1. Bonnie, a 52-year-old female, has been having some mild pain in her legs recently and is not sure if she should be concerned about it. She decides to visit her primary care physician since the pain isn’t going away. Bonnie tells her physician that the pain feels like a “general soreness or ache” and seems to be worse on the left side. Her physician notes that the left lower leg seems slightly swollen when compared to the right and feels slightly warmer than the right leg. Bonnie has a history of smoking (1-2 packs/week in her 20s and 30s). She has a BMI of 29. She travels often to see her family that lives across the country. The only medication she has ever taken regularly was oral contraceptives. Now that she is peri-menopausal, she has been treating her symptoms with hormone replacement therapy. Which of these statements is most likely correct?
|Bonnie has deep vein thrombosis.|
|Bonnie’s leg pain is likely caused by shin splints.|
|Bonnie is likely experiencing osteoarthritis.|
|Bonnie is experiencing symptoms relating to peripheral neuropathy.|
1. Bonnie’s physician suspects DVT. Which of the following procedures would likely be used to diagnose this condition?
|Blood glucose test|
1. Briefly define “thrombus” in your own words.
1. Many of the symptoms Bonnie is experiencing could be related to cardiovascular issues, like DVT. Which of the following symptoms would also relate to that diagnosis?
|Red or discolored skin on her legs|
|Numbness in her hands and fingers|
|Numbness following the S1 dermatome|
1. How does Bonnie’s frequent traveling relate to her diagnosis? Briefly explain this in your own words.
1. Pulmonary embolism is the most common complication of DVT. List and briefly describe 3 symptoms that Bonnie should look out for.
1. Which of the following factors would NOT be related to Bonnie’s risk of DVT?
|Childhood disease history|
|Family history of pulmonary embolism|
|Personal history of cancer|
1. Which of the following is NOT a common treatment for DVT?
1. Which of the following statements is true?
|Bonnie’s history of oral contraceptives and current use of hormone therapy is not a risk factor for DVT.|
|Bonnie’s condition could be caused by a genetic condition that increase the risk of clotting.|
|Treatment for Bonnie’s condition should last a total of about 2-3 days.|
|Bonnie’s condition will likely be treated with stent placement.|
1. List and briefly describe 3 prevention measures that Bonnie can take to avoid further complications.
1. Chen, a 78-year-old male has a long history of cardiovascular disease. Recently, he has developed “blue lines” bilaterally, distal to the knees. He is worried that this could be a sign of another heart attack or something similar, so he decides to seek treatment. His physician notes that Chen’s right leg has twisted bulging veins that are blue in color. His left leg has lighter-colored blue lines that are not raised from the surface of the skin. Chen reports that his right leg hurts, especially during and after exercise. Chen reports that his father had varicose veins. Chen reports that he is mostly sedentary and spends a lot of time watching TV or playing board/card games. His BMI is 24, BP is 130/78, and pulse is 68. Based on the information given, which of the following statements is most likely true?
|Chen has varicose veins bilaterally.|
|Chen has varicose veins in his right leg and spider veins in his left leg.|
|Chen has varicose veins in his left leg and spider veins in his right leg.|
|Chen has spider veins bilaterally.|
1. If Chen has varicose veins, which of these other symptoms may he experience? (Select all that apply.)
|Achy, heavy feeling in his legs|
|Itching around the raised veins|
|High blood pressure|
1. Exercise and elevation of the legs are to self-care options to treat varicose veins.
1. Which of the following statements is true?
|Varicose veins are common in people under 30 years of age.|
|Varicose veins are common in pregnancy.|
|Men are more likely to develop varicose veins than women.|
|Exercise should be avoided, as increased heart rate places extra stress on the damaged vessels.|
1. Which part of Chen’s medical information is most likely NOT a risk factor for varicose veins?
|Body mass index|
1. List and briefly describe 3 complications that can occur if varicose veins go untreated.
1. Briefly describe how a high-fiber, low-salt diet would help prevent the development of varicose veins.
1. Define “telangiectasia” in your own words.
1. Which of the following statements is true regarding Chen’s treatment?
|Spider veins always require medical treatment.|
|Endoscopic vein surgery is a first-line therapy for varicose veins.|
|Vein stripping is a common outpatient procedure that involves removal of small veins.|
|Compression stockings are effective for spider veins, but not varicose veins.|
1. Which of the following at-home measures may help treat and prevent varicose veins? (Select all that apply.)
|Elevate your legs several times each day|
|Avoid wearing tight waistbands|
|Avoid sitting with legs crossed|
|Wear high heels to increase calf muscle activity|