Rough Draft Review Process Evaluation
[WLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
Purpose: The primary goal of this weekly assignment is to enable you to understand the revision process and revise your paper with the help of a writing specialist.
Step 1: Prepare a shortened version of your Final Paper (at least four pages) by including the following:
- Introduction paragraph and thesis statement you developed for your Week 3 Assignment.
- Background information of the global societal issue you have chosen. (International Drug Trafficking)
- Brief argument supporting at least two solutions to the global societal issue.(International Drug Trafficking)
- Conclusion paragraph.
- Must document any information used from at least five scholarly sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) Note that you will need at least eight scholarly sources for your Final Paper in Week 5.
I HAVE INCLUDED ASSIGNMENT #3 DOCUM|ENT FOR SEVERAL RESOURCES TO USE. YOU MUST USE AND SITE ALL RESOURCES THAT ARE IN WEEK 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY.
There is also thesis help in the assignment provided.
Step 2: After you have completed a rough draft of your paper, submit that draft to the Ashford Writing Center by using the instructions found in the Paper Review (Links to an external site.) page. Your paper will be returned within 24 hours, so give yourself enough time to complete and submit it prior to the due date.
Reflect: Carefully review the summary feedback found in the email from the tutor and the margin comments that you see on your returned paper. Consider each of the suggestions provided to help you to revise your paper.
Running Head: INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRAFFICKING 1
International Drug Trafficking
GEN 499: General Education Capstone
Professor Dariush Azimi-Garakani
INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRAFFICKING 2
Globalization has led to the transformation of the worlds’ economy. People are coming up
with new ideas every day and coming up with new business plans because technology has
transformed the world. Due to globalization and technology, people can access goods from all over
the world regardless of the location he or she is, for instance, a person can buy goods from the
United Kingdom while in Africa. Over the last four decades, international drug trafficking has
become a social problem worldwide, and it has rocketed. Drug trafficking is an illegal trade that
involves cultivation, manufacturing, distribution and sales of illegal drugs prohibited by the United
Nation Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The importance of this research is to understand
why drug trafficking has globally increased over the last few decades and how international drug
trafficking can be reduced. For instance, 450-500 tons of heroin are consumed worldwide annually.
Countries such as Afghanistan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the United States of America,
among others are the leading countries in drug trafficking. Drug trafficking trade is one of the
businesses that are growing at a high rate, and they are the most profitable business in the world.
This business is estimated to have a profit of $500 billion in one year. Drug trafficking has become
a serious problem in the whole world, affecting the economy and causing severe communal
Belhabib, D., Le Billon, P., & Wrathall, D. J. (2020). Narco‐Fish: Global fisheries and drug
trafficking. Fish and Fisheries, 21(5), 992-1007.
This study has analyzed drug trafficking and how it has been associated with fisheries
around the globe. Research conducted back in 2010, and 2017 showed that illicit drug trade largely
relies on fishing vessels. After the research was conducted, the result suggested that illicit drugs
shipment through fisheries vessels are minimized over time, even though the flow of illicit drugs
INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRAFFICKING 3
is increasing every day (Anderson & Kavanaugh, 2017). The main reason drug trafficking has
been using fishing vessels is to reduce the chances and risks of seizure. Once the chances of seizure
have been reduced, drug trans-shipment has increased over the past eight years to about 20% of
illicit drugs’ worldwide retail value. This paper suggests that small-scale fishers are at risk of
turning themselves to drug trade because the fish stock is declining.
Dolliver, D. S., Ericson, S. P., & Love, K. L. (2018). A geographic analysis of drug trafficking
patterns on the tor network. Geographical Review, 108(1), 45-68.
This article was published in 2016 and written by Diana S. et al.; they suggest that the
globalization process has continued to have some impacts on drug trafficking worldwide. Due to
technology and globalization, a cyber-based drug trade has been developed via the Tor Network.
This paper involves the analysis of data that examines drug distribution of drugs such as heroin,
cocaine psychoactive substances and prescription of drugs which are being advertised on Access
to Global Online Research on Agriculture (AGORA) which is being considered as the largest
marketplace on Tor Network during the time of data collection. (Durán‐Martínez, 2017) Drug
trafficking data were collected using a software known as web crawling, which is later mapped to
determine hotspots or the presence of statistical outliers internationally within Europe. According
to data displayed out of this research, illicit drugs brought from Europe were randomly distributed.
Worldwide, heroin and cocaine market is seen to be almost excluded retail, while on the other
hand, psychoactive drugs and prescription drugs are sold in pharmaceuticals and chemical
INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRAFFICKING 4
Mok, S. Y. (2020). ASEAN and Transnational Crime: Gains and Challenges in Tackling Drug
Trafficking. WIMAYA, 1(01), 31-38.
This article was published in June 2020 by Waseda University. This article discusses drug
trafficking problems in Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN), how drug trafficking
problem in this region has been securitized, and the challenges faced by these countries when
trying to implement effective solutions to deal with drug trafficking. The Association of Southeast
Asian Nation is being referred to as the home of the golden triangle, which is located at the eastern
border of Myanmar, North-Western Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Northern Thailand.
This area is well known as the world-leading region for the production of illegal drugs. In order to
understand the drug problem in this region, it is good to approach the situation in various
perspectives that look beyond drug trafficking, production and consumption of illicit drugs. This
article states how to come up with solutions on how to curb illegal drug trafficking. However, the
Association of Southeast Asian Nation mechanism has not addressed the issue of drug trafficking
in the region because of the limitations posed by the “ASEAN Way”.
Rousseau, R. (2017). West Africa–the Region’s Pivotal Role in International Drug Trafficking.
Africa is believed to be the central continent for international drug trafficking and criminal
organisations that deal with drug trafficking. According to the United Nations on Drugs and
Crimes (UNODC) estimates, approximately 40 to 50 tons of cocaine and heroin destined to
European countries pass through Africa, especially the North-Eastern parts of Africa annually.
African countries that involve themselves in drug trafficking gets a profit of more than $2 billion
annually (Wrathall et al., 2020). Such profit makes the drug trafficker financially stable and also
destabilize the weak government structures and law enforcement. These huge profits also act as a
catalyst, thus fueling the drug trafficking businesses. Illicit drugs trade has some impacts on the
INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRAFFICKING 5
African countries, first and foremost, Africans has become drug addicts thus lowering the
economic level of the country because once a person has become an addict, he or she will be
searching for money to buy drugs only, but he or she cannot invest in boosting the economy of the
country. Secondly, some countries involved in drug businesses, are denied loans by the world
banks; thus, those countries will always remain poor.
Uzuegbu-Wilson, E. (2020). The Discourse of Drug Trafficking from Global
Perspective. Available at SSRN 3704693.
This article was written by Uzuegbu Wilson and published in 2020. This study examines
the illicit drug trafficking phenomenon from the globalization perspective. The study has reviewed
research approach with several reports and evaluations that have been obtained from other sources
of data which has been analyzed through content analysis. The study has shown that globalization
is posing challenges and threats to human security, including illicit drug trade which has largely
contributed to a prolonged illicit drug war (Mninde-Silungwe, 2017). The study recommends that
the International Drug Control Effort focus more on economic development aimed at eroding the
incentives for producing narcotics. To ease the process of implementing policies that will minimise
drug trafficking and insecurity across the nation, a politician should fight and eradicate corruption.
Secondly, some rules and regulation should be set in order to punish those who have been involved
in illicit drug trafficking. Once they are punished, other people who had some plans of involving
themselves in illicit drug trafficking will be deterred.
INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRAFFICKING 6
Anderson, T. L., & Kavanaugh, P. R. (2017). Women’s evolving roles in drug trafficking in the
United States: new conceptualizations needed for 21st-century markets. Contemporary
drug problems, 44(4), 339-355.
Durán‐Martínez, A. (2017). Drug trafficking and drug policies in the Americas: Change,
continuity, and challenges. Latin American Politics and Society, 59(2), 145-153.
Mninde-Silungwe, F. (2017). Trafficking in persons (Article 28J) and trafficking in drugs (Article
28K). In The African Criminal Court (pp. 109-123). TMC Asser Press, The Hague.
Wrathall, D. J., Devine, J., Aguilar-González, B., Benessaiah, K., Tellman, E., Sesnie, S., … &
Dávila, A. (2020). The impacts of cocaine-trafficking on conservation governance in
Central America. Global Environmental Change, 63, 102098.