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please write a 3 pages essay, you should include the answer to the question, make an argument (with a thesis statement), and then support the thesis with specific evidence. Essays should be based on comparative analysis, rather than descriptions of particular cultures.

Exam 1: Native Relations

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1. Compare the ways in which the Spanish, French, and British exchanged and

interacted with, integrated, and/or acculturated indigenous societies (1450-1700),

such as the Iroquoians, Mexica, or Algonquians. Which colony most successfully

created a middle ground? Why?

Document Collection:

Source One: Preface from Bartoleme de las Casas’ Short Account of the

Destruction of the Indies (1542).

Bartoleme de las Casas was a priest who initially benefited from the Spanish conquest of the Caribbean,

as he was given an encomienda. In 1515 he renounced his titles and became a strong opponent of the

conquest and enslavement of the Americas.

The Americas were discovered in 1492, and the first Christian settlements established by the Spanish the

following year. It is accordingly forty-nine years now since Spaniards began arriving in numbers in this

part of the world. They first settled the large and fertile island of Hispaniola, which boasts six hundred

leagues of coastline and is surrounded by a great many other large islands, all of them, as I saw for

myself, with as high a native population as anywhere on earth. Of the coast of the mainland, which, at

its nearest point, is a little over two hundred and fifty leagues from Hispaniola, more than ten thousand

leagues had been explored by 1541, and more are being discovered every day. This coastline, too, was

swarming with people and it would seem, if we are to judge by those areas so far explored, that the

Almighty selected this part of the world as home to the greater part of the human race.

God made all the peoples of this area, many and varied as they are, as open and as innocent as can be

imagined. The simplest people in the world – unassuming, long-suffering, unassertive, and submissive –

they are without malice or guile, and are utterly faithful and obedient both to their own native lords and

to the Spaniards in whose service they now find themselves. Never quarrelsome or belligerent or

boisterous, they harbour no grudges and do not seek to settle old scores; indeed, the notions of

revenge, rancour, and hatred are quite foreign to them. At the same time, they are among the least

robust of human beings: their delicate constitutions make them unable to withstand hard work or

suffering and render them liable to succumb to almost any illness, no matter how mild. Even the

common people are no tougher than princes or than other Europeans born with a silver spoon in their

mouths and who spend their lives shielded from the rigours of the outside world. They are also among

the poorest people on the face of the earth; they own next to nothing and have no urge to acquire

material possessions. As a result they are neither ambitious nor greedy, and are totally uninterested in

worldly power. Their diet is every bit as poor and as monotonous, in quantity and in kind, as that

enjoyed by the Desert Fathers. Most of them go naked, save for a loincloth to cover their modesty; at

best they may wrap themselves in a piece of cotton material a yard or two square. Most sleep on

matting, although a few possess a kind of hanging net, known in the language of Hispaniola as a

hammock. They are innocent and pure in mind and have a lively intelligence, all of which makes them

particularly receptive to learning and understanding the truths of our Catholic faith and to being

instructed in virtue; indeed, God has invested them with fewer impediments in this regard than any

other people on earth. Once they begin to learn of the Christian faith they become so keen to know

more, to receive the Sacraments, and to worship God, that the missionaries who instruct them do truly

have to be men of exceptional patience and forbearance; and over the years I have time and again met

Spanish laymen who have been so struck by the natural goodness that shines through these people that

they frequently can be heard to exclaim: ‘These would be the most blessed people on earth if only they

were given the chance to convert to Christianity.’

It was upon these gentle lambs, imbued by the Creator with all the qualities we have mentioned,

that from the very first day they clapped eyes on them the Spanish fell like ravening wolves upon

the fold, or like tigers and savage lions who have not eaten meat for days. The pattern established at the

outset has remained unchanged to this day, and the Spaniards still do nothing save tear the natives to

shreds, murder them and inflict upon them untold misery, suffering and distress, tormenting, harrying

and persecuting them mercilessly. We shall in due course describe some of the many ingenious methods

of torture they have invented and refined for this purpose, but one can get some idea of the

effectiveness of their methods from the figures alone. When the Spanish first journeyed there, the

indigenous population of the island of Hispaniola stood at some three million; today only two hundred

survive. The island of Cuba, which extends for a distance almost as great as that separating Valladolid

from Rome, is now to all intents and purposes uninhabited;” and two other large, beautiful and fertile

islands, Puerto Rico and Jamaica, have been similarly devastated. Not a living soul remains today on any

of the islands of the Bahamas, which lie to the north of Hispaniola and Cuba, even though every single

one of the sixty or so islands in the group, as well as those known as the Isles of Giants and others in the

area, both large and small, is more fertile and more beautiful than the Royal Gardens in Seville and the

climate is as healthy as anywhere on earth. The native population, which once numbered some five

hundred thousand, was wiped out by forcible expatriation to the island of Hispaniola, a policy adopted

by the Spaniards in an endeavour to make up losses among the indigenous population of that island.

One God-fearing individual was moved to mount an expedition to seek out those who had escaped the

Spanish trawl and were still living in the Bahamas and to save their souls by converting them to

Christianity, but, by the end of a search lasting three whole years, they had found only the eleven

survivors I saw with my own eyes. A further thirty or so islands in the region of Puerto Rico are also now

uninhabited and left to go to rack and ruin as a direct result of the same practices. All these islands,

which together must run to over two thousand leagues, are now abandoned and desolate.

Bartolome de las Casas

A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies [1542]

Found at Clinch Valley College



Compiled by the Modern History Sourcebook edited by Paul Halsall.http://web.archive.org/web/19980116133031/http:/pluto.clinch.edu/history/wciv2/civ2ref/casas.htmhttp://web.archive.org/web/19980116133031/http:/pluto.clinch.edu/history/wciv2/civ2ref/casas.htm

Source Two: John Smith Meets Powhatan (1608)

When John Smith arrived in Virginia he implemented martial law, declaring that only those Virginians

that worked would eat. This was in response to the dire circumstances of Jamestown, as the Colony

came into conflict with Algonquin speaking Powhatans, who held the territory. The paramount chief

was called Powhatan by the English, Wahunsenacawh by his people, and he received tribute from some

thirty surrounding peoples. When Smith and Powhatan met, Powhatan assumed that Jamestown,

located within his realm, would pay tribute. Naturally, Smith believed that the English Crown would

reign supreme. Powhatan threatened to kill Smith, in what historians believe was in actuality a ritual of

Smith’s virtual rebirth in a subordinate position. Below is Smith’s recollection of their interaction.


Captaine Smith, you may understand that I having seene the death of all my people thrice, and not any

one living of these three generations but my selfe; I know the difference of Peace and Warre better then

any in my Country. But now I am old and ere long must die, my brethren, namely Opitchapam,

Opechancanough, and Kekataugh, my two sisters, and their two daughters, are distinctly each others

successors. I wish their experience no lesse then mine, and your love to them no lesse then mine to you.

But this bruit from Nandsamund, that you are come to destroy my Country, so much affrighteth all my

people as they dare not visit you. What will it availe you to take that by force you may quickly have by

love, or to destroy them that provide you food. What can you get by warre, when we can hide our

provisions and fly to the woods? whereby you must famish by wronging us your friends. And why are

you thus jealous of our loves seeing us unarmed, and both doe, and are willing still to feede you, with

that you cannot get but by our labours? Thinke you I am so simple, not to know it is better to eate good

meate, lye well, and sleepe quietly with my women and children, laugh and be merry with you, have

copper, hatchets, or what I want being your friend: then be forced to flie from all, to lie cold in the

woods, feede upon Acornes, rootes, and such trash, and be so hunted by you, that I can neither rest,

eate, nor sleepe; but my tyred men must watch, and if a twig but breake, every one cryeth there

commeth Captaine Smith: then must I fly I know not whether: and thus with miserable feare, end my

miserable life, leaving my pleasures to such youths as you, which through your rash unadvisednesse may

quickly as miserably end, for want of that, you never know where to finde. Let this therefore assure you

of our loves, and every yeare our friendly trade shall furnish you with Corne; and now also, if you would

come in friendly manner to see us, and not thus with your guns and swords as to invade your foes. To

this subtill discourse, the President thus replyed.

Capt. Smiths Reply.

Seeing you will not rightly conceive of our words, we strive to make you know our thoughts by our

deeds; the vow I made you of my love, both my selfe and my men have kept. As for your promise I find it

every day violated by some of your subjects: yet we finding your love and kindnesse, our custome is so

far from being ungratefull, that for your sake onely, we have curbed our thirsting desire of revenge; els

had they knowne as well the crueltie we use to our enemies, as our true love and courtesie to our

friends. And I thinke your judgement sufficient to conceive, as well by the adventures we have

undertaken, as by the advantage we have (by our Armes) of yours: that had we intended you any hurt,

long ere this we could have effected it. Your people comming to James Towne are entertained with their

Bowes and Arrowes without any exceptions; we esteeming it with you as it is with us, to weare our

armes as our apparell. As for the danger of our enemies, in such warres consist our chiefest pleasure: for

your riches we have no use: as for the hiding your provision, or by your flying to the woods, we shall not

so unadvisedly starve as you conclude, your friendly care in that behalfe is needlesse, for we have a rule

to finde beyond your knowledge.

Many other discourses they had, till at last they began to trade. But the King seeing his will would not be

admitted as a law, our guard dispersed, nor our men disarmed, he (sighing) breathed his minde once

more in this manner.

Source: John Smith, The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England & The Summer Isles (Glasgow,

Scotland: James MacLehose and Sons, 1907), Vol. 1: 158–59. Found at History Matters, edited by

American Social History Project/Center for Media & Learning, City University of New York, and the

Center for History and New Media, George Mason University,


Source Three: William Penn’s Observations made after visiting the Interior of

Pennsylvania, (1683).

William Penn, son of a British Admiral and Lord, became a member of the Society of Friends (Quakers).

The Society, due to religious differences with the British government, helped found Pennsylvania. Here

Penn records his thoughts on travels to the Interior of Pennsylvania, where he observed the Delaware/

Lenape, an Algonquin speaking people.

MY KIND FRIENDS: — The kindness of yours by the ship Thomas and Ann does much oblige me; for by it I

perceive the interest you take in my health and reputation, and in the prosperous beginning of this

province, which you are so kind as to think may much depend upon them. In return of which I have sent

you a long letter, and yet containing as brief an account of myself and the affairs of this province as I

have been able to make.

For the province, the general condition of it take as followeth:

11. The natives I shall consider in their person, language, manners, religion, and government, with my

sense of their original. For their persons, they are generally tall, straight, well built, and of singular

proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly walk with a lofty chin. Of complexion black, but by

design, as the gipsies in England. They grease themselves with bear’s fat clarified; and using no defence

against sun and wather, their skins must needs be swarthy. Their ey is little and black, not unlike a

straight-looked Jew. The thick lip and flat nose, so frequent with the East Indians and black, are nothttp://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5838/

common to them; for I have seen as comely European-like faces among them, of both sexes, as on your

side the sea; and truly an Italian complexion hath not much more of the white; and the noses of several

of them have as much of the Roman.

Of their customs and manners there is much to be said. I will begin with the children. So soon as they

are born they wash them in water, and while very young, and in cold weather to choose, they plunge

them in the rivers to harden and embolden them. Having wrapt them in a clout, they laid them on a

straight board a little more than the length and breadth of the child, and swaddle it fast upon the board

to make it straight; wherefore all Indians have flat heads; and thus they carry them at their backs. The

children will go very young, at nine months commonly. They wear only a small clout round their waist till

they are big. If boys, they go a-fishing till ripe for the woods, which is about fifteen. Then they hunt; and,

having given some proofs of their manhood by a good return of skins, they may marry; else it is a shame

to think of a wife. The girls stay with their mothers, and help to hoe the ground, plant corn, and carry

burthens; and they do well to use them to that, while young, which they must do when they are old; for

the wives are the true servants of the husbands: otherwise the men are very affectionate to them.

14. When the young women are fit for marriage, they wear something upon their heads for an

advertisement, but so as their faces are hardly to be seen but when they please. The age they marry at,

if women, is about thirteen or fourteen; if men, seventeen or eighteen. They are rarely older.

15. Their houses are mats or barks of trees, set on poles in the fashion of an English barn, but out of the

power of the winds, for they are hardly higher than a man. They lie on reeds or grass. In travel they

lodge in the woods about a great fire, with the mantle of duffils they war by day wrapt about them, and

a few boughs stuck round them.

16. Their diet is maize or Indian corn divers ways prepared, sometimes roasted in the ashes, sometimes

beaten and boiled with water, which they call homine. They also make cakes not unpleasant to eat. They

have likewise several sorts of beans and peas that are good nourishment and the woods and rivers are

their larder.

17. If any European comes to see them, or calls for lodgings at their home or wigwam, they give him the

best place and first cut. If they come to visit us, they salute us with an Itah, which is as much as to say,

‘Good be to you!’ and set them down, which is mostly on the ground, close to their heels, their legs

upright: it may be they speak not a word, but observe all passages. If you give them any thing to eat or

drink, wellfor they will not ask; and, be it little or much, if it be with kindness they will be pleased: else

they will go away sullen, but say nothing.

18. They are great concealers of their own resentments, brought to it, I believe, by the revenge that

hath been practiced among them. In either of these they are not exceeded by the Italians. A tragical

instance fell out since I came into the country. A king’s daughter, thinking herself slighted by her

husband in suffering another woman to lie down between them, rose up, went out, plucked a root out

of the ground, and ate it, upon which she immediately died; and for which, last week, he made an

offering to her kindred for atonement and liberty of marriage, as two others did to the kindred of their

wives who died a natural death: for till widowers have done so, they must not marry again. Some of the

young women are said to take undue liberty before marriage for a portion; but when married, chaste.

19. But in liberality they excel. Nothing is too good for their friend. Give them a fine gun, coat, or other

thing, it may pass twenty hands before it sticks: light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent: the

most merry creatures that live: they feast and dance perpetually: they never have much, nor want

much. Wealth circulateth like the blood. All parts partake; and though none shall want what another

hath, yet excct observers of property. Some kings have sold, others presented me with several parcels of

land. The pay or presents I made them were not hoarded by the particular owners; but the neighboring

kings and their clans being present when the goods were brought out, the parties chiefly concerned

consulted what, and to whom they should give them. To every king, then, by the hands of a person for

that work appointed, is a proprtion sent, so sorted and folded, and with that gravity which is admirable.

Then that king subdivided it in like manner among his dependants, they hardly leaving themselves an

equal share with one of their subjects; and be it on such occasions as festivals, or at their common

meals, the kings distribute, and to themselves last. They care for little, because they want but little: and

the reason is, a little contents them. In this they are sufficiently revenged on us. If they are ignorant of

our pleasures, they are free of our pains. They are not disquieted wilth bills of lading and exchange, nor

perplexed with chancery suits and exchequer reckonings. We sweat and toil to live. Their pleasure feeds

them; I mean their hunting, fishing, and fowling, and this table is spread everywhere. They eat twice a

day, morning and evening. Their seats and table are the ground. Since the Europeans came into these

parts, they are grown great lovers of strong liquors, rum especially; and for it exchange the richest of

their skins and furs. If they are heated with liquor, they are restless till they have enought to sleep. That

is their cry, ‘Some more, and I will go to sleep;’ but, when drunk, one of the most wretched spectacles in

the world.

The government is by kings, which they call sachama, and those by succession; but always on the

mother’s side. For instance, the children of him who is now king will not succeed, but his brother by the

mother, or the children of his sister, whose sons (and after them the children of her daughters) will

reign, for no woman inherits. The reason they render for this way of descent is, that their issue may not

be spurious.

23. Every king has his council; and that consists of all the old and wise men of his nation, which perhaps

is two hundred people. Nothing of moment is undertaken, be it war, peace, selling of land, or traffic,

without advising with them, and, which is more, with the young men too. It is admirable to consider

how powerful the kings are, and yet how they move by the breath of their people. I have had occasion

to be in council with them upon treaties for land, and to adjust the terms of trade. Their council, the old

and wise, on each hand. Behind them, or at a little distance, sit the younger fry in the same figure.

Having consulted and resolved their business, the king ordered one of them to speak to me. He stood

up, came to me, and in the name of the king saluted me, then took me by the hand, and told me that he

was ordered by his king to speak to me, and that now it was not he but the king who spoke, because

what he should say was the king’s mind. He first prayed me excuse them, that they had not complied

with me the last time. He feared there might be some fault in the interpreter, being neither Indian nor

English. Besides it was the Indian custom to deliberate and take up much time in council before they

resolved; and that, if the young people and owners of the land had been as ready as he, I had not met

with so much delay. Haqving thus introduced his matter, he fell to the bounds of the land they had

agreed to dispose of, and the price; which now is little and dear, that which would have bought twenty

miles not buying now two. During the time that this person spoke, not a man of them was observed to

whisper or smile — the old grave, the young reverent in their deportment. They speak little, but

fervently, and with elegance. I have never seen more natureal sagacity, considering them without the

help (I was going to say the spoil) of tradition: and he will deserve the name of wise who outwits them in

any treaty about a thing they understand. When the purchase was agreed, great promises passed

between us of kindness and good neighbourhood, and that which done, another made a speech to the

Indians, in the name of all the sachamkers or kings; first, to tell them what was done; next, to charge

and command them to love the CHristians, and particularly to live in peace with me and the people

under my government; that many governors had been in the river; but that no governor had come

himself to live and stay here before: and having now such an one, who had treated them well. they

should never do him or his any wrong; at every sentence of which they shouted, and said Amen in their


24. The justice they have is pecuniary. In case of any wrong or evil fact, be it murder itself, they atone by

feasts and presents of their wampum, which is proportioned to the quality of the offence or person

injured, or of the sex they are of. For, in case they kill a woman, they pay double; and the reason they

render is, ‘that she breedeth children, which men cannot do.’ It is rare that they fall out if sober; and if

drunk they forgive, saying, ‘It was the drink, and not the man, that abused them.’

William Penn, Observations made after visiting the interior of Pennsylvania, 1683, in Samuel Janney’s

Life of William Penn, 6th edition, 1882.

Found at USHistory.org, http://www.ushistory.org/penn/penn_journey.htm, edited by the

Independence Hall Association.

Source 4: Excerpt from Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (1632-1673)

The Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, actively converted the indigenous of New France. Here is an excerpt of

the conversion of the Hurons, as told in the Jesuit Relations, a series of Chronicles published in Paris





URING the present year, eighty-six have been baptized, and, adding to these the fourteen of last year,

there are a hundred souls in all who, we believe, have been rescued from the service of the devil in this

country since our return. Of this. number God has called ten to Heaven,—six while they were young, and

four more advanced in age. One of these, named François Sangwati, was Captain of our village. He had a

naturally good disposition, and consented very willingly to be instructed and to receive Holy Baptism, a

course he had previously praised and approved in others. I admired the tender Providence of God in the

conversion of a woman, who is one of the four deceased. I baptized her [5] this Autumn at the village

of Scanonaenrat, when returning from the house of Louys de saincte Foy, where we had gone to instruct

his parents. The deafness of this sick woman, and the depths of the mysteries I brought to her notice,

prevented her from sufficiently understanding me; and, besides, the accent of that Nation is a littlehttp://www.ushistory.org/penn/penn_journey.htm

different from that of the Bears, with whom we live. My own imperfect acquaintance with the language

rendered me [page 11] still less intelligible, and increased my difficulties. But Our Lord, who willed to

save this soul, immediately sent us a young man, who served us as interpreter. He had been with us in

the Cabin of Louys, and had heard us talking of our mysteries, so that he already knew a considerable

part of them, and understood very well what I said. It is said that this woman, who was named Marie, in

the midst of her greatest weakness foretold that she would not die for eight days; and so it happened.

They seek Baptism almost entirely as an aid to health. We try to purify this intention, and to lead them

to receive from the hand of Cod alike sickness and health, death and life; and teach them that the life-

giving waters of Holy [6] Baptism principally impart life to the soul, and not to the body. However, they

have the opinion so deeply rooted that the baptized, especially the children, are no longer sickly, that

soon they will have spread it abroad and published it everywhere. The result is that they are now

bringing us children to baptize from two, three, yes, even seven leagues away…

There is in our village a little Christian girl named Louyse, who at six months began to walk alone;

the [page 13] parents declare they have seen nothing like it, and ,attribute it to the efficacy of Holy

Baptism. Another person told us one day, with great delight, that his little [7] boy, who had always been

sick and much emaciated before Baptism, had been very well since then. This will suffice to show how

Our Lord is inspiring them with a high opinion of this divine Sacrament, which is strengthened by the

perfect health God gives us, and which he has given to all the French who have been in this country; for,

they say, it is very strange that, except a single man who died here from natural causes, all the others,

during the twenty-five years or thereabout in which the, French have been frequenting this region, have

scarcely ever been sick.

From all this may be easily gathered the present state of the young Christianity of this country, and the

hope for the future. Two or three things besides will help to the same end. The first is the method we

pursue in the instruction of the Savages. We gather together the men as often as we can; for their

councils, their feasts, their games, and their dances do not permit us to have them here at any ‘hour, nor

every day. We pay especial attention to the Old Men, inasmuch as they are the ones who determine and

decide all matters, and everything is ordered by their advice. [8] All come willingly to hear us; all,

without exception, say they have a desire to go to Heaven and fear the fiery torments of hell. They have

hardly anything to answer us with; we could wish sometimes that they would bring forward more

objections, which would always afford us better opportunity to explain our holy Mysteries in detail. Of a

truth, the Commandments of God [page 15] are very just and reasonable, and they must be less than

men who find therein anything to censure. Our Hurons, who have as yet only the light of nature, have

found them so noble, so agreeable to reason, that after having heard the explanation of them they

would say, in admiration, ca chia attwain aa arrihwaa, “Certainly these are important matters, and

worthy of being discussed in our councils; they speak the truth, they say nothing but what is to the

purpose; we have never heard such discourse.” Among other things which made them acknowledge the

truth of one God, Creator, Governor, and Preserver of all things, was the illustration I employed of the

child conceived in its mother’s womb. ” Who,” said I, but God forms the body of. this child; who out of

one and the same material [9] forms the heart, the liver, the lungs,—in short, an infinite variety of

members, all necessary, all well-proportioned, and joined one to another? Not the father, for these

wonders take place in his absence, and sometimes after his death. Nor is it the mother, for she does not

know what takes place in her womb. If it be the father or the mother that forms this body at discretion,

why is not a son or a daughter begotten at will? Why do they not produce children, handsome, tall,

strong, and active? And, if parents give the soul to their children, why do they not impart to all of them

great minds, a retentive memory, and all sorts of noble and praiseworthy qualities, seeing that there is

no one who would not desire to have such children if this were in his power?” To all this the Hurons, full

of wonder, make no reply. They confess that we speak the truth, and that indeed there is a God; they

declare that henceforth they will recognize, [page 17] serve, and honor him; and, desiring to be

promptly instructed, they ask us to teach them the Catechism every day; but, as I have said, their

occupations and amusements do not permit that…

The evil is, they are so attached to their old customs that, knowing the beauty of truth, they are content

to approve it without embracing it. Their usual reply is, oniondechouten, “Such is the custom of our

country.” We have fought this excuse and have taken it from their mouths, but not yet from their

hearts; our Lord will do that when it shall please him.

Thus, then, we deal with the Old Men. As the women and children caused us much trouble, we have hit

upon this plan, which succeeds fairly well. Father Antoine Daniel and the other Fathers go every day

through the Cabins, teaching the children, whether baptized or not, Christian doctrine,—namely, the

sign of the Cross, [11] the Pater, the Ave, the Credo, the Commandments of God, the Prayer to the

Guardian Angel, and other brief prayers, all in their own tongue, because these Peoples have a natural

inaptitude for learning any other…

I cannot tell you the satisfaction and consolation these little children give us. When we consider their

Fathers, still plunged in their superstitions, although recognizing sufficiently the truth, we are afraid that

God, provoked by their sins, has rejected them for a time; but, as for the children, without doubt he

holds out his arms to them and draws them to himself. The eagerness they show to learn the duties of a

Christian keeps us from doubting it. The smallest ones throw themselves into our arms, as we pass

through the Cabins, and do not require to be urged to talk and to learn. Father Daniel hit upon the plan

of quieting a little child, crying in its mother’s arms, by having it make the sign of the Cross. And indeed,

one day when I had just been teaching the Catechism to them in our Cabin, this child made us laugh; its

mother was carrying it in her arms, and was going out; but, as soon as she reached the door, it began to

cry so that she was [page 21] compelled to turn back. She asked it what was the matter. “Let me begin

again,” [13] it said, ” let me begin again, I want to say more.” I then got it to make again the sign of the

Cross, and it immediately began to laugh and to jump for joy. I saw the same child, another time, crying

hard because it had had its finger frozen; but it quieted down and laughed, as soon as they had it make

the sign of the Cross. I dwell willingly upon this matter, as I am sure pious souls take pleasure in hearing

all these particulars. In the beginnings of this infant Church, what can we speak about if not the

stammerings of our spiritual children? We have one little girl, among others, named Marie Aoesiwa,

who has not her equal. Her whole satisfaction seems to be in making the sign of the Cross and in saying

her Pater and Ave. Scarcely have we set foot in her Cabin, when she leaves everything to pray to God.

When we assemble the children for prayers or for Catechism, she is always among the first, and hastens

there more cheerfully than many would to play. She does not stir from our Cabin, and does not omit

making the sign of the Cross, and saying over and over fifty times a day the Pater and Ave. She gets

others to do the same; and, one of our [14] Frenchman having newly come, her only greeting was to

take his hand, and have him make the sign of the Cross. Often she is in the field when our Fathers recite

their Office there; she stands in the road, and, almost every time they return, she begins to make the

sign of the Cross, and to pray to God in a loud voice.

The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit

Missionaries in New France 1610—1791, EDITED BY Reuben Gold Thwaites

Found at http://moses.creighton.edu/kripke/jesuitrelations/, the Kripke Center, directed by Ronald

A. Simkins, at Creighton University.http://moses.creighton.edu/kripke/jesuitrelations/

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