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GG Freightways (GGFRT) IT Decision Paper Assignment

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Before you begin this assignment, be sure you have read the “GG Freightways Case Study,” any feedback on your proposed IT project from your ITSP Part 2 assignment, and the previously assigned course materials.

Purpose of this Assignment

This assignment gives you the opportunity to apply the course concepts to develop an IT Decision Paper to explain and defend an IT project at GG Freightways (GGFRT).  This assignment specifically addresses the following course outcomes to enable you to:

• Apply best practices in information technology management and governance to make, defend, and justify an IT decision.

IT Decision Paper for Your Proposed IT Project

For your ITSP, Part 2, you proposed an IT project for GGFRT.  Lance, the CIO at GGFRT, has asked you to write an IT Decision Paper to explain your proposed project.  He wants to use the Paper to gain approval from the Governance Board to move forward with the project.  This assignment uses a format for a Decision Paper that has been tailored to the course material covered in this class.  You may work for an organization that has a format for IT decision papers, and it would be a good idea for you to look at it, but it will likely be structured a little differently from this one.  Each organization develops tools and techniques that will work for them. 

Assignment

You will develop an IT Decision Paper, using the outline below.  Each of the topics to be included in your outline is covered in the course content readings assigned thus far.  In addition to the course materials, at least one external resource (resource other than those provided in the class) must be used.  Two or more cited references will earn top credit. Use a separate References page to list just the references you have cited.  Remember to use the APA formatting rules and correctly cite and reference your sources with APA format.  Use the Grading Rubric to be sure you have covered everything.  

GG Freight Case Study

Grace Ijelu

UMGC

GG Freight Case Study

The company

GGFRT serves a good part of the southwestern region of the United States. The company has eight main terminals, and each has fifty vehicles in addition to seven hundred and fifty employees. the gross income is $35million and a 6% profit of future financial goal. Although the business environment has remained competitive, the company targets to have an 8% profit which will be achieved through an 8% profit and reduction in operating costs. The organization has operated in the last few decades and has shown great transformation on providing services to clients. It has gained a lot of recognition/confidence from different customers hence has stayed well ahead of its competitors. It serves a good part of the southwestern region of the United States. In terms of fleet, the company has 400 delivery/distribution vehicles with 80 semi-trailer units and 160 box trucks and 160 panel vans and box trucks. (Attached Document (Case Study: GG Freightways (GGFRT).

Business strategic objectives

Strategic objectives are the major reasons why organizations seek to come up with a strategic plan. The strategic plan is meant to guide the management come up with the possible decisions that will aid in achieving their goals. The plan updated annually based on the decisions made by the members on what needs to be improved on and omit what does not improve the business objectives (Vo, E. 2020).

The table has the business objectives which are meant to increase the efficiency and customer experience. The strategic objectives are hoisted under four pillars where each seeks to achieve a line of its own.

Business Strategic ObjectiveState the Objective (from the case study)Explanation (in your own words; for the new objective, incorporate how the management team would use it to improve the business of GGFRT:
A strategic objective is to mark the strategy business process.Tracking of freightKeeping a real time record of the location of the freight to enable near perfect reporting of the delivery time to customers
A strategic objective is ease customer booking and save their time and costs.Improve the percentage of loadedThe objective is to enable customers collect their freight at the nearest station which will reduce the cost and improve service delivery
A strategic objective is to give a high customer priority and make sure they are provided with the best services.Provide warehousing servicesCustomers will have access to warehousing services where they may pick the goods at their convenience or request customers to pick them thus reducing cost and saving time.
To promote customer expectations, safety and convenience.Vehicle safetyHave all the vehicles checked after 10,000 miles which will increase efficiency and reduce cases of accidents.

IT mission statement: Utilization of technology to gain a competitive advantage in the industry is the IT mission statement. Although, the current technology is not the most recent, the company intends to make most of it to increase the customer experience thus gaining a competitive advantage. Through the mission, customer services will be improved and also be the best freight service provider in the United States. Comment by Sean Sullivan: Each of the mission and vision should be no more than 1-2 sentences usually. Be specific to your company but related it to how IT will support or enabled business process. Here is some more help: IT mission, vision and values statements: Foundations for success | CIO Start off 2020 right with this mission statement generator (wholewhale.com)

IT vision statement: Implementation of technology in all business units to enhance coordination and efficiency as a way of gaining a competitive edge. The new system will allow all the stakeholders to keep in touch with the freight and different segments of the business which will result in efficiency and cost reduction. The company looks forward as the unique service provider in the freight industry and stands in an improved situation over its entrants. Through the implementation of technology, the company will improve how customers are serviced and they can improve their services soon. The company is also in the move to expand its operational strategies that will cover the needs of the industry in the upcoming years.

Governance

Although the governance will be headed by the IT department, it will have representatives from each of the other departments where there will be two from each. The members on the board will have the role of expressing the needs of their department which will then be incorporated into the IT strategic objectives. Additionally, they will assist in pointing out any hindrances that may occur between the departments. COBIT is the chosen methodology due to its easy adaptability and its emphasis on IT security (Haes & Grembergen, 2016).

The governance body will be charged with generating new IT ideas and identifying emerging needs of the business in different departments (Gregory, 2018). Priority to the needs will be based on the urgency of each. The governance board will determine which is most important and vote which should be allowed to prevail first.

Inventory of the current IT system

Although there are [plans in place to have an updated IT function, the current system comprises of three main segments. They include the finance and accounting department which handles the revenue and expenditure. The other segment is that of freight tracking which ensures tracking and coordination of freight from the point of receipt to its destination. There is also the fleet maintenance which handles the servicing of the vehicles by keeping a record and allocating the dates alongside a schedule to transport freight. The IT inventory is captured in the table below.

The table below gives a description of the current system in use and the IT resources that have been allocated to support the Company’s operations/ IT requirements.

1

Running head: GG FREIGHT CASE STUDY

4

GG FREIGHT CASE STUDY

Current SystemSpring 2019Function/DescriptionStrategic Goal aligned toBusiness Unit/DepartmentBusiness BenefitsIT spring ‘19 Resources
Freight tracking systemCurrently used in tracking and optimizing services in the company. It is essential in ensuring the operations run smoothly.Streamline the organization’s operationsOperationsSmooth running of the organizational operations.IT accounting systems
Fleet maintenance system Comment by Sean Sullivan: Ensure this stays in the margins.Has a history of the vehicles on fleet and any repairs done to the vehicles before? Also, Information concerning the maintenance schedule is provided by this system.Any expenses and services done to a fleet vehicle are provided by this systemMaintenanceMaintenance expenses are always updated within this system.IT accounting systems
Finance and Accounting systemContains information on the company’s expenses, profits, or losses made by the company. The system has been used to replace the currently used system.Ensure no errors and done and accounting operations are done smoothly.Accounting/financeImproved/ accurate accountingIT accounting systems
Financial Reporting SystemHelps in the keeping of accounting and financing records for referencingTo promote easy record keeping and availability when needed.Accounting/ financeaccurate account recordsIT accounting systems
Sales staff mobile application systemContains information concerning potential customersHelps in identifying trends and requirements of the customers.Promote customer services.Convenience of the customers and customer needsMobile application tools

References

Attached Document (Case Study: GG Freightways (GGFRT))

Haes, S. D., & Grembergen, W. V. (2016). Enterprise governance of information technology: achieving alignment and value, featuring COBIT 5.

Gregory, R. W., Kaganer, E., Henfridsson, O., & Ruch, T. J. (2018). IT Consumerization and the Transformation of IT Governance. Mis Quarterly, 42(4), 1225-1253.

Vo, E. (2020). What is strategic planning? Strategic planning process. Retrieved February from https://sba.thehartford.com/business-management/what-is-strategic-planning/

Running Head: IT MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE 1

IT MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE 7

IT Management and Governance

Grace Ijelu

IFSM 301

Foundations of Information Systems Management

February 8, 2021

Part Two

IT Strategies

The GG Freightways company can use these four Information Technology (IT) strategies in improving profit performance in the company.

IT Strategy(Spring 2019)State the Business Strategic Objective, then Explain the Alignment of the IT Strategy to the stated Business Strategic ObjectiveInternal/Business-Enabling (state the words “Internal” or “Business Enabling”)
Example: do not use but leave it in the table when completing this section.Meet compliance requirements by updating current technology or developing/acquiring new technology to meet those mandates· Business Strategic Objective:· Meet FMCSA reporting requirements for driving hours by the company’s drivers· Explanation of the Alignment of the IT Strategy to the Business Strategic Objective:By acquiring or developing technology that will capture and store driver hours electronically, the company will comply with FMCSA regulations and, able to provide this information upon request.Internal Comment by Sean Sullivan: Standardized alignment in columns.
A Unified Communication· Business Strategic Objective:A unified communication method will help in communicating between two employees working in remote environments.· Explanation of Alignment of the IT Strategy to the Business Strategic Objective: Comment by Sean Sullivan: Missing explanation.Internal
Open Source· Business Strategic Objective:The data analysis software essential in recording and analyzing information in the community shared knowledge.· Explanation of Alignment of the IT Strategy to the Business Strategic Objective:The open-source IT strategy enables the commercial community to access free software for business operations in the GG Freightways. Comment by Sean Sullivan: Open-source does not always mean free. Many open-source software is free for individual and non-profit or at least school use. Business regularly must pay for licenses. This is not always the case but must be kept in mind.Internal
Voice Over IP (VoIP)· Business Strategic Objective:· The third IT strategy for the business system of GG Freightways is the voice over IP to initiate communication among people in the landline. Comment by Sean Sullivan: Why just over landline?· Explanation of Alignment of the IT Strategy to the Business Strategic Objective:The IP voice delivery enables different to have massive business calls through this service.Business Enabling
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)· Business Strategic Objective:· The fourth IT strategy in the IT system is customer relationship management for information storage.· Explanation of Alignment of the IT Strategy to the Business Strategic Objective:The speed directory for product movements in GG Freightways is initiated by CRM to ease the ability of workflow.Business Enabling

IT portfolio Road Map

The following is the time for improving profit in the GG Freightways with the IT development and data management.

Projects byFunctional AreaQtr. 1Qtr. 2Qtr. 3Qtr. 4Qtr. 5Qtr. 6
Business objectivesProduct salesIT strategies
Product DevelopmentImprovementShowcase Company Products
AccountingBusiness IntelligenceCustomer relationship management
Risk ManagementRisk optimizationStrategic management
IT support systemUpdates of new systemData managementComment by Sean Sullivan: All of your projects are overlapping. Will all your internal employees be able to handle this at the same time? This depends on your setup, who will create this (in-house expertise) versus being contracted out. You could contract out surge personnel for the projects or just the actual services to develop the deliverables for these projects. You will still need someone from your business to keep an eye on the project if it is outsourced.

Proposed Project

In the GG Freightways company, important IT concepts are required, in the management and governance of operations. IT governance and management concepts involve the following: IT framework enterprise, strategic management, benefits realization, risk optimization, and resource optimization. These concepts of IT governance and management helps in providing knowledge and guidance to the operations of GG Freightways. Each concept provides security assurance and guidance to the main domain of the GG Freightways company (Van., & De Haes, S. 2018). The first concept of IT framework enterprise provides a continuous assessment for the company through direct planning on goals and objectives. This concept of IT helps GG Freightways utilize industry standards based on business accountabilities and responsibilities of IT Governance.

Risk Management

The strategic risk management for IT Governance helps in supporting business objectives.

1. First analyze the IT domain to provide a good alignment of activities based on enterprise management.

2. Evaluate the most effective method in the management portfolio forms an architecture methodology for showcasing the company’s products.

3. Treat all IT concepts for governance and management is a benefits realization which optimizes the profit of GG Freightways by enabling IT investments.

4. The IT initiative helps in monitoring benefits and value practices of products. Avoid any IT governance and management for resource optimization through sufficient use of applications, infrastructure, and information to achieve competence. Reduce resource optimization to execute a project effectively way through training and development programs of GG Freightways.

Business Continuity Planning

a. The GG Freightways company can apply IT management and governance for business continuity planning. The following are steps of business continuity planning.

· Risk assessment: The performance decision in the GG Freightways requires assessment of risk by establishing classical methods of monitoring shipping activities (Van & De Haes, 2018).

· Business Impact Analysis (BIA): The IT management and governance system recovery assumptions help in making decisions about improving the company’s efficiency.

· Hedge Fund Business planning: The IT infrastructure helps in supporting business operations of GG Freightways through data input and implementation of IT investments opportunities.

· Plan implementation: This involves sharing the plan with main stakeholders and conducting training sessions. The IT management and governance help in scientific and technical decision making on responsibility developed through open sources of the company.

· Plan Testing and System Maintenance: The simulation exercise for the plan are initiated while maintaining the new system. The IT solution architecture in the company initiates some regional services presented in the different directories.

b. Equally important, IT management and governance decisions are associated with business continuity planning. The advice and implementation of decisions made involve a standard process that acts as responsibility control for different activities in GG Freightways.

c. The continuity of the plan is enhanced when customers are engaged in decisions making as proactive ways of focusing on new goals. The best approach to making IT changes is enhanced through readjustment in the IT section (Steinberg, 2011).

d. The IT management and governance system will remain operational by making the important decision on an updated strategic plan. Also, the company is able to make a decision on reasonable cost with a different change of IT organization. The current IT management and governance system enables the company to have a good route of optimization for accounting and financing various operations.

References

Van Grembergen, W., & De Haes, S. (2018). Introduction to the Minitrack on IT Governance and its Mechanisms. In Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Comment by Sean Sullivan: Corrected hanging indents per APA 7th Ed.

Steinberg, R. M. (2011). Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance: It Can’t Happen to Us–Avoiding Corporate Disaster While Driving Success (Vol. 570). John Wiley & Sons.

GG Freightways (GGFRT) IT Decision Paper Assignment

Before you begin this assignment, be sure you have read the “GG Freightways Case Study,” any feedback on your proposed IT project from your ITSP Part 2 assignment, and the previously assigned course materials.

Purpose of this Assignment

This assignment gives you the opportunity to apply the course concepts to develop an IT Decision Paper to explain and defend an IT project at GG Freightways (GGFRT). This assignment specifically addresses the following course outcomes to enable you to:

· Apply best practices in information technology management and governance to make, defend, and justify an IT decision.

IT Decision Paper for Your Proposed IT Project

For your ITSP, Part 2, you proposed an IT project for GGFRT. Lance, the CIO at GGFRT, has asked you to write an IT Decision Paper to explain your proposed project. He wants to use the Paper to gain approval from the Governance Board to move forward with the project. This assignment uses a format for a Decision Paper that has been tailored to the course material covered in this class. You may work for an organization that has a format for IT decision papers, and it would be a good idea for you to look at it, but it will likely be structured a little differently from this one. Each organization develops tools and techniques that will work for them.

Assignment

You will develop an IT Decision Paper, using the outline below. Each of the topics to be included in your outline is covered in the course content readings assigned thus far. In addition to the course materials, at least one external resource (resource other than those provided in the class) must be used. Two or more cited references will earn top credit. Use a separate References page to list just the references you have cited. Remember to use the APA formatting rules and correctly cite and reference your sources with APA format. Use the Grading Rubric to be sure you have covered everything.

Please use this outline to build your IT Decision Paper. Use the numbering and headings shown below.

1. Project Description – In two or three sentences: (1) describe the IT project you proposed for GGFRT in Part 2 of your ITSP. (2) Describe what major function(s) the system would perform and who would use it. (Do not provide a technical description with hardware, software, etc.)

2. Strategic Alignment – In a short paragraph: (1) explain how the proposed project aligns to the business strategic objectives in Part 1 of your ITSP, and, (2) explain how the proposed project aligns to the IT strategies in Part 2 of your ITSP.

Your proposed project must be aligned directly with at least one business strategic objective and one IT strategy shown in your ITSP.

3. IT Portfolio Roadmap Alignment – In a paragraph: (1) Briefly explain where this project fits into the IT Portfolio Roadmap you included in Part 2 of your ITSP. (2) What functional area does it support? (3) Where should it be included in the timeline – i.e., should it take priority or be done before another project in the IT Portfolio (with justification)

4. IT Architecture – In a short paragraph:

(1) Briefly explain how this project fits in with other systems in place or in development at GGFRT. (2) Explain whether it should interface with (share data of any kind with) other systems either in place or in development, what information is being shared, and its purpose. (3) Explain whether it replaces another system or multiple systems in use at GGFRT.

Refer to the Inventory of Current IT Projects in Part 1 of your ITSP and the IT Portfolio in Part 2 of your ITSP.

5. Benefits: Describe at a high level three (3) benefits the project provides to GGFRT. The benefits should correspond to the business strategies and the strategic alignment discussed in section 2 above. State the Business Strategic Objective. Then, discuss this relationship/alignment for each benefit to the Business Strategic Objective. Refer to course content readings from Week 4 on Value Attainment. External research may also be beneficial. Benefits of the solution should not be accomplishment of business strategic objectives nor accomplishment of IT strategies.

Please copy/paste the following table into your paper and complete it:

BenefitState Business Strategic Objective/Provide Explanation of Alignment of Benefit to Business Strategic Objective
Example: do not use but leave it in the table when completing this section.(If the project you chose is updating the Route Optimization/Freight Tracking System to include a package tracking feature): Better visibility for GGFRT and its customers into the delivery status of packages.Tracking freight to provide customers with better delivery dates & timesThis real-time feature of package status will allow both customers and GGFRT employees to see where the package is while in transit. This will allow the customer to know where/when the package will be delivered.
1.
2.
3.

6. Requirements – List and briefly explain the high-level requirements for the project. First, explain the primary driver of the project (major need of the business area related to the project you have chosen) in a well-written introductory paragraph. Refer to course content readings regarding requirements (Week 7). External research may also be beneficial. Requirements were also covered in IFSM 300 (the prerequisite to be taken prior to this course; in Stage 3 requirements you noted requirements; refer to this assignment for examples). Develop ten (10) requirements for the project and include what category of the requirements below your presented requirements fit into:

a. Business/user requirements

b. IT/system requirements

c. At least one system performance requirement

Defining Requirements – The next step is to identify the essential requirements for your chosen project. User requirements express specifically what the user needs the system to do. This can be in terms of tasks/processes the users need to perform, data they need to input, what the system might do with that data input, and output required.System performance requirements express how the system will perform in several performance areas and security. IT/System requirements present what the system will do, i.e., the functions it must perform.They include characteristics that a product must have to meet the needs of the stakeholders and can include function or nonfunction requirements.As a member of the CIO’s organization, you will use your professional knowledge to ensure all 3 types of requirements are covered (User/Business, IT/System, and System Performance). Refer to Week 7 content on requirements. Additional research can expand your knowledge of these areas.

Once you have identified the 10 requirements, evaluate each one using the criteria below and create 10 well-written requirements statements for your chosen project.

The requirement statement:

· Is a complete sentence, with a subject (system) and predicate (intended result or action)

· Identifies only one requirement; does not include the words “and,” “also,” “with,” and “or.”

· For User Requirements, states what tasks/processes the system will support or perform.

· For System Performance Requirements, states how the system will perform.

· For IT/System Requirements, states what the system will do and the functions it must perform.

· Includes a measure or metric that can be used to determine whether the requirement is met (time or quantity), where appropriate.

· Is stated in positive terms and uses “must” (not “shall,” “may” or “should”); “the system must xxxx” not “the system must not xxx”.

· Avoids the use of terms that cannot be defined and measured, such as “approximately,” “robust,” “user friendly,” etc.

· Is achievable and realistic; avoids terms such as “100% uptime,” or “no failures”.

Do not provide generic statements but relate to the needs of GGFRT and your project.

Please copy/paste the following table into your paper and complete it:

Requirement Statement (explanation refers to the solution and case study)Business/User; IT/System or System Performance (state one or more of these categories)
Example: do not use but leave it in the table when completing this section. The Route Optimization/Freight Tracking System package status must be available to users 95% of the timeSystem Performance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

7. Cost Estimation – During the Assessment Phase, Cost Estimation consists of estimating the size and complexity of the project, not the effort required or the actual projected dollar costs. Copy the table below and place an X (or other indication) in the box that most closely describes the size and complexity of your proposed solution. Use your judgment and then write a short paragraph to introduce and explain the assessments in your table (the choice must be justified). Refer to course content readings from Week 4 on Cost Estimation, especially the Assessment Phase. Note that your project cannot have multiple sizes and complexities; the table should only contain one X.

Assessment of Project Size and Complexity (Spring 2019)
Size/ComplexitySmallMediumLarge
Very Complex
Moderately Complex
Straightforward

8. Performance Measures – This section explains how GGFRT will know whether the project is achieving the benefits identified above in section 5. First, present the table with a brief paragraph discussing the solution, table that follows, and to properly evaluate benefits, they should be measurable/quantifiable. Review the benefits, and look at the requirements you identified, and come up with three (3) performance measures that will indicate the extent to which the projected benefits have been achieved. (For example, if you had identified a benefit that the project would result in more repeat customers, then a measurement for that would be the number of repeat customers with the goal that the number would increase.) Refer to course content readings on Performance Measurement. This may be a good area to do some web research. The measures should be presented in a table with an introductory sentence or two:

Benefit to Business (stated from section #5)Measure (quantifiable)
Example: do not use but leave it in the table when completing this section.Better visibility for GGFRT and its customers into the delivery status of packages.50% reduction in the number of packages returned for next-day delivery because of more efficient scheduling as customers can also reschedule packages when they see delivery status; or,Increase of 20% in the number on same-day deliveries due to better communication between GGFRT dispatchers, drivers, and customers.
1.
2.
3.

9. System Development – Describe how you will use the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process to approach this project (the project you presented in the ITSP2). Include only the following 5 stages: Plan, Design, Build, Test, Launch. The activities in each stage may differ depending if you are building your solution or using a cloud-based solution. If you are using a specific methodology (Agile, Spiral, Waterfall, etc. your discussion should be specific to that methodology. List the stage followed by a colon, then in two to three sentences each, explain how each stage would be handled by Lance’s IT team and who else in GGFRT should be involved in each stage. Refer to course content materials on SDLC in Week 8.

Formatting Your Assignment

· Avoid quotation where possible by paraphrasing ideas and findings from your sources into both your own words and writing style. Changing a few words but including most of the wording and structure from the original text of your sources is not acceptable. Verbatim text directly from sources is not acceptable, even if cited. The work of the ideas and the writing needs to be your own. If you do use verbatim text, you must use quotation marks even if you have cited the source.

· Formatting: 1” margins, 12-point Times New Roman font.

· In the IT Decision Paper assignment, you are preparing the document based on the feedback from all previous assignments and scoring rubrics.

· Continue to use a title page from the ITSP #1 assignment that includes: The company name, title of assignment, your name, Course and Section number and date.

· Use the outline format in the assignment instructions above, for these sections:

1. Project Description

2. Strategic Alignment

3. IT Portfolio Roadmap Alignment

4. IT Architecture

5. Benefits

6. Requirements

7. Cost Estimation

8. Performance Measures

9. System Development

· Write a short, concise paper: Use the recommendations provided in each area for length of response. It’s important to value quality over quantity.

· Content areas should be double spaced; table entries should be single spaced.

· To copy a table : Move your cursor to the table, then click on the small box that appears at the upper left corner of the table to highlight the table; right click and COPY the table; put the cursor in your paper where you want the table and right click and PASTE the table.

· Ensure that each of the tables is preceded by an introductory sentence that explains what is contained in the table, so the reader understands why the table has been included.

1. Use at least two resources that are APA formatted (both in in-text citations and references). Any course content should be from the class reading content, not the assignment instructions or case study itself. For information on APA format, refer to Content>Course Resources>Writing Resources.

· Begin a Reference Page for resources required for this assignment. Use APA format for your reference page.

· Running headers are not required for this report; however, please include page numbers.

· Writing should always be in third person.

· Compare your work to the Grading Rubric below to be sure you have met content and quality criteria.

· Submit your paper as a Word document, or a document that can be read in Word. Keep tables in Word format – do not paste in graphics.

· Your submission should include your last name first in the filename: Lastname_Firstname_IT Decision

The “right” and “wrong” answers have to do with if you correctly incorporated the course concepts from the course content and addressed all parts of the assignment. You need to do some external research on at least one aspect of the assignment – your choice – and incorporate it and cite/reference it in APA format in your response. The project you proposed in the ITSP#2 is not as important as that it makes sense considering the course content and the Case Study. Use the Rubric below to be sure you have covered all aspects of the assignment.

GRADING RUBRIC:

Criterion90-100%Far Above Standards80-89%Above Standards70-79%Meets Standards60-69%Below Standards< 60%Well Below StandardsPossible Points
Project Description5 PointsDescription of the project is clear and concise, covers functions and users, and sets the stage for the remainder of the paper; demonstrates understanding of course concepts, analysis, and critical thinking.4 PointsDescription of the project is clear and concise, covers functions and users, and sets the stage for the remainder of the paper.3.5 PointsDescription of the IT Project includes what it does (functions it performs) and who uses it.3 PointsDescription of the project is unclear, not concise, and/or does not set the stage for the remainder of the paper.0-2 PointsLittle or no description of the proposed IT project is included.5
Strategic Alignment9-10 PointsExplanation of proposed project includes clear and well-supported alignment to at least one (1) business objective in the ITSP #1 and one (1) IT strategy in the ITSP #2, explanation is very appropriate to the Case Study and clearly tied to the proposed IT project.8 PointsExplanation of proposed project includes clear alignment to at least one (1) business objective in the ITSP1 and one (1) IT strategy in the ITSP #2; explanation is appropriate to the Case Study and tied to the proposed IT project.7 PointsExplanation of proposed project includes direct alignment to at least one (1) business strategic objective in the ITSP #1, and one IT strategy in the ITSP #2.6 PointsExplanation of business objectives and/or IT strategies are incomplete and/or are only partially appropriate to the Case Study or the proposed IT project.0-5 PointsExplanation of Strategic Alignment is minimal or not included.10
IT Portfolio Roadmap Alignment9-10 PointsThis section thoroughly explains the relationship of the proposed IT project to the IT Portfolio Roadmap in the ITSP #2 and/or updated if required, including a full explanation of the functional area supported, and where this project fits in the timeline.8 PointsThis section clearly explains the relationship of the proposed IT project to the IT Portfolio Roadmap in the ITSP #2 and/or updated if required, including a good explanation of the functional area supported, and where this project fits in the timeline.7 PointsThis section has an explanation of the relationship of the proposed IT project to the IT Portfolio Roadmap in Part 2 of the ITSP, including:where the proposed project fits into the IT Portfolio roadmap; identification of the functional area it supports; and where it should be included in the timeline in the ITSP.6 PointsThis section includes only part of the required information on the relationship of the proposed IT project to the IT Portfolio Roadmap in Part 2 of the ITSP (where it fits, the functional area supported, and the timeline); and/or is not relevant to Case Study.0-5 PointsThis section minimally covers the relationship of the proposed IT project to the IT Portfolio Roadmap in Part 2 of the ITSP or does not cover it at all.10
IT Architecture9-10 PointsA correct and convincing explanation of the IT Architecture includes how the project fits with, interfaces with and/or replaces other systems, including data to be shared with full explanation; explanation is clearly relevant to the Case Study and the proposed project; demonstrates thorough understanding of course concepts, analysis and critical thinking.8 PointsAn accurate explanation of the IT Architecture includes how the project fits with, interfaces with and/or replaces other systems, including data to be shared with explanation; explanation is relevant to the Case Study and the proposed project; demonstrates understanding of course concepts, analysis, and critical thinking.7 PointsExplanation of the IT Architecture includes: how the proposed IT project fits in with other systems in place or in development at the business in the Case Study; whether it should interface with other systems either in place or in development; and whether it replaces another system or multiple systems in use at the business in the Case Study, includes data to be shared.6 PointsIT Architecture explanation partially covers how the project fits with, interfaces with, and/or replaces other systems; information on data to be shared is missing, is not relevant to the Case Study or the proposed project.0-5 PointsIT Architecture explanation is minimal or not included.10
Benefits9-10 PointsThree (3) or more business benefits are thoroughly and convincingly explained and are clearly stated and aligned to the business objectives and IT strategies noted above in section 2; benefits are highly applicable to and appropriate for the proposed solution and the Case Study.8 PointsThree (3) or more business benefits are fully explained and are stated and aligned to the business objectives and IT strategies noted above in section 2; benefits are clearly applicable to and appropriate for the proposed solution and the Case Study.7 PointsAt least two (2) business benefits that the proposed IT project provides to the organization in the Case Study are stated and described at a high level. The benefits correspond to the business objectives and the IT strategies discussed in section 2 above.6 PointsFewer than two (2) business benefits are shown; benefits are not aligned to business objectives and IT strategies above and are not applicable to or appropriate for the proposed solution and/or the Case Study.0-5 PointsBusiness benefits are minimally addressed or not included.10
Requirements9-10 PointsThis section includes an effective and well-written introduction that is applicable to the Case Study and thoroughly and convincingly explains the primary business driver for the proposed IT project. At least ten (10) unique requirements are identified and discussed, clearly applicable to the Case Study; requirements are in full sentences in proper requirement statement format and properly classified; requirements cover items a-c in the assignment; demonstrates thorough understanding of course concepts, analysis and critical thinking.8 PointsThis section includes a well-written introduction that is applicable to the Case Study and fully explains the primary business driver for the proposed IT project. At least nine (9) unique requirements are identified and discussed, clearly applicable to the Case Study; requirements are in full sentences in proper requirement statement format and properly classified; requirements cover items a-c in the assignment; demonstrates understanding of course concepts, analysis and critical thinking.7 PointsThis section includes an introduction that explains the primary driver behind the system (major business need). Then, at least eight (8) requirements are listed and briefly explained, requirements may not be in full sentences in proper requirement statement format and/or properly classified, are applicable to the Case Study and include: (a) business/user requirements, (b) IT/system requirements; and (c) at least one system performance requirement.6 PointsThis section does not include an introduction identifying the primary driver for the system; eight (8) or fewer requirements are identified, requirements; requirements may not be in full sentences in proper requirement statement format and/or properly classified; are not applicable to the Case Study, and/or items a-c in the assignment are not covered.0-5 PointsThis section minimally addresses requirements, or requirements are not included.10
Cost Estimation9-10 PointsThis section includes an effective and well-written introductory paragraph that is applicable to the Case Study and thoroughly and convincingly justifies the assessments in the table that follows. Cost estimation table is included, with appropriate selection for size and complexity.8 PointsThis section includes an appropriate introductory paragraph that is applicable to the Case Study and provides a good explanation of the assessments in the table that follows. Cost estimation table is included, with appropriate selection for size and complexity.7 PointsThis section includes an introductory paragraph that explains the assessments and applies to the Case Study. Cost estimation table is included; selections are made for size and complexity.6 PointsThis section does not include an introductory paragraph and/or cost estimation table is included, but selection for size and complexity are not appropriate or adequately justified.0-5 PointsThis section provides little or no information on the cost estimation, cost estimation table is missing, and/or information presented does not apply to the Case Study.10
Performance Measures9-10 PointsThis section includes an effective and well-written introductory paragraph that is applicable to the Case Study, the proposed solution, and the table that follows. The completed table contains all required information, accurately reflecting the Case Study and the proposed solution; the performance measures are quantifiable, demonstrates thorough understanding of course concepts, analysis, and critical thinking.8 PointsThis section includes an appropriate introductory paragraph that is applicable to the Case Study, the proposed solution, and the table that follows. The completed table contains all required information, accurately reflecting the Case Study and the proposed solution; the performance measures are quantifiable, demonstrates understanding of course concepts, analysis, and critical thinking.7 PointsThis section includes at least one or two sentences that introduce the table. Performance Measures Table is included showing three (3) benefits and three (3) measures that are appropriate to the proposed solution and the Case Study.6 PointsThis section includes fewer than three (3) benefits and associated performance measures, measures do not align to benefits, benefits and measures are not appropriate to the Case Study and the proposed solution, and/or introduction is missing.0-5 PointsThis section provides little or no information on Performance Measures; table is missing; and/or information presented does not apply to the Case Study.10
System Development9-10 PointsThe five (5) stages of the SDLC are thoroughly covered; explanation is tied directly to the project and to the case study; includes IT team responsibilities and appropriate involvement of others at the business in the Case Study; demonstrates thorough understanding of course concepts and vocabulary.8 PointsThe five (5) stages of the SDLC are fully covered; explanation includes discussion of the project and the case study; includes IT team responsibilities and appropriate involvement of others at the business in the Case Study; demonstrates understanding of course concepts and vocabulary.7 PointsThe five (5) stages of the SDLC are covered:Plan, Design, Build, Test, Launch. Two to three sentences are used to explain how each stage would be handled by the team and identify others who need to be involved at the business in the Case Study.6 PointsThe five (5) stages of the SDLC are not all covered; explanations are not appropriate to the project and the Case Study; and/or do not include IT team responsibilities and/or appropriate involvement of others at the business in the Case Study.0-5 PointsThe stages of the SDLC are minimally addressed or are not included.10
External Research5 PointsTwo (2) or more sources other than the course materials are incorporated in two or more sections of the paper and are used effectively. Sources used are relevant and timely and contribute to the analysis. References are appropriately incorporated and cited using APA style.4 PointsAt least one (1) source other than the course materials is incorporated and used effectively. Source(s) are relevant and contribute to the analysis. References are appropriately incorporated and cited using APA style.3.5 PointsAt least one (1) source other than the course materials is used and properly incorporated into the text. Reference is cited using APA style.3 pointsA source other than the course materials may be used but is not properly incorporated or used and/or is not effective or appropriate and/or is not relevant or timely and/or does not follow APA style for references and citations.0-2 PointsNo external research is incorporated, or reference listed is not cited within text.5
Report Format9-10 PointsReport is very well organized and is easy to read. Very few or no errors in sentence structure, grammar, and spelling; presented in a professional format.8 PointsReport reflects effective organization; has few errors in sentence structure, grammar, and spelling; presented in a professional format.7 PointsReport has some organization; may have some errors in sentence structure, grammar, and spelling.6 PointsReport is not well organized, and/or contains several grammar and/or spelling errors.0-5 PointsReport is extremely poorly written, has many grammar and/or spelling errors, or does not convey the information.10
TOTALPossible Points100

2

Winter, 2021

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

Case Study: GG Freightways (GGFRT) GGFRT is a regional transportation and distribution company in operation for over 30 years. The company serves major cities in the southwestern region of the United States. Their headquarters (1), terminals/warehouses (8) and maintenance facilities (2) are noted below. Corporate Profile Corporate Name: GG Freightways Founded: August 1989 Headquarters: Los Angeles CA Terminals/Warehouses (8): Los Angeles CA, San Diego CA, San Bernardino CA, Bakersfield CA, Scottsdale AZ, Phoenix AZ, Tucson AZ, and Las Vegas NV Maintenance Facilities (2): San Bernardino CA, Scottsdale AZ Number of Employees: 750 (includes truck drivers) Fleet: 400 delivery vehicles (average of 50 per terminal) which include: 80 tractor/semi-trailer units, 160 box trucks and 160 panel vans Total Annual Gross Revenue: $35 million Current economic climate: stable industry, highly competitive business environment, 6% profit Future financial goals: 8% profit with 8% reduction in operating costs President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO): Marissa Schmidt To familiarize yourself with commonly used shipping terms in the freight industry, visit this site and refer to it as you read the case study and assignments: https://shipnorthamerica.com/resources/shipping-wiki/shipping-terms/ Current Business Operations GGFRT operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Sales personnel (40 people, five per terminal) visit prospective customers to outline company capability, services provided and costs. When a customer decides to use GGFRT they call the dispatch office with shipment information. Usually they FAX a copy of the bill(s) of lading to a terminal with information such as origin, destination, product description, weight and number of packages. A dispatcher at a terminal makes a list of freight pickups and sends a truck to get the freight. To do this they use the Route Optimization/Freight Tracking System to determine the sequence of pickups by zip code. They use local maps within a zip code to map out the specific order of pickups since there may be several in a zip code area. They have a performance goal of 98% of freight picked up within 24 hours of availability. A driver follows the dispatch order for pickups. Many of the drivers complain that the pickup order is not efficient. When they pick up an order they sign for receipt and either load the freight or guide the customer’s forklift operators to arrange it properly in the truck.https://shipnorthamerica.com/resources/shipping-wiki/shipping-terms/

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

After freight is picked up it is brought to the terminal where it is unloaded and sorted by destination. A dispatcher then prepares a delivery ticket (again using the Route Optimization/Freight Tracking System) that is used to load a truck in the proper sequence for delivery. Some trucks take freight from one terminal to another while others make local deliveries. Since some terminals are close to 12 hours away from each other, there are many “out and back” routes where drivers meet halfway between terminals to exchange freight trailers, which benefits drivers so they don’t exceed their permitted daily maximum driving hours of 11 per day. About half of a terminal’s space is used on any given night. Dispatchers have a goal to turn freight around in the terminal overnight for next day delivery. When freight is sent out for delivery, the driver follows the delivery ticket order. Often, they are held up at a delivery destination by traffic or by lack of available unloading space. This can cause the driver to be late trying to make the day’s deliveries. Sometimes they get to a destination and the facility is closed and they bring the freight back to the terminal for delivery the next day. It is unloaded and re-sorted by destination. The dispatchers then add it to the next day’s delivery tickets. The major freight volumes are between Phoenix, San Diego and Los Angeles (about 70% of total volume). Trucks run at about 70% average of capacity between terminals. Local delivery volume is heaviest in Los Angeles, followed by Phoenix and then San Diego. Local delivery trucks operate at about 80% full while pickups fill about half of the vehicles space. Some customers pick up and/or drop freight at a terminal/warehouse, with their own equipment. Truck drivers communicate with the dispatchers using two-way commercial radios. Some also carry personal cell phones and use them if the radio is out of range. A few drivers also carry GPS devices to help locate addresses. In general, the drivers are content with the company. Pay and benefits are good, and they get overtime pay when deliveries run late. Complaints are few and mostly center around either the sequence of pickup and delivery of shipments or vehicle maintenance. The fleet is maintained at the main Scottsdale maintenance shop and at a smaller shop in San Bernardino. Either one can handle minor maintenance and preventative work. Only Scottsdale can perform major engine and transmission work. Overall the fleet is in good operating condition. All vehicles are on a preventative maintenance schedule which places them out of service two days a month, usually on weekends. Maintenance scheduling is a challenge because it can interfere with the steady flow of shipments both between terminals and for local delivery. There are no “extra” vehicles in the fleet. Administration The company management team consists of the President (CEO), Vice President of Operations (COO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), Sales Manager, and a Fleet Maintenance Manager who oversees maintenance and safety. They meet weekly to discuss opportunities and issues and to plan for future goals. Except for the CIO, the management team has been in place for many years.

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

The president of the company just hired its first Chief Information Officer (CIO), Lance, after the previous IT Director retired. He comes from a nearby manufacturer who is also a major customer. At that company he was Deputy CIO and primarily responsible for network operations and security. Business Strategic Objectives At a recent meeting the management team decided to change the strategic plan for the business to meet growth and cost goals. They highlighted three new strategies they want to employ to increase profitability and grow the business.

1. First, they want to track the whereabouts of freight both in the terminals and on the trucks to provide customers with accurate delivery dates and times;

2. Second, they want to improve the percent of loaded miles in their fleet to reduce costs by coordinating the pickup and delivery of freight at the same time in the same geographic area; and,

3. Third, they desire to provide warehousing services for customers who want to reduce delivery time to their customers or company by having product available locally for pickup in warehouses or quicker local delivery.

Federal/State Mandates In addition, the management team wants to ensure that the company remains in compliance with all applicable federal and state regulations. The ones they are most concerned about are:

1. The Sarbanes Oxley financial audit and reporting requirements;

2. A new federal requirement to conduct a vehicle safety check every 10,000 miles; and,

3. A Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) reporting requirement on the number hours per day for each driver (or max per week, etc.).

CFO/CIO Goals The CFO has been charged with the overall project. He has asked Lance to help with this effort by modernizing information systems to support the new strategies. He has decided:

1. His first step is to update the IT strategic plan to link to the new strategies in the corporate plan.

2. Second, he wants to engage his customers in a proactive way to first, identify and prioritize IT projects that will help meet the new goals, and then develop a set of requirements for each project.

3. Third, he wants to decide on the best approach to modernize the information systems that will meet requirements at a reasonable cost, and for this he will need to make some changes to the IT organization.

Strategic Direction As a small player in a large transportation market serving large cities, GGFRT has many larger competitors. They need to improve their alignment of IT with their business strategic objectives as well as updating their operational processes and IT to become more efficient in serving their customers and acquiring new ones.

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

Current Technology GGFRT is using a mix of older technology products for finance and accounting, route optimization/ freight tracking and fleet maintenance. There are several projects already in the IT portfolio competing for resources. The CIO sees a major challenge in balancing available funding, IT staff workload and project prioritization. The project nearest completion is the adoption of the Precise Financial Reporting System to replace the aging finance and accounting system. It will be completed in six months. There are two other projects under way, one for management reporting (Management Reporting System) and one for a mobile application (Mobile Marketing App) that sales staff can use to show potential customers information on the fleet, distribution services available and freight rates, and warehouse options, including a comparison to the competition. The Route Optimization/Freight Tracking System is very important to the operations manager and dispatchers. The current system allows the input of freight origin and destination information. This is taken from a bill of lading which contains a plethora of specific information. When the dispatchers enter the origins and destinations into the system, they are grouped by zip code. The dispatchers then decide which zip codes will be loaded in a truck and in what sequence for delivery. This takes several hours at night to accomplish and must be done as quickly as possible so trucks can be loaded and sent out in the morning for delivery. Arranging shipment sequence within a zip code is done by locating each address on a map and entering it into the system in the best order. Pickups are handled in a similar manner. Freight tracking features are not yet integrated; this should be developed in the future to meet one of the business objectives. The freight tracking features of this system has not yet been developed. The Fleet Maintenance System contains information on each vehicle in the fleet. It includes all vehicle specifications, a summary of all repairs, a preventive maintenance schedule and an inventory of parts on hand. This information is entered by accounting clerks, mechanics, purchasing clerks and anyone else who has time to do data entry. It is not as time consuming as the route optimization/freight tracking system, but it contains information critical to fleet reliability. The greatest challenge is scheduling preventative maintenance since it requires vehicles to be down for two days. The dispatchers do not want the equipment taken out of service because it causes planning headaches. The relationship between dispatchers and maintenance personnel is strained. IT Organization When Lance was hired as CIO last month, he took a close look at the current staffing. The IT staff consists of 25 people, seven of whom are programmers. The programmers are charged with all systems development and integration work for the company. They have three projects in their current portfolio. Their skill sets include SQL, .Net and C+ programming, and Web design. There are eight helpdesk personnel who support the eight distribution terminals (one at each terminal). They work independently but report directly to the CIO. The remaining staff includes

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

two network engineers, a financial systems specialist (an expert in the features of the Precise Financial Reporting System), a computer security expert, two shift supervisors (who supervise the programmers, network engineers, financial systems specialist and computer security expert at headquarters), a web designer (though there is no website currently in use, this person reports to the shift supervisors), and the CIO and his two personal assistants. The IT staff supports multiple locations. At the Los Angeles headquarters/terminal/warehouse there are 15 servers (they contain all software and data; one stores a backup copy of the data) and 30 PCs for accounting, marketing, IT, administration and management. The terminal/warehouse operations offices have eight PCs for dispatchers, one for each of the maintenance offices, one for parts and one for drivers in the driver lounge. The other seven terminals have 10 PCs each and connect to headquarters by a virtual private network (VPN). IT Portfolio Precise Financial Reporting System- This new system will replace the current Finance and Accounting System. It is an off-the-shelf product that requires the owner to make modifications to interface with other systems they may own. Two programmers are working on the project. One is setting up the database and loading the software on servers. The other is learning about the system to write an interface with the Route Optimization/Freight Tracking System. A representative of the vendor of Precise Financial will train the accounting staff in its use. This will take about two weeks. It can be assumed that this new system will cover any Sarbanes- Oxley (SOX) mandate requirements. Management Reporting System- Senior management wanted to know financial information daily. Two programmers have been working on a system to compile the data in a format they can use. They plan to extract information from Precise Financials when it is ready but for now have focused on the current system. They will be done in two months. Mobile Marketing App- The marketing manager asked for an app that sales staff could use to show potential customers information. This would include things like fleet photos and specifications; pictures of the eight terminals and information about the distribution/warehouse services GGFRT can provide; and a comparison of their costs using sample shipments with rates from competitors compared to GGFRT costs. A programmer and the web designer are working on the project. It will take two more months to complete. The purpose of this app is not for tracking of freight and/or driver hours/vehicle mileage. The current design/development process is best described by the way it worked in the selection and integration of Precise Financials. The CFO asked the (former) CIO to develop a new finance and accounting system. The CIO interviewed large, respected companies and, after comparing their capability to the current system, chose Precise Financial Reporting. Two programmers were assigned, and a Precise Financial Reporting System specialist was hired to work between IT and the finance office. The CIO receives progress reports every two weeks.

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

Situation When Lance was hired, he toured each terminal to see the IT setup and understand local business operations. It was important to him to know just how each person used the systems. He spent time with bookkeepers and accountants, dispatchers, drivers and terminal management. Since he came from one of GGFRT’s customers he knew that customers could offer insight into business improvements that would be good for both companies. He visited one large customer in each of the terminal’s area of service to get feedback on how operations between them and GGFRT could be improved. His goal was to see how he could translate what he learned into systems improvements. Interestingly the most complaints came from bookkeepers and accountants. They said the system was slow and data entry was tedious because accuracy was very important. If they entered wrong information, it could cause incorrect billing (rates are based on weight and size), improper loading (the wrong zip code could mean sending freight in the wrong direction unless a dispatcher caught the error), and more. They estimated current accuracy at about 95% but they had no way of knowing for sure. Further, they complained about financial reporting and their ability to meet compliance requirements. Reporting was mostly a manual process and data they needed from the system was not easily accessed. Most of them had resorted to keeping small ledgers at their desks to track information they knew they would need for reporting. The dispatchers explained that routing wasn’t all that hard, just time consuming. The routing system grouped all the shipments by zip code. They would take all the shipments in a zip code and look at the weight and size (how much cubic space each one needed in a truck), plot them on a map and then put them in delivery sequence. They thought most trucks left the loading dock full and that that the drivers made adjustments in their delivery sequence when needed. Pickups were a bit more challenging. Sometimes they sent a truck out just to pick up freight and bring it back to the terminal. Other times they contacted a driver to ask them to stop at a customer to pick up a shipment while they were making deliveries. Since they didn’t know exactly how much space was available on the truck this was a hit or miss situation. Drivers were left to decide if they could make it work. Drivers were the most outspoken, probably because no one ever asked for their opinion. They were also the happiest of employees (this might explain why they were non-union). They liked being able to make decisions on the go and they knew the customers very well. In fact, they could call some of them if they were running late and the customer would stay open so they could deliver or pick up a shipment. They seemed to have favorite customers and often spent extra time with them talking about common interests. Generally, they were good ambassadors for the company. Terminal managers were under constant pressure. Their main goal was to get shipments into and out of the terminal as quickly as possible. Delivery times were measured and part of their performance plan. They knew the company had established three new strategies because they were explained in an email they just got. Lance asked how they might provide warehousing

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

services. Most felt they had extra space and could take on some storage but keeping track of the shipments might be a problem. They had to do this manually and the bookkeepers were the ones to keep the records. They felt more bookkeepers would be needed but they didn’t know how many. Lance also met with the maintenance and safety staff at the San Bernardino terminal. The maintenance folks had a large workload and complained that they had a hard time getting equipment in the shop for preventative work. They did not know when equipment would be available until the last minute, so scheduling was always a scramble because they needed to make sure mechanics were available to do the work. They had a lot of complaints about shifting work hours and the effect it had on their personal lives. The Safety Manager expressed concerns over driver hours of service. There are federal regulations that limit drivers to 11 hours of driving at a time. Then they need to take an eight- hour break. The problem was tracking the driver’s hours to make sure they stayed within the law. Dispatchers tried to help with this when they scheduled pickups and deliveries but there was no easy way to do it and the results were often based on best guess. The safety manager who was ultimately responsible for compliance had drivers turn in their hours each day, but this was always after the fact. Lance’s customer visits were eye-opening. Most of the customers had automated inventory systems and could easily track products from raw material to finished goods. They knew exactly what they would ship and when, usually several days ahead of time. Some customers however needed near instantaneous shipping. They wanted same-day pickup in a lot of cases and fast delivery. In most cases, they were all able to produce electronic documents such as the bill of lading and email or FAX it to GGFRT. During his interview for the CIO position, Lance was told that the previous IT Director had left a good foundation and that the staff seemed sufficient in number and appeared to be very capable. However, since GGFRT is developing its strategies for the future, the staff must be able to support the business strategies as well as the IT strategies that Lance would develop. One of the first things Lance did was to interview each member of his staff. He discovered that the roles and responsibilities tended to overlap and that morale among his staff was very low. Lance also interviewed the senior leadership of GGFRT and learned that his staff was not meeting their expectations for service. The help desk was perceived as being only somewhat competent and took much too long to respond to problems. Application developers were very slow in delivering systems, and when the systems were finally delivered, they did not reflect what the customers needed or wanted. Network outages occurred too often from the users’ perspective. Finally, the Chief Financial Officer told Lance that the IT costs need to be reduced. Lance knew he had many challenges. He was determined to identify essential projects and then prioritize them for management review. The outcomes would affect almost every aspect of the business. His IT portfolio was about to grow, and her organization will need to change to meet the challenges.

Winter, 2021 IFSM301

Your Task From the perspective of the CIO for GGFRT, you will be completing many tasks over this semester.

• In the ITSP #1 assignment, your main goals will be to develop a new business strategic objective that you feel is one that GGFRT needs to accomplish. You will write IT Mission and Vision statements and develop an IT Governance Board, select an IT Governance Methodology, choose your team and discuss their roles on the board. You will also choose a prioritization tool to rank projects and discuss criteria that is important while prioritizing those projects along with a few other tasks.

• In the ITSP #2 assignment, your main goals will be to choose IT strategies, aligning them with business strategic objectives from the ITSP #1 assignment. You will complete an IT roadmap of the current project schedule and add a new project that you will deem important to GGFRT’s operations. You will discuss risk of implementing projects from the CIO perspective and create steps of a Business Continuity Plan along with a few other tasks.

• For the CIO Memo assignment, you will discuss your leadership philosophy and management style, address IT strategies and discuss how each will benefit the business, create an organizational chart based on the information presented above for the 24 employees in the IT Department, explain how a CIO Organization differs from an IT Department, note Key Services (functions, positions) that will be included/eliminate in your new CIO Organization, create a new CIO organizational chart, and discuss key milestones (related to the Key Services’ section) for accomplishing your new CIO organizational structure along with a few other tasks.

• In the IT Decision Paper assignment, your project will be presented (from the ITSP #2 assignment), the strategic alignment of your project to one of the business objectives (from the ITSP #1 assignment) and IT strategies (from the ITSP #2 assignment) will be discussed, discussion of where your proposed project would fit into the IT roadmap (from the ITSP #2 assignment) will be discussed, how your project will share data, integrate, or replace an existing or proposed system will be discussed, benefits the project will provide to GGFRT, requirements of the project, anticipated cost/size of the project, performance measures of your project and the system development life cycle steps of your project along with a few other tasks.

GGFRT is a fictitious company created for the IFSM 301 Case Study.

01/14/2021 for University of Maryland Global Campus

Value Attainment

“Companies invest in IT to achieve a business result. Although many organizations implicitly include this activity as part of project implementation, I call it out separately here because it is a different activity. In fact, many IT organizations do not even attempt to ascertain whether the desired business result has been achieved. In these organizations, determining whether or not a system initiative achieves the expected results is either relegated to the business, or it is not done at all. Failing to assert the value of past IT investments almost certainly dooms a company to fail to achieve these results. Just as purchasing a system is insufficient to implementing it, completing a project does not guarantee that the business value expected is achieved. Only if a company monitors the value from its IT investments will it know if that value has been attained. More important, monitoring will help a firm determine what adjustments are necessary to achieve the expected value from an investment. Failing to monitor value attainment also sets the stage for companies to improperly set the investment level for IT. If the perception is that IT investments have not yielded results, the company will underinvest in IT in the future. If the perception is that IT investments have achieved results when in fact they have not, the firm will continue wasteful spending. Neither is desirable for a CIO. One of the best examples in my career of why value attainment is so important was an international travel and expense solution I implemented at a major Fortune 500 company. The desired business result of this solution was the reduction in overhead from processing paper expense reports. The solution was implemented exactly to the business requirements on time and on budget. At the end of the project, the project team and the business were ready to pat themselves on the back and move on. However, I required that the team assess whether the value proposition for the project had been achieved. They were shocked to learn that not only had no operational savings from the project been realized, but the additional overhead from using the new system had actually created additional cost! While the finance organization was spending less time processing paperwork, there had been no staffing reductions as a result of the system. Moreover, the employees using the system spent twice as much time filling out the online forms as they did the paper forms. What had seemed like success was in fact a total failure, which had resulted from an overemphasis on the requirements to the exclusion of the business results for which the project had been funded. However, by assessing whether the business results had been attained before ending the project, we were able to make adjustments to the system to reduce the overhead on employees and provide better reporting to the finance organization that enabled it to achieve its staffing targets. In short, by monitoring value attainment, we ensured that the value from the project was attained. A successful process for value attainment is a subject worthy of its own book. However, in its most basic form, it requires three things:

1. An intimate understanding of the business

2. Proper oversight of projects

3. A commitment by both IT and the business to manage to results, not just requirements

As such, it is a crucial element in aligning the IT organization with the business. The IT organization that leads the value attainment process will find itself asking the question: ‘‘What can be accomplished with an additional 10 percent?’’ rather than ‘How can you cut an additional 10 percent?’’’

Campos, T. (2011). Strategic alignment. In D. Lane (Ed.), The Chief Information Officer’s Body of Knowledge: People, Process, and Technology (pp. 81-82). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cost Estimation

“In the assessment phase, estimators analyze the project to be estimated. Time pressure typically constrains their ability to understand the scope of the task, so a focus on ramping up the estimators’ knowledge of the business problem is essential. The general approach is to model the solution, identify the components, and then estimate their size and complexity. Finally, tasks that are not strictly mapped to components are added. The essential point is that effort is not estimated at this point—just size and complexity. Here we introduce the first bias reduction mechanism: The sizing should be performed independently by more than one person. If the enterprise has never developed a system like this before, cost estimation will be a problem. Looking at similar solutions implemented by competitors can help with understanding the complexity (e.g., there are many details in the shopping cart checkout process: change quantities, cancel item, shipping options, calculating shipping costs, etc.).”

Murthy, S. (2011). Project cost estimation. In D. Lane (Ed.), The Chief Information Officer’s Body of Knowledge: People, Process, and Technology (p. 175). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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