explore alternatives)

Evaluate the relevance of knowledge

(Does it help to explain/resolve the problem? How was your use of knowledge?)

Atkins and Murphy (1993) address many of the criticisms mentioned on the previous slide.

Atkins, S. and Murphy, K. (1994) Reflective Practice. Nursing Standard 8(39): 49-56.

(3) Reflective Model: Atkins and Murphy



(4) Reflexive Model

Uri Bronfenbrenner: Environment and interrelationships among systems shaped you as a child … and vice versa – Ecological Model.


Additional models

Six thinking hats

David Kolb- Experiential Learning

Schon- reflection in action


In your teams, research the models and feedback to the class

Vocabulary Aid for Reflective Writing

For me, the (most)












was (were) …


happened when …

resulted from …

arose form …

began after …

became relevant for …

The following are just a few suggestions for words and phrases that might be useful for prompting reflective writing (adapted from Hampton, 2010).

Hampton, M. (2010). Reflective writing: a basic introduction. http://www.port.ac.uk/media/contacts-and-departments/student-support-services/ask/downloads/Reflective-writing—a-basic-introduction.pdf


I have





my understanding of …

my knowledge of …

my ability to …

my skills in …








I now

feel …

know …

question …

realise …

think …

wonder …

Vocabulary Aid for Reflective Writing

Hampton, M. (2010). Reflective writing: a basic introduction. http://www.port.ac.uk/media/contacts-and-departments/student-support-services/ask/downloads/Reflective-writing—a-basic-introduction.pdf


This knowledge

This understanding

This skill


could be

will be




Because I

did not

have not yet

am not certain about

am not yet confident with

do not yet know

do not yet understand

I will need to …

to me in the workplace because …

Vocabulary Aid for Reflective Writing

Hampton, M. (2010). Reflective writing: a basic introduction. http://www.port.ac.uk/media/contacts-and-departments/student-support-services/ask/downloads/Reflective-writing—a-basic-introduction.pdf







thought (did not think) …

felt (did not feel) …

noticed (did not notice) …

questioned (did not question) …

realised (did not realise) …




might be

is perhaps

could be

is probably

because of …

due to …

explained by …

related to …

Hampton, M. (2010). Reflective writing: a basic introduction. http://www.port.ac.uk/media/contacts-and-departments/student-support-services/ask/downloads/Reflective-writing—a-basic-introduction.pdf


(2) Professional Behaviour



Professional Behaviour

Definition: “Professional behavior is a series of actions deemed acceptable in the workplace.”

How does knowledge of TA help you to become a more effective PMD professional? Give examples of all three ego states (from your own experience).

How do these behaviors link with what the CIPD is expecting of you?

How is behaviour in general linked to values and organisational culture?

Who is driving the organisation’s values and culture?






What else can you add?


Skills Assessment

MS Teams document 1

Please complete the skills assessment in your own time

This will help you to understand what you need to become employable in the future

This can also be used to inform your PDP (Session 3)

Excellent reflective exercise

Reflective assignments


Summative assessmentWeightingDeadlineFeedback
Patchwork Text 11/328th Feb 2021 6pm21st Mar 2021
Patchwork Text 21/314th Mar 2021 6pm4th April 2021
Patchwork Text 31/328th March 2021 6pm18th April 2021

Remember we want to hear what you learned, not what anyone else did

Do not summarise what we did in class- I know, I was there 

Make sure to use one of the mentioned models in Session 4 to reflect

Introduce the model briefly in your introduction

Always spellcheck and use grammarly

References to be used where appropriate

UK English to be used in all assignments

Do not miss the deadline

Time to Reflect

Use any of the mentioned reflective models and write at least ½ page about what you have learned in class from the previous 2 days.

Think about how it will change your PMD practice in future.



Leverage the collective power of your class mates and enjoy the journey!



A workshop session was conducted based on the subject Principles of People Management and Development held on January 29th and 30th. This is a reflective based on my learning on those two days. I will be using David Kolb’s experiential learning (1939) format for this reflective assignment. It starts with concrete learning, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation (Kolb, 1939).

Here are the 5 key learning points from the workshop:

1st Key learning: The importance of having a vision:

Concrete learning:

The uncertain future has restricted me from developing a long-term plan or vision for myself. From a very young age, I have always wanted to do something a certain way. But, it never turned out to be how I had planned it. As I moved on to college, I had endured the same thing. So I never really bothered to have a plan. However, this session made me rethink that choice. She had asked us to draw up a vision tree which had this question that I always pushed away. And that question: ‘where am I going?’

Reflective observation:

The vision tree made me think that I should be concerned about where I am going. I cannot be wasting my time and sit with the attitude – go with the flow. Creating a vision tree would help me attain clarity on my life goals, both personally and professionally.

Abstract conceptualization:

I understood that I was careless about my future and career and that it was time to do something about it. It was dangerous for me to not have a plan or a goal that I needed to meet.

Active experimentation:

The different parts of the tree represented aspects of my vision. I went home and did the vision tree, and as each day passes by, I try to remind myself of what I want to achieve from this life that has been gifted to me.

2nd key learning: The self-concept wheel:

Concrete learning:

We had to go through something called the self-concept wheel. This wheel helps one understand where one is at life in the 6 main areas of their life; namely work, family, social, physical, value, and self. We were supposed to give each section of our lives a score out of 5.

Reflective observation:

As I wrote down the scores for each field, I was more aware of how much more I should be working on myself. Fields like family and social had 3 points, although I thought they were a 5.

Abstract conceptualization:

I always thought that I was doing alright concerning the 5 fields in the self-concept wheel. But this whole exercise made me realize that I have a long way to go. There is so much that I need to do to reach a stage where the wheel has no puncture in it, is full of air, and is rolling.

Active experimentation:

Now that I am aware of where I stand concerning the main fields in that self-concept wheel, I plan to take a day at a time and improve myself.

3rd Key learning: The value of values:

Concrete learning:

There was an assignment in the second session where I had to identify values that I have. There were so many values to choose from. And trimming them down to 5 values was a difficult task. The five values that I discovered I treasured the most were: dependability, accuracy, spirituality, commitment and, forgiveness.

Reflective observation:

Right before the very first workshop, I was going through a week where I was trying to understand myself and who I was as an individual. And this exercise did help the process.

Abstract conceptualization:

I understood that values are an integral part of who a person is. I understood that these values accumulate over time and shapes the way that a person thinks.

Active experimentation:

I knew that if there was a need to understand the value of holding values, there should be, at first, an awareness of the values that I consider valuable. The exercise of choosing 5 values helped me understand what they were and how different each value is in its own way.

4th Key learning: Core values change:

Concrete learning:

My lecturer said something that caught my attention. She had mentioned that core values can change. I was a bit skeptical when I heard that. The reason is that they are called core values for a reason. They are core to who we are. But what I was missing out on was that factors like maturity and time affect those core values.

Reflective observation:

Through an exercise given to me, I understood the values that I hold dear to me. I understood that our values can change. For example, when I was in school, I did not need to worry about my parents or their health. But now that I am working and slowly getting planted, I know that my values now have been my parent and how I need to get them settled back in their home country.

Abstract conceptualization:

Key learning from this whole exercise was to be aware of my values and how prone they are to change. I feel in identifying the shift in priorities of those values, I should adapt to them accordingly.

Active experimentation:

I was able to think through my present values and what I had held on to as important to me. The shift helped me understand my maturity and how much more I should be growing.

5th Key learning: Professional Development Plan (PDP):

Concrete learning:

In this session, I was asked to connect the values that I had identified and implement them in a business environment.

Reflective observation:

This is what the PDP aimed to do: Create a plan for oneself to be exceptional at Human resources.

Abstract conceptualization:

After identifying the values now, it was time for me to relate them to someone who wants to work in Human resources.

Active experimentation:

The PDP is a table. And the format helped me through various questions, which I had to answer honestly, and set targets for myself, which I should try to reach within a time frame.


I was excited to see what I would learn from the workshop. But after those two days, I was left realizing that there is so much more that needs to be done and achieved than be comfortable where I was. A key learning was that I need to have a plan of where I am going. As immature and careless as it might sound, I was never serious about it, and the class made me aware of it. I am glad that I was able to take away so much from those two days.


Kolb, D., 1984. Experimental learning. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

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