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Hello everyone, I have an Assignment for you today. This assignment must be DONE by Tuesday, March 9, 2021, no later than 10 pm. By the way, I need this assignment to be PLAGIARISM FREE & a Spell Check when completed. Make sure you READ the instructions CAREFULLY. Now without further ado, the instructions to the assignments are below:

Instructions

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For this assignment, you will be using what you have learned about different research designs and applying them to a company of your choice. Follow the steps below to complete this assignment.

 1. Using the CSU Online Library or other scholarly sources (or educational websites), select and research a publicly traded company. 

 2. Next, click here to access a template for this assignment (the template will be the first attachment down below). Using this template, complete the SWOT analysis for your chosen company. Provide at least five bullet listings for each section of the SWOT analysis. 

 3. Include a short company overview before the SWOT analysis. This should only be one to two paragraphs. 

 4. Provide a brief summary of each section with recommendations as to how the company can capitalize on its strengths, improve its weaknesses, take advantage of opportunities, and minimize threats. Discuss how the SWOT analysis can contribute to marketing and management decision-making within the company. 

 5. Discuss which research designs the company might use to carry out your recommendations. In this discussion, be sure to compare and contrast exploratory, descriptive, and causal research designs. 

Your completed assignment must be at least three pages, not counting the title and reference pages. You must use at least three scholarly sources in your assignment. Any information from these sources must be cited and referenced in APA format. Information about accessing the grading rubric for this assignment is provided below. 

By the way, I have a attachment below which is the Template you must use for this assignment so make sure you download it and complete it, according to the steps above. And lastly, is the Unit study for this assignment and some additional CSU articles you can use (or reference) from the study guide. Please make sure you follow the instructions above when completing the template. Any additional information must be cited & referenced. Remember NO PLAGIARISM & I need will need a PLAGIARISM REPORT upon completion.

Running head: INSERT TITLE

Title of Paper

Student name

Columbia Southern University

Overview

This is where you will write a brief overview of the company. This section does not need to be more than one or two paragraphs.

SWOT Analysis

STRENGTHS· Insert strengths in a bulleted list. Provide at least 5 bullet listings.WEAKNESSES· Insert weaknesses in a bulleted list. Provide at least 5 bullet listings.
OPPORTUNITIES· Insert opportunities in a bulleted list. Provide at least 5 bullet listings.THREATS· Insert threats in a bulleted list. Provide at least 5 bullet listings.

Summary and Recommendations

You will begin your discussion of the SWOT analysis here. The length of your paper should be at least three pages not including the title and reference page. Be sure to address the items listed in the instructions as part of your response. Include references on a separate reference page.

References

MAR 3231, Marketing Research 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

2. Discuss basic research designs as applied to research in marketing. 2.1 Discuss how the SWOT analysis contributes to marketing and management decision-making.

3. Differentiate between exploratory, descriptive, and causal research designs.

3.1 Explore the differences between exploratory, descriptive, and causal research designs. 3.2 Discuss which research designs would benefit a specific company.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

2.1 Unit Lesson Presentation; ”Benefits of SWOT Analysis;” “SWOT Analysis: What it is and When to Use it;” Scholarly Activity

3.1

Unit Lesson Presentation; “The Research Design is the Methodology and Procedure a Researcher Follows to Answer Their Sociological Question;” “Demystifying the Research Process: Understanding a Descriptive Comparative Research Design;” “A Study on Occupational Stress and Quality of Work Life (QWL) in Private Colleges of Oman (Muscat);” “1.3 Exploratory, Descriptive and Explanatory Nature of Research;” “Exploratory Research;” Scholarly Activity

3.2 Scholarly Activity

Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below: Cantrell, M. A. (2011). Demystifying the research process: Understanding a descriptive comparative research

design. Pediatric Nursing, 37(4), 188–189. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=64448031&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Hans, A., Mubeen, S. A., Mishra, N., & Al-Badi, A. H. H. (2015). A study on occupational stress and quality of

work life (QWL) in private colleges of Oman (Muscat). Global Business & Management Research, 7(3), 55-68. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=113006185&site=ehost-live&scope=site

MeanThat. (2016, March 17). 1.3 Exploratory, descriptive and explanatory nature of research [Video file].

Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlBFdEgrTBM Click here to access a transcript for this video. Pestleanalysis Contributor. (2016). Benefits of SWOT analysis. Retrieved from

http://pestleanalysis.com/benefits-of-swot-analysis/ The research design is the methodology and procedure a researcher follows to answer their sociological

question. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://online.columbiasouthern.edu/CSU_Content/courses/Business/MAR/MAR3231/17G/UnitIII_Det erminingTheResearchDesign.pdf

UNIT III STUDY GUIDE

The Research Designhttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=64448031&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=64448031&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=113006185&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=113006185&site=ehost-live&scope=sitehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlBFdEgrTBMhttps://online.columbiasouthern.edu/bbcswebdav/xid-114310800_1http://pestleanalysis.com/benefits-of-swot-analysis/https://online.columbiasouthern.edu/CSU_Content/courses/Business/MAR/MAR3231/17G/UnitIII_DeterminingTheResearchDesign.pdfhttps://online.columbiasouthern.edu/CSU_Content/courses/Business/MAR/MAR3231/17G/UnitIII_DeterminingTheResearchDesign.pdf

MAR 3231, Marketing Research 2

UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

Title

Research Methodology. (n.d.). Exploratory research. Retrieved from http://research- methodology.net/research-methodology/research-design/exploratory-research/

Fallon, N. (2017). SWOT analysis: What it is and when to use it. Retrieved from

http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4245-swot-analysis.html

Unit Lesson The unit lessons for this course are presented through interactive presentations.

Unit III Lesson Unit III Lesson PDF

Suggested Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below: To learn more about descriptive research strategies, take a few minutes to read the article below. It provides a great discussion of some of the methods used in this type of research. The following article discusses some of the methods used in exploratory research design. FluidSurveys Team. (2014). Exploratory research: What is it? And 4 ways to implement it in your research!

Retrieved from http://fluidsurveys.com/university/exploratory-research-4-ways-implement-research/ Wickford, H. (n.d.). Descriptive research strategies. Retrieved from

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/descriptive-research-strategies-12107.htmlhttp://research-methodology.net/research-methodology/research-design/exploratory-research/http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/4245-swot-analysis.htmlhttps://online.columbiasouthern.edu/bbcswebdav/xid-120307503_1https://online.columbiasouthern.edu/bbcswebdav/xid-120307595_1http://fluidsurveys.com/university/exploratory-research-4-ways-implement-research/http://smallbusiness.chron.com/descriptive-research-strategies-12107.htmlhttps://online.columbiasouthern.edu/bbcswebdav/xid-120307503_1

188 PEDIATRIC NURSING/July-August 2011/Vol. 37/No. 4

D emystifying the research process often involves understanding research terminology, the rationale for the selection of a research design, and the known benefits and consequences in the selection

of a design. This commentary discusses the major aspects of a well-known and used quantitative research design in nursing research used by Tourigny, Clendinneng, Chartrand, and Gaboury (2011) to evaluate the utility of a virtual education tool for pediatric patients undergoing same-day surgery. The rationale for why this design was chosen by these nurse researchers and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

A research design is the overall plan for answering research questions and hypotheses. The design spells out strategies the researcher adopts to gather accurate, objec- tive, and interpretable information (Polit & Beck, 2007). Tourigny et al. (2011) used a non-experimental, quantita- tive research design known as a descriptive, comparative design. It is also known as casual comparative research and pre-experimental research. The basic purpose of these designs is to determine the relationship among variables. The most important distinctions between these designs and experimental designs are no control (manipulation) of the independent variable (IV) and no random assignment of study subjects to the intervention or control group. These designs are frequently used in nursing research studies because nurse researchers are often faced with these specif- ic limitations.

In summary, the known properties of descriptive, com- parative research studies are 1) no manipulation of an inde- pendent variable, 2) no random assignment to groups, and 3) often inclusion of a control or comparison group. The paradigm for these studies is diagrammed in Figure 1.

In this diagram (see Figure 1), the researcher hypothe- sizes that “X” is related to and a determinant (cause) of “Y,” but the presumed causes are not manipulated, and subjects are not randomly assigned to groups (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2010). Rather, a group of subjects who has experi- enced “X” in a natural situation is located, and a control

group of subjects who has not experienced “X” is chosen. The behavior performance or condition of the two groups is compared to determine whether the exposure to “X” had an effect predicted by the hypothesis (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2010). Tourigny et al. (2011) hypothesized a deter- minant of study participants’ level of knowledge about hos- pital equipment and procedures, and their emotional state would differ based upon whether or not they viewed the Surgery Virtual Tour presentation. In this study, the exposed group resulted from participants choosing to view the Surgery Virtual Tour. These researchers then compared this group with a group at the same institution who did not view the Surgery Virtual Tour presentation.

Tourigny et al. (2011) noted that the Surgery Virtual Tour was posted on the hospital’s Web site and available to all children, adolescents, and parents being cared for at this institution. Thus, these researchers had no control over which study participants viewed or did not view the educa- tional program. Prohibiting access of this educational pro- gram to some participants for the purposes of conducting this research study would have violated these children’s, adolescents’, and parents’ ethical right to fair treatment. The right to fair treatment is based on the ethical principle of justice that each person should be treated fairly and should receive what he or she is due or owed (Burns & Grove, 2005).

An important criterion in determining a research design’s rigor is its potential to generate findings that are interpretable. The term interpretable relates to the credibil- ity and dependability of data generated by a study, and is based on the study’s design to sufficiently test “cause and effect” relationships. The term “causality” implies that a systematic relationship exists between the independent variable (IV), which is the “cause” or intervention of the study design, and the dependent variable(s) (DV) or the outcome(s) of the study. In other words, confidence that the outcome of a research study is a consequence of the effects of the intervention must exist.

Mary Ann Cantrell, PhD, RN, is an Associate Professor, College of Nursing, Villanova University, Villanova, PA.

Demystifying the Research Process: Understanding a Descriptive Comparative

Research Design Mary Ann Cantrell

Demystifying Research

Tourigny, J., Clendinneng, D., Chartrand,C., & Gaboury, I. (2011). Evaluation of a virtual tool for children undergo- ing same-day surgery and their parents. Pediatric Nursing, 37(4), 177-183.

With Demystifying Research, nursing research leaders comment on some aspect of a research article featured in the issue, with the aim of helping the reader better understand research. Look for Demystifying Research in each issue of Pediatric Nursing.

PEDIATRIC NURSING/July-August 2011/Vol. 37/No. 4 189

There are three criteria for causality: 1) the cause (the IV) must precede the effect (the DV) in time, such that the IV had to occur before the DV); 2) an empirical relationship exists between the IV and DV, meaning that a relationship that is measurable must exist between the presumed cause and effect; and 3) the relationship between the IV and DV cannot be explained by a third variable. Of these three cri- teria, researchers are most concerned about ensuring results of their study are due to the experimental treatment and not due to the characteristics of the subjects or other com- peting explanations for the results. Characteristics of the subjects or other competing explanations are known as internal validity threats.

There are several limitations in the design used by Tourigny et al. (2011) that threaten the confidence in their study’s findings, specifically having no control over the internal validity and characteristics of the subjects influenc- ing the outcome of the study. The internal validity threat due to characteristics of the subjects is known as selection bias and is always a threat if random assignment to groups does not occur. Researchers are cautioned to be aware that when intact groups are compared, differences existing between the two groups before the start of the experiment could have affected the outcome of the study. People “self- select” to a group based on personal characteristics and preferences, and these personal characteristics and prefer- ences can influence the outcome of a study. Tourigny et al. (2011) addressed this potential threat operating in their study’s findings by measuring selected differences in socio- demographic variables that could have accounted for dis- similarities between the groups. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic variables between partici- pants who viewed or did not view the Virtual Tour, with the exception that families who took the Tour were more like- ly to have access to the Internet at home (Tourigny et al., 2011). These findings provide some evidence that these socio-demographic variables can be ruled out as internal validity threats operating in this study; however, it remains unknown if characteristics not measured by Tourigny and colleagues could be operating as threats to the study’s inter- al validity. It is not feasible to measure an exhaustive list of socio-demographic characteristics that could pose every possible internal validity threat related to study partici- pants’ characteristics, but researchers carefully select known factors from previous studies and their clinical experiences as was done by Tourigny et al.

Another strategy used by Tourigny et al. (2011) to increase the internal validity of their study was to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine the study’s sample. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are guidelines or the standards determining who can or cannot be in the study. Population descriptors, also known as important characteristics of a population, are criteria that set the stan- dards. These characteristics can also operate as internal validity threats in a study. In their study, Tourigny et al. identified the inclusion criteria for their study as only allowing children and adolescents 6 to 18 years of age, able to understand or read and write in English, be at a school-

age cognitive level, and who gave an assent or written con- sent to be in the study. They also excluded children with any developmental or physical state that could prevent them from completing the questionnaires. These criteria placed more control over potential internal validity threats operating in the study, but as a consequence of doing so, the external validity of the study’s findings was decreased. External validity addresses the ability to generalize the find- ings of the study to other groups. The findings generated by Tourigny et al. are not generalizable to children younger than 6 years, who are unable to understand or read and write in English, are not at a school-age cognitive level, or have a developmental or physical impairment. Internal and external validity have an inverse relationship; the more internal validity control a study design employs, the more likely its external validity will be limited.

In summary, Tourigny and colleagues (2011) selected a feasible research design; its implementation protected research participants’ ethical rights, tested the identified intervention, and generated interpretable findings. A researcher’s choice in selecting a research design is depend- ent on many factors, and researchers usually make con- scious decisions in their selection to augment some aspects of rigor in their study while foregoing others. Selection of a research design requires creativity to maximize inter- pretable findings within known limitations in conducting the investigation.

References Burns, S., & Groves, S.K. (2004). Understanding nursing research (3rd

ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2010). Nursing research: Methods

and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2007). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tourigny, J., Clendinneng, D., Chartrand, C., & Gaboury, I. (2011). Evaluation of a virtual tool for children undergoing same-day surgery and their parents. Pediatric Nursing, 37(4), 177-183.

Figure 1. The Paradigm for Descriptive, Comparitive Research Studies

Groups X (The “Cause)

(The “Intervention”) Y (The Effect)

(Outcome Variable)

Exposed group Exposure to “X” Measurement of “Y”

Control group No exposure to “X” Measurement of “Y”

Demystifying the Research Process: Understanding a Descriptive Comparative Research Design

Pediatric Nursing Call for Evidence-Based, Clinical

Manuscripts for These and Other Topics

• Allergies • Alternative and

complementary treatments • Burns assessment • Calcium and school aged girls • Care of the child with a

congenital heart defect • Care of children with

neurological problems • Care of the child with diabetes

mellitus

• Celiac disease identification and long-term ramifications

• Chronic illness/nursing management

• Clinic aspects of care in ambulatory setting

• Dealing with difficult family • Discharge of the complex

patient • Diseases/disorders associated

with pain, such as osteogenesis imperfecta

Questions regarding these or other topics can be directed to Judy A. Rollins, PhD, RN, Editor of Pediatric Nursing ([email protected]). A copy of the author guidelines can be obtained from the journal Web site (http://www.pediatric nursing.net), or will be forwarded at your request by contacting the journal office at Pediatric Nursing, Jannetti Publications, Inc., East Holly Avenue/Box 56, Pitman, NJ 08071-0056. Phone: 856-256-2300. E-mail: [email protected] Pediatric Nursing is a refereed, bi-monthly publication.

Copyright of Pediatric Nursing is the property of Jannetti Publications, Inc. and its content may not be copied or

emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission.

However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Vol. 7, No. 3 (2015)

55

A Study on Occupational Stress and Quality of

Work Life (QWL) in Private Colleges of Oman

(Muscat)

Arvind Hans

PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Management

Waljat College of Applied Sciences, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Email: [email protected]

Soofi Asra Mubeen

PhD, Lecturer, Department of Management

Higher College of Technology, Muscat, Oman

Email: [email protected]

Niraj Mishra

PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Management

Waljat College of Applied Sciences, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Email: [email protected]

Ameera Hamood Humaid Al-Badi

EMBA Student, Department of Management

Waljat College of Applied Sciences, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Email: [email protected]

Abstract

Purpose: Study aims to depict the phenomena related to Quality of Work Life (QWL) and

Occupational Stress among business management lecturers in private colleges of Oman. It

also intends to find the predictive validity of the proposed model by using SEM path

analysis.

Design/methodology/approach: A combination of descriptive and conclusive research

design was adopted to describe and report the related phenomena. Private colleges of Oman

were chosen for study. Sample frame consisted of all the management teachers teaching in

seven private higher educational institutions in Oman offering management degree. The

sample size consisted of 44 lecturers.

Findings: Study indicated that occupational stress score among management lecturers

were relatively lesser than the average, whereas perceived QWL was found more than the

average in these institutes. It was inferred that perceived QWL was better in these

institution compare to occupational stress. SEM path analysis was also administered to

validate the proposed framework by using SmartPLS software. A negative relationship was

established between two latent construct. The statistics indicated that occupation stress is

negatively affecting the QWL of teachers in management institutions in Oman. But,

proposed hypothesis was not established because T value was reported as 0.927 with p

value of 0.354.

Originality: Based on the review of literature relatively a very few studies targeted on

management lecturers in private colleges of Oman with related variables.mailto:[email protected]mailto:[email protected]mailto:[email protected]mailto:[email protected]

Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Vol. 7, No. 3 (2015)

56

Limitations: Sample size was on a lower side due to the teacher’s tight work schedule

and involvement in institutional miscellaneous activities and limited time allocated for

data collection.

Keywords: Occupational stress, Quality of Work Life (QWL), SEM path analysis, Oman

Abbreviations: IT = Information Technology, PLS= Partial Least Square, QOL= Quality

of Life, QWL= Quality of Work Life, SEM= Structural Equation Modeling

1. Introduction Education sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in Oman and Lecturers play an

important role in shaping up the future of students. They constantly engage themselves in

the pursuit of quality pedagogy. Since new teaching methodologies are evolving rapidly, it

has become more demanding in carrying out their roles and responsibilities in an effective

way. The main causes of stress among the lecturers were reported as their multiple

academic and administrative roles assigned to them. Lecturers feel stressed when they are

not able to balance their personal and work life need, which leads to decrease in quality of

teaching and lack of efficiency which in turn affect the relationship between the student

and lecturers. Stress has been increasing due to the evolving needs, tough competition,

work pressure and short deadlines. When occupational stress is felt, it will not only affect

the performance of work but also affect health of employees in the form of heart attack,

migraine that can lead to death. (Yahaya, et.al 2010).

Quality of work life is an outgrowth of human relation movement. Robbins (1989) defined

Quality of Work Life (QWL) as a process by which an organization respond to employee

needs by developing mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making the decisions that

design their lives at work.QWL affect employee’s work responses in terms of

organizational identification, job satisfaction, job involvement, job effort, job performance,

intention to quit, organizational turnover and personal alienation (Efraty & Sirgy, 1990).

The lack of quality of work life is due to inappropriate placement, less recognition and

participation and inadequate health and insurance programs. Occupational stress affects

quality of work life which ultimately affects job satisfaction. Present study analyzed the

phenomena of occupational stress and QWL among the business management lecturers in

private colleges in Oman.

2. Literature Review

Review of literature was done to report the studies related to occupational stress and QWL.

Following research examined the underlying phenomena of stress and QWL separately and

together in various professions, organizations and sectors. It provides a foundation to

identify the research gap for the present study.

Beheshtifar & Nazarian (2013) reported that occupational stress was a perception of

discrepancy between environmental demands (stressors) and individual capacities to fulfill

these demands. Occupational stress was more, where there was more discrepancy in

perceptions. Nasiripour,et.al.,(2009) explored the level and sources of occupational and

personal stress among 172 rural health workers in Mashhad district. It was found that role

overload and role ambiguity were the main sources of stress and it adversely affected the

quality of their service. Bokti & Talib (2009) determined the level and relationship of

occupational stress, job satisfaction among 40 male Navy officers and non officers from

Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Vol. 7, No. 3 (2015)

57

the Naval base in Lumut, Malaysia. Result revealed that majority of the male navy

personnel had moderate levels of job satisfaction in the favorable nature of work facet.

Hasan (2014) compared occupational stress among 100 teachers of primary government

and private school in Haridwar and found that private primary school teachers were highly

stressed in comparison to the government primary school teachers. Jeyarai (2013)

determined the occupational stress level of 120 government teachers and 185 aided/

contractual school teachers and found that aided school teachers had more occupational

stress level than government school teachers and were also less satisfied with teaching.

Reddy & Anuradha (2013) examined the occupation stress of 327 higher secondary school

teachers of Vellore district in Tamil Nadu and found that 88 percent of teachers were

experiencing moderate and high levels of occupational stress. Tashi,K (2014) examined

the level of stress among 150 Bhutanese teachers and found that stress was experienced by

them. Male teachers were more stressed than their counterparts.

Kusi,et.al. (2014) explored the cause and effects of work related stress among 50 university

level academic staffs. Result highlighted various causes and the effects of stress among the

lecturers. Adebiyi (2013) investigated the occupational related stress to know the influence

of gender, faculty and experience on stress among 100 lecturers and revealed that gender

and years of experience did not influence stress on lecturer but the stress varied from

faculty to faculty based on their teaching experience. Kumar,et.al. (2013) investigated

causes of work stress among 478 engineering faculty members to find out the difference

and association among demographic and job profile variables of engineering teachers.

Study showed that location, working status, working hours and type of institutions also

causes stress. Pabla (2012) studied the occupational stress amongst 200 professional

college teachers in Punjab and revealed that there was no significant difference between

male and female teachers in occupational stress level where as there was significant

difference between teachers teaching in the professional colleges located in rural and urban

areas. Teachers employed on Ad-hoc and permanent basis had different level of stress.

Muthuvelayutham & Mohanasundaram (2012) found the impact of occupational stress on

job satisfaction and job involvement among 422 engineering college teachers in Trichy. It

was found that there was a significant impact of stress on job satisfaction and job

involvement among teachers. Ismail,et.al.(2009) measured the effect of occupational stress

on job satisfaction among 80 academic employees in private institutions of higher learning

in Kuching city, Malaysia. Result demonstrated that physiological and psychological stress

did not increase job satisfaction in the stress model. Mostert,et.al. (2008) determined the

occupational stressors for support staff at a higher educational institution in North West

Province. Study investigated the relationship between occupational stress and

organizational outcomes. Result demonstrated average level of occupational stress with

increased organizational outcomes.

Srinivas et.al. (2014) studied quality of work life (QWL) among 50 employees at Dunlop

Polymers Pvt, ltd in Mysore. Result confirmed that the company was providing a high

quality of work life to the employees. Sabarirajan & Geethanjali (2011) investigated the

extent of QWL among the employees of public and private banks in dindigul. QWL

positively influenced the performance of the banks based on findings. Kasraie,et.al.,(2014)

investigated the relationship between the quality of work life, job stress, job satisfaction

and citizenship behavior among 158 staff of Oshnaviyeh Hospitals and showed that there

was a significant positive relationship between the quality of work life, job stress, job

satisfaction and citizenship behavior. Jayaraman (2014) aimed to find out the level of

Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Vol. 7, No. 3 (2015)

58

quality of work life of 298 employees of paper & pulp mill of Dindigul district and found

that most of employees are satisfied with their jobs and the job factors were related to level

of perception of QWL and overall job satisfaction. Varghese & Jayan (2013) explained

quality of work life as the part of overall quality of life that is influenced by work. Quality

of work life matters to employees as better quality of working life is associated with better

retention and lower absence. Chitra & Mahalakshmi (2012) find out the employees

perception on their work life quality of 251 employees in manufacturing organization. Ten

variables were used to measure quality of work life and to test the relationship of variables

with job satisfaction. Result indicated that each of the QWL variables on its own is a salient

predictor of job satisfaction.

The following studies focused on the relationship between QWL & work stress in various

organizations.

Behzad et.al. (2014) assessed the relationship between quality of work life and

occupational stresses in personnel of social security organization in Hamadan Province, IR

Iran with 58 personnel selected through census method and showed a positive association

between QWL and Stress.QWL was significantly associated with personnel education

level and work experience. Bolhari,et.al. (2012) investigated the impact of occupational

stress on quality of work life among information technology employees in Iran. A cross

sectional design was applied and information was gathered from IT staff. It found that

occupational stress had a negative impact on quality of work life. Jafari,et.al. (2012) aimed

at determining the quality of life (QOL) among 241 nurses to see the relationship between

occupational stress and QOL. The result showed a high level of occupational stress among

nurses which adversely affected their QOL and there was no significant correlation

between QOL and occupational stress.

A hypothesis was proposed based on the research in this area. It was observed in most of

the research that occupational stress is inversely affecting QWL, but in few cases the

research result was just opposite. Especially in Middle East countries, the researches have

shown a mixed trend between occupational stress and QWL relationships. To explore the

relationship between these two phenomena in the management institutions, the following

hypothesis was proposed.

3. Hypothesis [H1]: Occupation stress is positively affecting quality of work life (QWL)

in private management colleges in Oman.

Very few studies focused on the relationship between QWL & work stress in educational

institutions. These studies are as follows:

Kumar & Deo (2011) measured different aspects of work life among 100 college teachers

of Bihar and Jharkhand to find out the differences in perception of male and female, senior

and junior teachers and revealed that junior college teachers experienced significant more

stress as compared to senior teachers and female teachers experienced more role overload

and inter role distance stress as compared to their male counterparts. Chadha,et.al.(2012)

studied on the effect of organizational stress on quality of life among 50 primary and

secondary school teachers and the result revealed that there was a significant difference

between self role distance among primary and secondary school teachers and significant

correlation between physical domain and role overload. (QWL and Stress in education

institution)

In the field of management, there was a significant gap in the associational study of

occupational stress and QWL among the lecturers. This study attempted to address the

Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal

Vol. 7, No. 3 (2015)

59

observed research gaps by reporting and examining the impact of occupational stress on

QWL among lecturers.

4. Objectives of the Study

 To evaluate the level of stress on Lecturers in private collage of Oman.

 To determine the level of Quality Work of Life (QWL) in private collage of Oman.

 To identify the relation between stress and quality work of life in private collage of Oman.

 Stv arh ovveiav tt are imvvv rifautrevnov eht vTfirev oT

5. Research Methodology

A combination of descriptive and conclusive research design was adopted to study the

phenomena related to QWL and occupational stress. Standard Questionnaire on QWL and

occupational stress was identified for the study. QWL questionnaire had 45 five point scale

items consisting to 10 factors, whereas Occupational stress questionnaire had 46 five point

scale items consisting of 12 factors. The questionnaire on Occupational stress was taken

from Srivastava, A.K., Singh, A. P., (2000) and Questionnaire on QWL was taken from

Dhar, S., Dhar, U., Roy, R. (2000) respectively.

Purposive sampling method was used. Sample frame consisted of all the management

teachers teaching in seven private higher educational institutions in Oman offering

management curriculum. Questionnaires were distributed to all the teachers to collect the

response related to these phenomenons. 44 responses were collected from the lectures who

taught management subjects in private colleges in Muscat. Sample size in this study was

44. The level of QWL and Occupational stress among the management lecturers were

reported by using the descriptive statistics, whereas the conceptual framework between

QWL and Occupational stress was verified by Smart PLS version 3.2.1 in order to test the

hypothesis and measurement model.

Primary data was collected from two questionnaires in the study, whereas secondary data

was collected from following sources to build the research framework and review of

literature:

1. Internet sources. 2. Books and Journal research articles. 3. Electronic Research Database , EBSCO

6. Data Analysis Method

The data collected from the sample was analyzed by using descriptive statistics using

statistical tools. Occupational stress and QWL questionnaire was analyzed by using

descriptive statistics. Occupational stress consisted of 46 items on five point scale. 28 items

were true –keyed and 18 items were false-keyed items out of 46 items in the questionnaire.

A false keyed item scoring was reversed at the time of scoring. Test of reliability of scale

was done using Cronbach alpha method and composite reliability of scale was done

through SmarPLS. SmartPLS was used to test the hypothesis by exploring the model’s

predictive validity. An initial path model was formulated .Boot-strapping was conducted

in the initial path model for model analysis in terms of its predictive ability.

7. Findings of the Study

Data was compiled for occupational stress in the following table for further analysis.

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Table 1: Factors average to Occupational stress

S.NO Subscales/Factors (Occupational Stresses) AVAREGE

1 Role overload 3.3

2 Role ambiguity 2.6

3 Role conflict 3.0

4 Unreasonable group and political pressures 3.0

5 Responsibility person 3.2

6 Under participation 2.9

7 Powerlessness 2.8

8 Poor peer relation 2.7

9 Intrinsic impoverishment 2.7

10 Law status 2.8

11 Strenuous working condition 2.7

12 Unprofitability 3.1

TOTAL 2.9

According to the factor average calculated in Table-1, strong similarities among three

factors were observed such as role overload, responsibility person & unprofitability. It was

inferred that teachers in private colleges were overloaded and under high pressure to

perform their duties. Since, modern private institutions assign academic and administrative

work to their faculty members, and these responsibilities are diverse in nature, they found

them relatively overloaded. The compensation was also not profitable to them based on the

findings of the study. Unprofitability was ranked moderately higher compare to other

occupational stress factors. It is proposed that, the private education institution in Muscat

should focus to resolve the above concerned area to foster better quality of work life (QWL)

within the organization by lucrative compensation.

The score reported on role ambiguity, under participation, powerlessness, poor peer

relation, intrinsic impoverishment and law status in the colleges indicated comparatively

little stress among the faculty members. Moderately high score on the factor “responsibility

person” indicated that faculty members felt responsible as a teacher in the organization. A

moderate score on role conflict & unreasonable group and political pressures indicated the

inverse impact of dual responsibility in term of academic and administrative duties

assigned to them. The overall score reported on occupational stress is below the average

was considered as a positive stress in an educational institution for improved organizational

effectiveness. Data was compiled for QWL in Table -2 for further analysis.

Table 2: Factors average to QWL

Factors Elements Average

1 Stability of tenure 3.4

2 Growth opportunities 3.4

3 Employee satisfaction 3.4

4 Competent employees 3.7

5 Value orientation 3.5

6 Innovation practices 3.9

7 Work-life balance 3.4

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8 Human relations 3.3

9 Learning orientation 3.5

10 Challenging activities 3.5

Total 3.5

Table 3: Dimensions average to QWL

Sl.no Dimension Average

1 Dimension 1(Proactively) 3.53

2 Dimension 2 (work- life balance 3.43

3 Dimension 3 (human relation) 3.35

4 Dimension 4 (learning organization) 3.60

Total 3.50

Factors such as competent employees and innovation practices got high score from the

faculty members teaching management subjects in Table 2. It was inferred that respondents

felt satisfied about the way organization responded to the needs of employees in a positive

way. The feeling of being competent and using innovative practices in their pedagogy can

make them committed and instill loyalty to the organization. Findings indicated a good

QWL environment in private higher management education institutions in Oman.

The others factors scores such as Stability of tenure, Growth opportunities, Employee

satisfaction, Value orientation, Work-life balance, Human relations, Learning orientation

and Challenging activities were found more than moderately satisfied. It was inferred that

respondents were moderately satisfied with QWL. It was verified from Table 3 on QWL

dimensions average such as learning origination and being proactive with the score more

than moderately satisfied with the existing QWL in the management education institutions

in Oman.

The findings corroborate the research evidence that when the employees experience lesser

occupational stress, QWL within the organization is bound to be more. The lesser

occupational stress observed among lecturers is the evidence of comparatively better QWL

in these private management educational institutions in Oman.

8. Conceptual model analysis by using Smart PLS

Conceptual framework between QWL and Occupational stress was verified by Smart

PLS in order to test the hypothesis under conclusive research design. The reliability test

was conduct to verify the items and scale reliability used in the study to go for further

analysis using smart PLS.

8.1. Reliability analysis: Cronbach’s Alpha reliability method was applied to check

reliability of all items in the questionnaire. Reliability test was applied using SPSS 20 and

the reliability measures were given in the Table 4. The initial reliability coefficient value

was found as 0.850 for Quality of Work Life (QWL) questionnaire. The eight (8)

insignificant items were again deleted based on item- total statistics to improve the

measurement model. The remaining 37 QWL items were again tested for items reliability.

The reliability coefficient value was found as 0.880. Similarly for Occupational Stress the

initial reliability coefficient value was 0.835. The fifteen (15) insignificant items were

again screened out to improve the measurement model. The remaining 31 Occupational

Stress items were again tested for items reliability. The reliability coefficient value was

found as 0.874. As the reliability score is higher compare to the initial reliability test further

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analysis can be done to verify the structural model. It can be inferred that the standard scale

used in the study to identify QWL and stress among management teachers need revision in

Omani context.

Table 4: Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability of the measure

Scale Cronbach’s

Alpha

No. of Items Cronbach’s

Alpha after

deleting items

No. of

Items

Quality of Work

Life (QWL)

0.850 45 0.88 37

Occupational Stress 0.835 46 0.87 31

8.2. Conceptual Background

The two constructs of the study are conceptually related to each other by the structural

model as shown:

Figure 1: Conceptual framework

Measurement Model evaluates the relation between manifest variable (Observed items)

and Exogenous/Endogenous latent variable by analyzing the factor loading on each

constructs (Hulland, 1999).Structural model verify the relationship between exogenous

latent variable and endogenous latent variable by analyzing path coefficients between

them. Higher path coefficients and resultant R2 values reported is the indicator of better

model predictive ability. The study used Smart PLS to estimates the measurement model

and structural model simultaneously (Ringle, et. al., 2005). The proposed model is shown

in Figure1.The proposed model has two latent construct as QWL and occupational stress.

8.3. Measurement Model:

Tenenhaus, M., Esposito Vinzi V., Chatelin Y. M. and Lauro C. (2005) introduce three

criteria to determine the overall quality of the model. Specifically, a path model can be

assessed at three levels:

1. The quality of the measurement model 2. The quality of the structural model 3. Each structural regression equation used in the structural model.

8.3.1. The quality of the measurement model:

The quality of the measurement model was tested by assessing the individual item and

scale reliability followed by convergent and discriminant validity of constructs’ measures.

Initially the relationships were displayed between the constructs of occupational stress and

QWL (Bhakar, et. al., 2012). PLS algorithm was applied and the resultant relationships,

coefficients and values of loading were calculated. QWL was an endogenous latent variable

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in the study and Occupational stress is exogenous latent variable. The factor loading below

0.5 were removed from the initial path model. A final path model was determined after

removing the items which had the loading below 0.5. The final path model is given below

in Figure 2. Path coefficient was reported negative. It was -0.741.

Figure 2: Final Path Model

Reliability:

Individual factors reliability was assessed by examining the loadings of associated factors

on their respective latent constructs in PLS modeling (Hulland, 1999). Reliability of each

variable was assessed through Fornell and Larcker’s (1981) measure of composite

reliability in addition to Cronbach’s (1951) alpha. This measure is preferred over

Cronbach’s alpha because it offers a better estimation of variance shared by the respective

indicator (Hair et al., 2006). In this study composite factor reliability coefficient of the

constructs ranged from 0.785 to 0.882 as shown in Table 5, which met the standard of 0.70

as suggested by Fornell and Larcker (1981).

Table 5: Composite Reliability

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Sl. No Composite Reliability

1 Occupational Stress 0.88

2 QWL 0.78

The factor loading, cronbach alpha, composite reliability and Average Variance Extracted

(AVE) values calculated by PLS algorithms were tabulated in Table 6.

Table 6: Cronbach alpha, Composite reliability and AVE)

Latent variables Cronbach’s

Alpha

Composite

Reliability

AVE

Occupational Stress 0.87 0.88 0.279

Quality of Work Life (QWL) 0.88 0.78 0.249

Convergent validity:

Convergent validity refers to the degree of agreement in two or more measures of same

construct (Camines & Zeller, 1979). Fornell & Larcker (1981) indicated that convergent

validity is not established because variance extracted values are less than 0.5. Results

indicated that the variance extracted from the items ranged from 0.249 to 0.279 reported in

Table 6. It was inferred that the scale used for Occupational Stress and Quality of Work

Life did not possess convergent validity. Also, the standard scales used in Omani context

need to be moderated in future research for better measurement model and thus the

structural path for the same can be validated.

Discriminant Validity:

Discriminant validity is adequate when constructs have an AVE loading greater than 0.5

meaning that at least 50% of measurement variance was captured by the construct (Chin,

1998). In addition, discriminant validity was also not confirmed because the diagonal

elements are not higher than the off-diagonal values in the corresponding rows and

columns. The diagonal elements are the square root of the AVE score for each construct

(i.e. Stress and QWL).

Table 7: Discriminant Validity Results (Fornell-Larcker Criterion)

Occupational Stress Quality of Work Life (QWL)

Occupational Stress 0.528

Quality of Work Life (QWL) -0.741 0.499

The diagonal element values were shown in the Table 7 was more than the off-diagonal

values. The result indicated that the constructs of Occupational Stress and QWL did

possess Discriminant Validity. It was inferred that the standard scales of Occupational

Stress and QWL constructs are different from each other thus the structural path for the

same can be validated.

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8.4 Structural Model Analysis:

Hypothesis was tested by computing path coefficient (β) where as R2 measured a

construct’s percentage variation that is explained by the model (Wixom& Watson, 2001).

Conceptual model hypothesized that Stress is negatively impacting the QWL of teacher

teaching in private management institutions. (R2) was reported as -0.741. It suggested that

negative variance of 74.1 percent in QWL was explained by occupational stress on QWL

in the measurement model. It can be also be inferred that if there is 100 point increase in

the stress, the 74.1 point decrease on QWL will be observed. The statistical significance of

path coefficient (β) between these two latent constructs is measured by T statistics reported

in bootstrapping.

Since the objective of PLS is to maximize variance explained rather than fit, therefore

prediction–oriented measures such as (R2) are used to evaluate PLS models (Chin, 1998).

A bootstrap procedure using 1000/5000 sub samples was performed to evaluate the

statistical significance of path coefficient according to Chin’s (1998). The following (Table

8) showed hypothesized path coefficient along with their bootstrap values, “T” values.

Table 8: Path coefficient along with their bootstrap values, “T” values

Original Sample

(O)

T Statistics

(|O/STERR|)

P

Values

Occupational Stress -> Quality of

Work Life (QWL) -0.741 0.927 0.354

The relationship between Occupational Stress and QWL was not significant because path

coefficient between these two latent constructs are not significant as Т= .927 (Table value

is supposed to be significant if it is more than 1.96 at α (significance level) of 0.05 degree

of freedom > 120). Since T value is less than 1.96 indicating that the proposed path between

occupational stress and QWL of teachers teaching in private management colleges in Oman

is not significant. Also p value of 0.354 suggests that the proposed relationship between

these two latent constructs is not significant.

Proposed hypothesis was not accepted based on the above analysis. It was inferred that

occupational stress is not significantly affecting the QWL among the management teachers

in Oman.

9. Conclusion

The study found moderate work stress among the management teacher in private collages

in Oman. Moderate stress can be indicated as positive stress to foster individual

performance and organizational climate. This was also corroborated from the result

reported from QWL questionnaire. The final score of QWL was reported as 3.5 in 5 point

scale. It was inferred that employee were moderately satisfied from QWL in these

management institutions. Perception of being competent employee and innovative

employee score was reported more than the final average score of QWL. It was inferred

that teachers in educational institutions perceived them as more competent and

empowerment because of the autonomy in pedagogy.

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PLS analysis revealed that QWL of these educational institution are inversely related with

stress with a coefficient of -0.741. This clearly indicated that 100 point change in the stress

would bring 74.1 point negative changes in QWL among faculty members in private

management institutions in Oman. It means a 100 point increase in stress among employees

would lead to deterioration of 74.1 point in QWL. But, Proposed hypothesis was not

accepted based on the analysis as stress was not significantly affecting the QWL among

the management teachers in Oman. Proposed structural model was not established because

T value was reported as 0.927 with p value of 0.354. The hypothesized relationship

between Occupational Stress and QWL was not significant because path coefficient

between these two latent constructs were not significant. It was inferred occupational stress

is not significantly affecting the QWL among management teachers in Oman.

The study reaffirms the past research findings where these two phenomena were negatively

associated with each other. Further, it proves the theory that if Quality of Work Life (QWL)

is better in an organization, the occupational stress shall be relatively lesser among the

employees in such organizations. It can also be inferred that if perceived QWL is better in

the organization, overall organizational health is better or improving there. It suggests that,

the employees working in such organizations are withdrawing satisfaction from the

workplace. Thus the perceived occupational stress shall be lesser in such organizations and

mostly an inverse relationship shall prevail between these two constructs. Also, perceived

QWL was reported more compare to occupational stress in Oman based on descriptive

statistics. Thus, collectively these finding corroborates the inverse relationship between

these two phenomena discussed in the study.

10. Directions for Future Research:

1. The future study can include all higher private colleges for further generalization of the phenomena related to QWL and occupational stress among teachers in Oman.

2. The further study in these areas can be extended to other sectors to study the phenomena related to these two construct.

11. Limitations

1. Sample size was on a lower side due to the teacher’s tight work schedule and involvement in institutional miscellaneous activities.

2. Time duration to collect the data was less than 3 months.

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To cite this article:

Hans, A., Mubeen, S.A., Mishra, N., & Al-Badi, A.H.H. (2015). A Study on

Occupational Stress and Quality of Work Life (QWL) in Private Colleges of Oman

(Muscat). Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 7(3),

55-68.http://www.smartpls.de/

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