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The six conventional, or criteria, pollutants established by the Clean Air Act are:

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· CFCsCFCs

· carbon dioxide (CO2 )carbon dioxide (CO2 )

· carbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide (CO)

· leadlead

· mercurymercury

· nitrogen oxides (NOx)

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These two molecules are dangerous pollutants, in and of themselves, but they also react in the presence of sunlight to form the phytochemical oxidants found in smog.

rev: 02_19_2020_QC_CS-201426

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Multiple Choice

·

CO (carbon monoxide) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

·

ozone and particulates

·

particulates and sulfur dioxide

·

sulfur dioxide and CO (carbon monoxide)

·

volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone

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Airborne mercury has received special attention because it is a widespread and persistent neurotoxin (a substance that damages the brain and nervous system). Minute doses can cause nerve damage and other impairments, especially in young children and developing fetuses. The majority of airborne mercury is released by __________.

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Multiple Choice

·

metal ore smelting

·

coal-burning power plants

·

waste combustion

·

nuclear power plants

·

wood-burning power plants

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Primary pollutants are those that are

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Multiple Choice

· released directly in dangerous forms.

· produced in the greatest quantities.

· the most dangerous.

· the most threatening to people.

· classified by the EPA as the most dangerous and abundant.

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________ is/are examples of secondary pollutants.

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Multiple Choice

· Aerosols

· Volatile organic compounds

· Photochemical oxidants

· Combustion gases

· Dust from soil erosion

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A major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is

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Multiple Choice

· incomplete burning of hydrocarbons.

· combustion of sulfur-containing fuel.

· photochemical oxidation.

· CO in the atmosphere.

· CO2 in the atmosphere.

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Indoor air can be as unhealthy as outdoor air.  Which two pollutants are most often found in indoor air?

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Multiple Choice

·

CO (carbon monoxide) and ozone

·

lead and ozone

·

particulates and CO (carbon monoxide)

·

volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and lead

·

volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulates

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___________ ozone is harmful, damaging plants and human health while ozone at the _________ level screens out mutagenic ultraviolet radiation.

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Multiple Choice

· Stratospheric; ground-level

· Thermospheric; ground-level

· Ground-level; stratosphere

· Ground-level; thermosphere

· Stratospheric; thermosphere

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The “ozone hole” is a depletion currently most serious

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Multiple Choice

· at the most populated latitudes.

· over North America.

· in tropical latitudes.

· near the Hadley cells.

· near the poles.

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Why is controlling chlorofluorcarbon (CFC) emissions so important?

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Multiple Choice

· They are more potent greenhouse gases than CO2.

· They are neurotoxins causing nerve and brain damage.

· They destroy ozone in the upper atmosphere.

· Both A and B

· Both A and C

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Black carbon refers to the relatively large particles found in soot, smoke, and ash.  How does black carbon contribute to climate change?

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Multiple Choice

· It reacts with CFCs to further breakdown ozone.

· It reacts with SO2 to produce acid precipitation.

· When is falls on plants, their ability to carry out photosynthesis is impaired so less carbon is removed from the atmosphere.

· When it falls on snow or ice, the darkened surface absorbs more heat, causing melting.

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The __________________ is an international treaty designed to eliminate CFCs.

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Multiple Choice

· Montreal Accord

· Kyoto Protocol

· International Agreement on CFC Reduction

· Montreal Protocol

· Clean Air Act

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Wind currents

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Multiple Choice

· send air pollution from one continent to the next.

· keep CFCs from reaching the ozone hole.

· eliminate the movement of dust particles from watershed to watershed.

· circulate global carbon dioxide to regions with more vegetation for photosynthesis.

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The most common human health response to air pollution is

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Multiple Choice

· respiratory diseases.

· skin inflammation.

· blindness caused by deteriorating eye tissues.

· skin cancer.

· heart disease.

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One of the principal ways lakes suffer from acid deposition is that

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Multiple Choice

· rocks on the bottom begin to dissolve.

· fish eggs die and fish populations fall.

· aquatic vegetation turns yellow.

· plants grow excessively and choke other life.

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The phenomenon where cool, dense air sits under a layer of lighter warmer air is known as a ____________________.

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Multiple Choice

· heat sink

· heat island

· temperature inversion

· Milankovitch cycle

· thermocline

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Which of the following are criteria pollutants responsible for interacting with precipitation to form acid rain?

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Multiple Choice

· CO + lead

· lead + SO2

· SO2 + NOx

· VOCs + NOx

· VOCs + SO2

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Cities __________ are more susceptible to inversions.

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Multiple Choice

· along coastlines

· along fault lines

· in areas with little cloud cover

· on plateaus

· surrounded by mountains

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In addition to affecting lakes, acid deposition does all of the following EXCEPT

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Multiple Choice

· damages buildings and bridges

· kills trees; particularly at high elevations

· penetrates deep in the lungs causing respiratory diseases

· reduces crop yield

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The use of scrubbers, precipitators, and filters on power plants and other “smokestack” industries probably accounts for decreases in

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Multiple Choice

· nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides.

· solid particulate matter and lead.

· sulfur oxides and solid particulate matter.

· volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide.

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Cap-and-trade systems in the US have been successful in pushing industries to lower emissions of

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Multiple Choice

· carbon monoxide (CO)

· CFCs

· lead

· ozone

· sulfur dioxide

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A catalytic converter on an internal combustion engine removes which of the following criteria pollutants from the exhaust of a car?

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Multiple Choice

· NOx and CO

· CO

· O3

· CO2

· NOx

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Enacted in ________, the Clean Air Act was the first piece of federal legislation regulating air quality.

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Multiple Choice

· 1931

· 1948

· 1956

· 1963

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In 1970, the Clean Air Act was amended (for the first time) to

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Multiple Choice

· decrease particle emissions from burning coal.

· establish “new source” review procedures.

· set controls on CFCs and other hazardous pollutants.

· set primary standards to be used nation-wide.

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The US Congress requires this federal agency to enforce and evaluate the impact of the Clean Air Act.

Fill in the blank

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Fill in the blank

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Group Ends

Since the passing of the Clean Air Act amendments in 1990, the aggregate emissions from the 6 common pollutants have

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Multiple Choice

· decreased by about 40% even as GDP and population increased.

· stayed the same despite more industry.

· increased as GDP increased.

· decreased because energy used has declined.

· decreased slightly due to the increase by 64% in GDP.

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Only two conventional, or criteria, pollutants have not decreased sine the Clean Air Act wass enacted: NOx and particulate matter.  Levels of NOx are still high because its mainly produced

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Multiple Choice

· by automobiles, and there are more automobiles now.

· by agriculture, and more vehicles are used in agriculture now.

· by fossil fuel combustion and it cannot be “scrubbed” out.

· during the synthesis of plastics, and we produce more plastics now.

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Many countries have seen improvements in air quality, however, the challenges are still greatest in these locations:

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Multiple Choice

·

China and Brazil.

·

China and India.

·

China and the US.

·

India and Africa.

· India and the US.

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While there are still many locations with air quality challenges, there have also been success stories in which pollutant levels have been dramatically reduced.  Choose one air pollutant and provide the following information.  Each response should be specific.  (3 points)

A) Describe one example in which there was significant reduction in the air pollutant.  That is, what was the location and situation that was reduced?

B) For the example above, describe what was done to produce this reduction.

C) For the example above, describe the benefit of the reduction, either to the environment or to human health.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is not the only greenhouse gas.  A) Name one other greenhouse gas. B) Is this gas more, or less, potent than CO2?  (1 point)

Describe what a “cap-and-trade” system is.  (1 point)

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