+1 (208) 254-6996 essayswallet@gmail.com
  
  • Complete a peer review by Monday 11/16
  • This includes responding to their comments & answering at least 1 question (see directions below). 
  • Submit your comments to Cougar Courses

 I attach 2 articles do them separately 

Directions: 

The goal of your peer review is not to do an edit of all of the minor mistakes (ex. spelling, grammar), but instead to focus on the overall argument of the paper. Is the author making a convincing argument? 

To help you focus your review, please follow the directions below: 

  1. Respond to the comments / questions that the author has commented on in their paper. 
  2. Answer at least 1 of the following (you choose what may be most helpful to the author): 
    1. What position is the writer taking in this paper? What is the writer’s argument?
    2. List the paper’s three most important pieces of evidence or support. Which of these points is most convincing and which is least convincing? Why?
    3. As you think about the paper’s overall argument, has the writer convinced you that it is a logical and reasonable argument? Why or why not?
    4. Restate the thesis in your own words. If you are having trouble identifying a thesis, please explain why.
    5. What are 3 strengths of this paper? What are 3 weak points?

Rubric: 

Completing the peer review is worth 15 points.

To achieve a full score, your review should: 

  1. Provide constructive feedback to the author by:

 Aspect 1

Respond to the comments / questions that the author has commented on in their paper. 

 Aspect 2

  1. Answer at least 1 of the following (you choose what may be most helpful to the author): 
    1. What position is the writer taking in this paper? What is the writer’s argument?
    2. List the paper’s three most important pieces of evidence or support. Which of these points is most convincing and which is least convincing? Why?
    3. As you think about the paper’s overall argument, has the writer convinced you that it is a logical and reasonable argument? Why or why not?
    4. Restate the thesis in your own words. If you are having trouble identifying a thesis, please explain why.
    5. What are 3 strengths of this paper? What are 3 weak points?

BENEFITS OF TEACHING INFANTS AND TODDLERS SIGN LANGUAGE 2

It is beneficial to teach toddlers Sign Language

Running Head:BENEFITS OF TEACHING INFANTS AND TODDLERS SIGN LANGUAGE 1

It is beneficial to teach infants and toddlers sign language

Helping your infant or toddler communicate and being able to understand some of their needs would not only be beneficial for you but also for their language development. Sign language is a form of communication that is expressed through bodily movement of the hands and arms. Parents and caregivers can help communication at an early age. I believe that teaching infants and toddlers sign language can be beneficial for development and an effective communication tool. In this pager it is argued that, infants and toddlers that are taught sign language have greater developmental benefits then not being taught. Comment by ,: I feel uncertain about my Thesis statement Comment by ,: When reading my thesis, is it understandable what my paper will be about?

Communication skills are an important part of child development. Teaching sign language at an early age can help create healthy speech development and reduce the frustration your baby has when they want their needs met. Nelson, white and Grewe, authors of the article, “Evidence for Website Claims about the Benefits of Teaching Sign Language to Infants and Toddlers with Normal Hearing” (2012), observed many parents with normal hearing are teaching their babies sign language. It was found that many websites advocated that learning sign language would promote better development in young children who would hear normally. Nelson, white and Grewe (2012) research states, the websites had made claims that teaching infants and toddlers sign language could promote better communication, increase language development, a possible reduction in tantrums, and parent- child bonding could increase. The websites that were studied supported the claims that overall, teaching sign language to infants and toddlers with normal hearing is beneficial for promoting a better development. Comment by ,: I feel uncertain about my integration of the article and authors before paraphrasing.

Not only could teaching sign language to infants and toddlers with normal hearing be beneficial it can also help expressive language for children with Down syndrome. Although, exposure to sign language at an early age can help children with out without disabilities it could create a better communication bridge for children struggling with communication difficulties. Many children with disabilities cannot express themselves easily through words so teaching then an alternate way to communicate or how to better communicate is essential. In the article, “Effects of a Naturalistic Sign Intervention on Expressive Language of Toddlers With Down Syndrome” the authors, Kaiser, Oetting, Reikowsky, Roberts, and Wright (2012) evaluate the possible benefits of teaching spoken words along with manual signs to young children with Down syndrome. The children had play- based sessions with a therapist who incorporated Enhanced Milieu Teaching intervention by which, she modeled spoken words and manual signs, and encouraged continued techniques at home. The outcome of the study was that, the intervention was a very effective way of teaching the children new communication skills. From the start to finish of the study the children’s knowledge of new sign language words had increased (Kaiser, Oetting, et., 2012). Learning this skill could not only help find an alternative way to help communicate but can help toddlers with DS make communicate more clear during play and in any setting.

Toddlers language development is rapidly increasing, and teaching sign language could enhance their communication. Sign language could be a communication skill used before a baby is able to speak. I reviewed the article, “Music and sign language to promote infant and toddler communication and enhance parent–child interaction (2013)” by Colwell and Memmott. The authors purpose of their study was to determine if the use of music and/or sign language promotes early communication and parent- child interactions. The study was done by using play-based large and small group interventions. The sessions of the inventions consisted of music and/or signs books, hand-on activity centers, and goodbye lullaby activities. The results of the study showed that, there was an increase in signs and gestures from the start to end of the intervention classes. All the groups had shown an increase in signs, gestures, and verbal communication (Colwell and Memmott, 2013). Participating in musical activities such as, dancing, songs, hand movements to songs, etc can be great for language development.

As well as it being beneficial for teaching toddlers sign language, infants learning the skill could create an outlet for communication. When infants are taught sign language the term most useful is, “baby sign language.” Baby sign language enhances communication for the infant and caregiver to get simple feeding needs met. In the article, “Exploring infant signing to enhance responsive parenting: Findings from the INSIGHT study” the authors Birch, Hohman, Savage, Shelly, and Vallotton (2019) study demonstrates an intervention during infancy that could help create less obesity by forming early communication skills in infants. Parents were given feeding questionnaires and surveys which, were used to access infants feeding and appetite practices. During infancy communication is still developing, if baby sign was used then a caregiver could use the cues for feeding needs. During the study the parents were given intervention guidance on how they could respond to their child’s needs when certain behaviors were shown. The study was conducted to test if infant signing could create responsive parenting. Teaching babies hand gestures could help communicate when they were all done eating, or wanted more food. The results of the study concluded that parent intervention to incorporate baby sign language enhances parent responsiveness to infants feeding needs. If parents use this form of communication with their infant their needs can be further met in a more efficient way (Birch, Hohman, et., 2019). Babies understanding these gestures and being able to create the movements could greatly help with over eating and feeding.

Effective communication skills are very important for a child’s development. Infants and toddlers learning sign language could create many benefits to their language development. Not only is it effective and helpful for babies and toddlers with normal hearing but it can help with expressive language for children with disabilities. Baby sign language is a start for infants to get their needs met before they can communicate though words. In conclusion, teaching infants and toddlers sign language is beneficial. Comment by ,: Does my conclusion summarize the main parts in my paper, or is there a lot of run on? Comment by ,: Did I end my paper effectively with the “In conclusion”?

Reference Page

Colwell, Cynthia, Memmott, Jenny, & Meeker-Miller, Anne. (2014). Music and sign language to promote infant and toddler communication and enhance parent–child interaction. International Journal of Music Education32(3), 333–345. https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761413491214

Nelson, Lauri H, White, Karl R, & Grewe, Jennifer. (2012). Evidence for Website Claims about the Benefits of Teaching Sign Language to Infants and Toddlers with Normal Hearing. Infant and Child Development21(5), 474–502. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1748

Paul, I. M., Hohman, E. E., Birch, L. L., Shelly, A., Vallotton, C. D., & Savage, J. S. (2019). Exploring infant signing to enhance responsive parenting: Findings from the INSIGHT study. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 15(3), N.PAG. https://doi-org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/ 10.1111/mcn.12800

Wright, C. A., Kaiser, A. P., Reikowsky, D. I., Roberts, M. Y., & Oetting, J. (2013). Effects of a Naturalistic Sign Intervention on Expressive Language of Toddlers With Down Syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research56(3), 994–1008. https:// doi-org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0060)

Adults are capable of communicating their wants and needs with speech and with gestures. That is not the case for babies. When infants are born their only way of communicating when they need a diaper change, need attention or are hungry is by crying. What if there was a way to limit the crying and know when they want certain things such as more food or milk, to have more awareness of what the child needs? That’s where baby sign language comes in. Baby signing has been used by speech and language therapists for decades with children who have speech and or cognitive difficulties (Clibbens et al., 2002). Baby sign language is seen being used by parents and caregivers in daycare. Symbolic gestures, also known as baby sign language, is a way to improve a child’s communication development (Fitzpatrick et al., 2014). Gestures are a natural part of communicating. Research has stated that children’s communication can be shown as early as 6 months of age and motor development is shown before language. Research has also shown how gestures are connected to language development of a child (Fitzpatrick et al., 2014). Teaching baby sign language would be a positive impact for the parent and the child. Comment by Erika Avila: I was having difficulty trying to come up with a good opening. Any suggestions would help. I want to be able to grab the reader’s attention. Comment by Erika Avila: Is there a different/better way to word my thesis? Any suggestions with adding anything new for the introduction part.

Parents would benefit teaching their child baby sign language as early as 6 months of age. This would help eliminate frustration from both sides. Babies like to throw fits, cry and be fussy. They are not able to communicate their needs causing the parents and the child to both be frustrated. Research was done with qualitative interviews with parents who used symbolic gestures with their children. They stated baby sign language helped their child communicate their needs and wants and were able to avoid frustration from both sides (Vallotton, 2008). Symbolic gestures allow a good parent and child relationship. Parents are also less stressed with trying to figure out what their child wants. Being able to communicate with their child will provide less stress for the parent. Elizabeth Kirk, a lecturer in development psychology who has her degree in Cognitive Science, conducted her own research in baby sign language. She found that there are positive changes with the relationship in the interaction between mother and baby. Baby sign language caused mothers to acknowledge their babies wants and anticipate their desires. It encouraged the mom to pay more attention to the baby’s nonverbal communicative attempts (Kirk et al., 2012). They are likely to have more of a stable relationship with their child. There have been studies that suggest “using baby sign language does not interfere with parent-child interaction and may, in fact, contribute to positive interactions” (Fitzpatrick et al., 2014).

Babies are able to get a head start with understanding language and they start to be aware of how communication works. Parents can help their child communicate before they can talk. For example, if they were to tap their fingertips together, that’s baby sign language for more, they know by doing that they would end up getting more food by letting their parents know they are still hungry. Development of communication skills in babies is important for the development of the child (Nelson et al., 2012). The most important time of the development of the child starts from birth. Baby sign language can give the child a way to practice language and a start with communicating early. An average 10-month-old is not able to produce oral language but is able to communicate through gesture. Early gesture learning is said to help the child with their vocabulary later on (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009). Research also states, “the early gestures that children produce could reflect their potential for learning particular aspects of language but play no role in helping them realize that potential” (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009). Parent’s want the best for their children and are able to provide communication early with baby sign language. According to the article, Enhancing Early Communication through Infant Sign Training, training babies to sign can contribute to preventing behavior problems such as developmental delays, language delays, and sensory impairment (2007). Research “indicated that early cognitive stimulation is associated with direct effects on 24-month language ability, indicating that these early experiences are not only important for short term differences in communication, but have long term implications for how children acquire language” (Cates et al., 2012).

The majority of the time parents have their kids in a preschool or daycare setting. Infant and toddler teachers start to teach them basic baby sign language such as when to let the caregiver know they are “all done” by having their back hand out and flip them forward one time. Baby sign language benefits both the teacher and the baby. They have this communication where, like with the parent, there’s no frustration from both sides. Abby Francik, a human development and family science graduate, did her research on using sign language as a communication tool in infant/toddler group care settings. Her study concluded “task-oriented signs are used most often, and aid in meeting children’s basic needs as well as help smooth transitions through routines. Sign language is also used for social/emotional purposes to express feelings quickly and effectively. Finally, signs are used for descriptive/conversational purposes to engage in conversations and identify and label objects not only with words but also with symbols” (Francik, 2005).

There is no evidence that states there is a negative effect on teaching baby sign language. There was research done where they looked into websites that claimed positive benefits of teaching hearing infants and toddlers to sign. They evaluated thirty-three websites that claimed there are benefits to teaching baby sign language. They concluded there wasn’t any negative effects to baby sign language that was stated on the websites (Nelson et al., 2012). Research that has been done fails to support whether baby signing actually harms or creates difficulty in the child’s development. Considering there are no negative effects to teaching baby sign language, it doesn’t hurt to have a better understand of what the babies needs and wants are. There will be a better relationship build between parents and caregivers and the children will be able to get their needs and wants met faster. Comment by Erika Avila: I couldn’t find articles to back up negative effects of baby sign language. Should I find more articles that back up there being no negative effects? Comment by Erika Avila: I am open to suggestions on anything else that should be added to this paper.

References

Cates, C. B., Dreyer, B. P., Berkule, S. B., White, L. J., Arevalo, J. A., & Mendelsohn, A. L. (2012). Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0b013e318264c10f

Clibbens, J., Powell, G. G., & Atkinson, E. (2002). Strategies for achieving joint attention when signing to children with Down’s syndrome. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 37(3), 309-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820210136287

Fitzpatrick, E. M., Thibert, J., Grandpierre, V., & Johnston, J. C. (2014). How handy are baby signs? A systematic review of the impact of gestural communication on typically developing, hearing infants under the age of 36 months. First Language, 34(6), 486-509. https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723714562864

Francik, A. (2005). Using Sign Language as a Communication Tool in Infant/Toddler Group Care Settings [Master’s thesis]. https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/500/1/Honors_Senior_Thesis.pdf

Kirk, E., Howlett, N., Pine, K. J., & Fletcher, B. C. (2012). To sign or not to sign? The impact of encouraging infants to gesture on infant language and maternal mind-mindedness. Child Development, 84(2), 574-590. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01874.x

Nelson, L. H., White, K. R., & Grewe, J. (2012). Evidence for website claims about the benefits of teaching sign language to infants and toddlers with normal hearing. Infant and Child Development, 21(5), 474-502. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1748

Rowe, M. L., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2009). Early gestureselectivelypredicts later language learning. Developmental Science, 12(1), 182-187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00764.x

Thompson, R. H., Cotnoir-Bichelman, N. M., McKerchar, P. M., Tate, T. L., & Dancho, K. A. (2007). Enhancing early communication through infant sign training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(1), 15-23. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2007.23-06

Vallotton, C. (2008). Signs of emotion: What can preverbal children “say” about internal states? Infant Mental Health Journal, 29(3), 234-258. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20175