+1 (208) 254-6996 essayswallet@gmail.com

API – Ch. 2: Chemical Basis of Life Week 2


TYPE OF BONDDEFINITIONDESCRIPTIONEXAMPLEIONICwhen atoms lose or gain electrons becoming ions, and then oppositely charged ions are attracted to one anotherbond is broken by watersalts, e.g. NaClCOVALENTwhen 1 or more pair(s) of electrons are shared by atomsstrong bondthe bonds holding H20 together (intra-), CO2HYDROGENwhen a (slightly positive) hydrogen atom that is already covalently bonded to something else is attracted to a slightly negative atom.Very weak bond; in molecules whose purpose is to easily break and then come back togetherreactions between water molecules (inter-; i.e. ice to water to gas);DNA chainsSYNTHESISREACTIONSDEGRADATION REACTIONSGENERAL DESCRIPTIONSynthesis = building of large molecule (polymer) from smaller blocks (monomer).Degradation involves the breakdown of polymer into individual monomers.DESCRIPTIVE TERMSbuildingconstructiveanabolicbreakdowndigestive/decompositioncatabolicBond forming or breaking?Bonds are formed.Bonds are broken.IS ENERGY REQUIREDOR RELEASED?NAME THAT TERM.Energy is required to form the bond.EndergonicEnergy is released when the bond is broken.ExergonicHOW IS WATERINVOLVED?NAME THAT TERM.Water is released when he bond is formed.DehydrationWater is added to break the bond.HydrolysisEXAMPLEBuilding a protein from individual amino acids;Building a triglyceride from glycerol and 3 fatty acids, etcBreaking a protein into individual amino acids;Breaking starch down into monosaccharides, etc.OrganicMoleculesSugars -CarbohydratesLipids (Fats) -HydrocarbonsProteinsNucleic AcidsMade up of Elements with these Atoms. . .C, H, OC, HC, H, O, N, SC, H, O, N, PChemical Structure is Characterized by . . .chain of hydrocarbons to which hydroxyl groups (-OH) and an aldehyde group (H-C=O) are attached;some sugars exist in ring form and not as a chainchain of hydrocarbons ending in a carboxyl group (-COOH);if saturated, then no double bonds (stearic acid = stearate);if unsaturated, then with double bonds (oleic acid= oleate; linoleic acid = linoleate)2 amino acids join to form a peptide bond (NH-CO);each ends in a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2);in all known 26 amino acids only 2 contain S:Met, CysDNA and RNA consist of nucleotides (sugar + base + phosphate);the sugar is in ring form of COH; the bases contain the N;the phosphate groups (PO4) are attached to the sugarSUBATOMIC PARTICLE SUMMARY TABLESUBATOMICPARTICLECHARGELOCATIONPROTONSpositivenucleusNEUTRONSzero (neutral)nucleusELECTRONSnegativevalence shells = orbitals around nucleusOrganicMoleculesSugars -CarbohydratesLipids (Fats) -HydrocarbonsProteinsNucleic AcidsAtoms?C, H, OC, HC, H, O, N, SC, H, O, N, PBuilding Blocks (monomers)monosaccharides or hexosesacetic acid (2-carbon-unit);triglycerides: glycerol and 3 fatty acids;steroidsamino acidsnucleotides: pentose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen baseSpecific types / function ofmonomersglucose, fructose, galactose /energyacetic acid-Co- enxyme A / fatty acid and steroid synthesisTG / energy storagephospholipids / cell membrane components20 different amino acidsDNA and RNA nucleotidesstore energy in phosphates (PO4) that are attached to the sugar moietySpecific types / functions of polymersdisaccharides:sucrose, lactose, maltose; energypolysaccharides:starch (plant);glycogen (animal); energy storage.fatty acids / energy storage, membrane componentssteroid / cell membrane components (i.e. cholesterol); hormonesproteins (>100 amino acids) /enzymes,antibodies,cell structure components, transport, hormones,storageDNA (double stranded) /transcription into mRNARNA (single stranded) /translation into proteinsOtherSaturated = fatty acids with single bonds between Cs; Unsaturated = double bonds between CsDNA is the genetic material ; it contains information in the specific order of nucleotides; controls cellular activity by instructing cells what proteins (i.e. enzymes) to make