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Read Chapter 1 of your textbook Essentials of Management (10th edition) and write a 1,000-word essay that covers the following topics:

-Describe the different kinds of top-level managers.

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-Why is the role of “planning” so important for managers?

-Describe the political skill of a manager.

– What is the quantitative approach to management?.

All essays must include a comprehensive conclusion (include a heading for the conclusion). Do not copy paste text. Make sure to include at least 3 external references with in-text citations. Use APA style.

Do not email assignment. All assignments must be submitted through Blackboard.

Essentials of Management 10e by Andrew J. DuBrin

CHAPTER 1

The Manager’s Job

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Who Is a Manager?

A manager is person responsible for work performance of group members.

Has formal authority to commit organizational resources.

Management is process of using organizational resources to achieve objectives through the functions of planning, organizing and staffing, and leading.

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Levels of Management

Top-level managers (executives) are empowered to make major decisions.

Term C-level manager refers to top-level manager with “chief” in title.

Middle-level managers are layer between top- and first-level managers.

First-level managers or supervisors manage operatives.

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Types of Managers

Functional managers supervise workers in special activities, such as accounting.

General managers are responsible for groups performing a variety of functions.

Administrators are managers in public and nonprofit organizations.

Entrepreneurs and small-business owners.

Team leaders are catalysts and facilitators.

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The Process of Management

Managerial work is a process—a series of actions that brings achieves something—making a profit or providing a service.

To achieve that objective, the manager (a) uses four types of resources, and (b) carries out the four managerial functions. (See slides 6 and 7.)

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Resources Used by Managers

Managers use four types of resources:

Human resources (the workers)

Financial resources (the money)

Physical resources (tangible goods and real estate)

Information resources (data used to accomplish the job; as knowledge workers, managers need information resources)

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The Four Managerial Functions

Planning is setting and attaining goals.

Organizing and staffing obtains human and physical resources to get job done.

Leading influences others to achieve organizational objectives. Leaders also execute to accomplish goals.

Controlling ensures that performance conforms to plans.

Executives plan the most; supervisors lead face-to-face the most.

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The Seventeen Managerial Roles

Planning: (1) strategic planner, (2) operational planner.

Organizing and staffing: (3) organizer, (4) liaison, (5) staffing coordinator, (6) resource allocator, (7) task delegator. (Talent management is concentrated in staffing coordinator and resource allocator roles.)

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The Seventeen Managerial Roles, continued

Leading: (8) motivator and coach, (9) figurehead, (10) spokesperson, (11) negotiator, (12) team builder, (13) team player, (14) technical problem solver, (15) entrepreneur.

Controlling: (16) monitoring, (17) disturbance handler.

Managerial work now emphasizes motivator and coach, facilitator, and supporter.

Manager’s level influences which roles are emphasized.

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Managerial Roles Currently Emphasized

Managerial work has shifted substantially away from the controller and director role.

Current emphasis is on being a coach, facilitator, and supporter.

Many managers today work as partners with team members to jointly achieve results.

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Influence of Management Level on Managerial Roles

Manager’s level of responsibility influences which role he or she is likely to engage in most frequently.

Most important roles for top-level managers are liaison, spokesperson, figurehead, and strategic planner.

First-level manager might emphasize roles of motivator and coach, and technical problem solver.

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Management as a Practice

Management more of a practice than science or profession.

Managers use some systematic knowledge, but rely also on intuition.

Management not a profession in sense of being licensed occupation.

Public trust would be gained if management became a profession that followed an ethical code.

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Management as a Practice, continued

Management would become more professionalized with use of evidence-based management—the systematic use of the best available evidence to improve managerial practice.

Would mean that managers rely on both scientific as well as local business evidence.

Study and research would be required.

Evidence-based approach growing in management education.

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The Five Managerial Skills

Technical skill involves and understanding of or proficiency in specific method, process, or technique.

Interpersonal skill is manager’s ability to work effectively as a team member and to build cooperative effort in the unit. Skill capturing recent attention is empathy (ability to understand another person’s point of view).

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The Five Managerial Skills, continued

Conceptual skill is ability to see the organization as total entity (the “big picture”). Needed for strategic planning.

Diagnostic skill is investigating a problem and choosing course of action to solve it.

Political skill is ability to acquire power to achieve objectives. Understanding of people is required. Should be a supplement to job competence.

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Development of Managerial Skills

Experience and education—including formal training—both required for development of management skills.

Managerial skills can be learned from book or lecture, but should then be applied using the general learning model, as shown next.

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General Learning Model

Conceptual information and behavioral guidelines

Conceptual information shown by examples

Skill-development exercises

Feedback on skill utilization from others

Frequent practice plus making adjustments from feedback

Skill development important because of demanding management positions, and changing workplace.

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The Evolution of Management Thought

The classical approach to management encompasses scientific management and administrative management.

Scientific management uses scientific methods to increase worker productivity.

Administrative management focuses on structure and management. Led to framework of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Structure should be determined by strategy.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

African-Americans have contributed to the evolution of management thought, as in Charles Clinton Spaulding’s eight fundamental necessities:

(1) Cooperation and teamwork, (2) Authority and responsibility, (3) Division of labor, (4) Adequate manpower, (5) Adequate capital, (6) Feasibility analysis, (7) Advertising budget, and (8) Conflict resolution.

Above points overlap a little with behavioral approach to management.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

The behavioral approach to management emphasizes improving management by focusing on understanding people. Direct cornerstones of behavioral approach:

The Hawthorne Studies. Workers in the Hawthorne experiments reacted positively because management cared about them. Hawthorne effect says people respond differently when they receive attention.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor

Theory X is traditional set of assumptions about people, such as people disliking work, and requiring close supervision.

Theory Y is alternative and opposite set of assumptions emphasizing workers’ desire to perform well and be creative.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

Humans are motivated by efforts to satisfy a hierarchy of needs.

Needs range from basic physiological ones to those for self-actualization.

Prompted managers to think about ways of satisfying wide range of worker needs to keep them motivated.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

Quantitative Approaches to Management

Operations research in WWII, true start

Group of methods for decision making based on the scientific method.

Techniques include network analysis, decision trees, computer simulations.

Frederick Taylor laid foundation for quantitative approaches.

Big Data is part of quantitative approach.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

The Systems Perspective

Way of viewing problems rather than specific approach to management.

Organization is a system or an entity of interrelated parts.

Organization interacts with outside world, transforming inputs (resources) into outputs (products and services).

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The Evolution of Management Thought, continued

The Contingency Approach

Emphasizes there is no one best way to manage people or work.

Method that works in one situation may not work in another.

Manager must identify key factors in the situation that could influence results.

Common sense helps apply contingency approach.

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The Evolution of Management Thought, concluded

Information Technology Era and Social Media Era

Began in 1950s with data processing.

By 1980s, IT and Internet influenced the management of people and work.

The Internet has had similar impact to that of electricity in start of 20th century.

Big impact on communication (e.g. social media).

The history of management continues to be written each year. Stay alert!

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