+1 (208) 254-6996 essayswallet@gmail.com

3 pages

ABA Behavioral Analysis

Annotated Bibliography: Students will choose a topic of their choice from https://www.pbis.org/ and create an annotated bibliography with at least 5 resources on a topic of interest. Students will also submit an annotated bibliography identifying at least 5 resources (with descriptions of findings).



Topic: Tier Two of MTSS and Positive Behavior Intervention and Support.

Thesis Statement: Tier two interventions could benefit from further research into the additional

benefits that could be derived from the utilization of FBA prior to implementation of tier two

interventions to better serve the student, and limit unnecessary cost to a tier three referral.

Annotated Bibliography

Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2007). Adding functional behavioral assessment to First Step to

Success: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 229-238.

This case study focused on the differential effect of utilizing a function based, versus non

function based approach, within the First Step intervention design with a 1st grade

student. Although, First Step, in its existing form, provides access to socially mediated

attention, the study clearly delineated the benefits of combining the program with

function based modifications. In addition, the study suggests that utilizing a function

based approach may alleviate problem behaviors that are not directly linked to attention

maintained behaviors. Finally, it was noted, that the teacher’s perception of the student’s

social skills and academic performance also increased.

Grow, L. L., Carr, J., & LeBlanc, L. (2009). Treatments for attention-maintained problem

behavior: empirical support and clinical recommendations. Journal of Evidence-based

Practices for Schools, Vol. (10), 70-92.

The article describes the challenges that are encountered in treatment of attention

maintained problem behaviors in the school setting as a result of boundless available

sources of social attention present. Great stress is placed on the importance of

establishing the function of the problem behavior via FBA, so that the environmental

antecedents or consequences can be manipulated to create positive change in behavior.


Consequence based intervention procedures such as extinction, and DRA along with

possible need for FCT are discussed. Also, NCR is discussed as an antecedent based

interventions. Finally, clinical considerations and recommendations are provided for all

interventions along with an illustrated framework for selection of appropriate

individualized treatment interventions based on function with special attention to

behavior severity and safety, student skill deficit, and ability to communicate.

Hawken, L. S., O’Neill, R. E., & MacLeod, K. S. (2011). An investigation of the impact of

function of problem behavior on effectiveness of the behavior education program

(BEP). Education and Treatment of Children, 34(4), 551-574.

This research concurred with previous literature on the effectiveness of BEP, a tier two

intervention, when utilized for reduction of problem behaviors that are specifically

maintained by attention. Additionally, the study explored the correlation that function of

behaviors plays in the effectiveness of a BEP program. Although the authors agreed that

an optimal scenario for tier two interventions would include a brief FBA, the feasibility

of that was pondered as schools often struggle with FBA procedures. Finally, this study

states that there is value in implementing tier two interventions such as BEP regardless of

behavior functions, as students may respond to intervention due to the reinforcing actions

of attention from adults regardless of academic escape.

March, R. E., & Horner, R. H. (2002). Feasibility and contributions of functional behavioral

assessment in schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(3), 158-170.

The research evaluated the practicality and importance of conducting an FBA within the

Behavior Education Program (BEP), which employed a check-in/check-out method,

typically utilized in tier two interventions. The study found that the BEP program will


probably be more beneficial to students with attention-maintained problem behaviors,

and possibly exacerbate the behaviors of students with escape-maintained problem

behaviors. Further, the results suggested that teachers found the FBA process to be both

practical and worthwhile when a trained school psychologist provided guidance and

support. Future considerations for the role of FBA in group interventions include: the

possibility that specific behaviors may be maintained by multiple functions and that the

maintaining functions may change over time.

McIntosh, K., Campbell, A. L., Carter, D. R., & Rossetto Dickey, C. (2009). Differential effects

of a tier two behavior intervention based on function of problem behavior. Journal of

Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 82-93.

This study examined the extent to which students respond to tier two interventions and

the degree to which that response is controlled by the function of problem behavior. The

effectiveness of the check-in/check-out tier 2 interventions already in place was

researched. The researchers concluded that the tier 2 interventions typically showed a

significant improvement in students with attention-maintained problem behaviors as

opposed to those students that have escape-maintained problem behaviors. Schools may

need to consider a multiple tier two interventions based on the function of behavior to

ensure that students are provided with the best matched tier two intervention, rather than,

an inadvertent reclassification to a tier three intervention.