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Some of the revisions requires:

1. APA Horizontal List – In running text, a series of items is designated by letters in parentheses: (a) first item, (b) second item, and (c) third item. the following three principles will be adhered to (a) respect for persons, (b) the respect for justice, and (c) the respect for beneficence.

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2. Citations where needed and if appropriate. 

3. On page 5: “You have to connect this sentence with the previous one.  Indicate how the digitization relates to gathering data.  If that comes in the following sentences, perhaps rearrange the order of the sentences so readers are not confused.”

4. I am not sure how to address this question/comment “Should these two, last sentences be in the opposing argument, or the rebuttal?” on Pg 6

5. On Pg 10. I am not sure how to address the comment/feedback “Confused – already wrote lastly. Now I’m not sure of the order or to what thirdly is referring to.”

6. On Pg. 11, can you help fix his concern “Confused – Does this relate to the “Thirdly” in the previous paragraph? I think additional / different headings relating to your Intro will help guide the reader as to the layout of this section, as well as the flow.”

7. “Let’s stop here.  You should apply the preceding notes to the opposing section, but I’d like to see a revision of the Pro position section before moving forward. 

Look at your headings to help guide the reader.  This will reduce redundancy as well, as each sub-topic will have its specific place in the section.”

Organization of Content Main ideas arranged effectively (5) Level 1 Heading – Support Thesis using current academic articles and books and points of view/ or Describe subject & bioethical relevance using current academic articles (15) Argument well supported with refer

ences, ethical theory and principals Supporting argument 1 theory, 3 principles/ (15) Level 1 Heading – Opposing position supported by references, ethical theory and principals opposing argument 1 theory and 2 principles (15) The Arguments cannot use the same theory or principles Level 1 Heading – Flaws with either of the supporting/opposing arguments (5) (does not need to be both) Level 1 Heading – Faith Integration (10) Level 1 Heading – Value to Nursing using Standards of Practice/Code of Ethics/Social Policy Statement Integration & Clinical practice application (15) Stuff you need to integrate throughout: Supporting Material Quantity of resources (2) Variety of resources (2) Multidisciplinary resources (1) You must include the Annotated Bibliography & Reference page to obtain points (1) PLEASE let me know if you have any questions or concerns. please

Running head: TECHNOLOGY AND ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE 1

TECHNOLOGY AND ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE 34

Technology and Access to HealthCare

Arturo Anguiano

Azusa Pacific University

Course Number:

UNRS 496

Dr. Mellisa Muddell

November 02, 2020

Technology and Access to HealthCare

During the President’s Bush tenure, The United States made significant steps in promoting equality in the provision of healthcare services. 2006, President Bush signed proposed strategies for fully incorporating Information Technology (IT) into the healthcare sector. He introduced electronic health records (EHR) as part of his agenda of making healthcare more affordable, portable, transparent, and efficient to all patients (Murphy, 2010). However, politicians, legislators, and citizens have different opinions about whether or not Americans should have a right to affordable and accessible healthcare. Austin et al. (2016) noted that there is acrimony between the paradigms that healthcare is a commodity and privilege versus the view that healthcare must be a universal right, especially as technology has expanded access and lowered costs. Although the Affordable Care Act (ACA) worked to decrease the number of uninsured people, approximately 27 million Americans still have no access to quality and affordable healthcare (Tolber et al. 2019). But especially now, because of technological advancements that increase and reduce cost, healthcare has become a fundamental, American right. This paper’s purpose is to provide an analysis that will increase understanding of how technology improves the availability of healthcare, making its access a right instead of a privilege. This paper’s target audiences include, government leadership, healthcare providers, and the recipients of these services. It is ethically relevant to the target audiences because it is the obligation of our government through relevant stakeholders to provide healthcare to its citizens.

Supporting Position

Ethical Theory and Principles

The Rights Theory plays a significant role in ensuring equitable access to high quality and affordable healthcare for all Americans. According to Rodger & Balckshaw (2017), the Rights Theory focuses on an individual who cannot be denied their moral and universal, and human rights. Hence, the healthcare system does not have a right to deny anyone the right to care regardless of their race, social-economic status, age, color, or any other factor the right to care. To this end, all steps have to be taken to protect these inherent rights. For example, technology integration in health to give more people access has a positive impact by increasing the number of people accessing quality care. For creating equalities in Americans regarding the access to healthcare as part of their human right, the following three principles will be adhered to; respect for persons, the respect for justice, and the respect for beneficence. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: APA Horizontal List – In running text, a series of items is designated by letters in parentheses: (a) first item, (b) second item, and (c) third item.the following three principles will be adhered to (a) respect for persons, (b) the respect for justice, and (c) the respect for beneficence.

Access to Healthcare Improves Quality of Life

Integration of new innovations in healthcare is beneficial to a patient. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), medical innovations involve the application of organized skills and knowledge in the form of medicine, devices, vaccines, systems, and procedures intended to solve a health issue and improve the quality of life of a patient. The first benefit of access to quality and affordable healthcare is that it improves the quality of lives(Agree, 2014). Quality of life refers to an individuals’ perception concerning their general sense of well-being. The health status of a person determines whether or not the individual will have a positive quality of life. For instance, health problems can cause interference of basic aspects of life such as the ability to feed oneself, eliminate waste, breath comfortably, enjoy intimacy, quality sleep and so forth. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: vaccines, and (d) systems and procedures intended… APA Horizontal List – knowledge in form of (a) medicine, (b) devices, (c) vaccines, (d) systems, and (e) procedures intended Comment by Kevin Wheeler: APA Horizontal List Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Delete. Either list it, or omit it.

The first benefit of technology utilization in healthcare is that it facilitates access to healthcare, which improves the quality of lives. Advancement in technology has been integrated into medical research and in the development of new medical equipment, which enhances the quality of lives of patients (Agree, 2014). Physicians are continually conducting research and evaluating new procedures to facilitate prevention, diagnosis, and cure as well as the development of new drugs that will lessen symptoms and treat various diseases. The application of technology in medical research allows for the examination of ailments on a cellular level; hence, antibodies can be developed to fight the disease-causing agents, for example. The WHO estimates that vaccines save nearly 3 million lives each year and prevents thousands of others from contracting diseases around the world (Austin et al., 2016). Similarly, the integration of medical equipment technology in healthcare serves to enhance the quality of life. For example, the utilization of medical technologies, such as comfortable scanning equipment, improved monitoring systems, and robotic surgeries allow for minimally invasive surgeries that leave patients with marginal scarring and reduced recovery time. Thus, the technologies enable patients to spend less time in recovery and more time leading a healthy life. Access to healthcare improves the quality of lives in several ways.

A Source of Reassurance

Reassurance enables patients to decrease the levels of anxiety and stress thereby, minimizing inappropriate pain behavior and encourages a proactive healthy behavior. Reassurance is the initial step of psychotherapeutic treatment. Reassurance often involves gathering data through testing and questioning, then synthesizing that information to understand the nature of illness and its effective management plan. The digitization of medical records using Electronic Health Records (EHR) improves the quality of care for patients. According to the Department of Health and Human Sciences in the United States, approximately 96% of hospitals and 86% of physician offices had access to EHR by 2017(Kvedar et al., 2014). The use of EHR ensures safety by reducing errors and mistakes made when filing patients’ data. It also reduces federal government spending on healthcare because the cost increases each year due to administrative errors. According to a study from the University of Michigan, switching to electronic records reduces the cost of outpatient care by 3%. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Citation? Comment by Kevin Wheeler: You have to connect this sentence with the previous one. Indicate how the digitization relates to gathering data. If that comes in the following sentences, perhaps rearrange the order of the sentences so readers are not confused. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: EHRs – revise throughout as necessary; I won’t make note of this moving forward. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: You need to include the authors (if available) and the date for this to be a proper citation.

The application of medical technology in reassurance promotes healthy lifestyle habits (Kvedar et al., 2014). For instance, a physician involved in the care and management of hypertensive patients examines the clients’ EHR for body mass index, family history, and other factors. The clinician then proceeds to evaluate the patients’ eating habits and level of exercises engaged in each day. Analysis of these factors, in addition to the information available in EHR, indicated the factors that aggravated the patients’ health condition. The information gathered enables a physician to initiate a positive conversation with the patient in an effort to allow them to initiate effective and sustainable lifestyle changes. A clinician can encourage their patients to implement a weekly walking plan, healthy food choices, and majorly aim at purchasing fresh fruits and vegetables.

The use of EHR increases patient satisfaction by facilitating effective communication with the patient concerning the respective health condition and its management plan. Additionally, EHR improves scheduling and waiting for appointments through the patient portal, facilitates easy access to clinical guidelines and protocols that allow physicians to offer quality current care, and it allows patients to manage their prescriptions through e-prescribing(Lewis, & Wyatt, 2014). EHR encourages patients to take ownership and participate in their healthcare management using educational resources and clinical summaries provided by the doctors. Patient engagement involves actions and tools used by patients and healthcare providers to support informed decision making and ensure improved health outcomes. Some of the technologies and tools that promote patient engagement relate to the management of patients’ data and communication with physicians, education, self-care and financial management. Therefore, the use of technologies such as EHR assures exchange of accurate information and offers a better experience to patients. Additional technologies enhance communication between physicians where they can provide an update of the patients’ condition. EH’s also offer extensive information concerning the diagnosis and their health condition making them confident. Patient satisfaction and or engagement allow patients to take charge of their health, which improves their health outcomes. However, despite the efficiency provided by interoperability, data sharing has been involved with issues surrounding security and privacy. (Gordon, & Catalini, 2018) suggests that blockchain-enabled patient interoperability should be adopted to initiate a shift towards patient-centric data sharing. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: APA Horizontal List EHR (a) improves… Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Be sure to revise for subject / verb agreement throughout when you revise this abbreviation to EHRs. For example: HERs encourage patients Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Should these two, last sentences be in the opposing argument, or the rebuttal? Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Gordon and Catalini ( 2018) suggested that Remember, all studies are in the past so always use past tense. Also, note how I cited this, leaving the author’s names outside of the parentheses. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_author_authors.html

Reducing the Likelihood of Premature Death

The use of technology in healthcare prevents premature death by offering early detection testing and mechanisms that promote preventative treatment. Additional intervention measures allow patients to recognize environmental triggers and early warning signs of their symptoms. Statistics analyses indicate that approximately700 women in the United States die annually due to pregnancy and childbirth-related complications (Douthitet al., 2015). Studies suggest that the premature death of expectant mothers occurs because of understaffing of qualified nurses in the labor and delivery units across the country. The few nurses present in these units experience fatigue arising from the continuous onslaught of beeps and blips from several monitoring machines. For instance, the utilization of early warning systems (EWS), alongside EHR, allows nurses to improve the quality of care of obstetric patients. EWS synthesizes clinical observations such as findings of clinical examination, vital signs, and laboratory findings to determine a pattern that is consistent with an elevated risk of clinical deterioration. Hence, EWS is used in obstetrics to detect and treat anomalies that could result in clinical deterioration thereby preventing maternal morbidity and mortality (Douthitet al., 2015). The nurses’ efforts identify early warning signs and initiate actions to prevent deterioration of the health status of obstetric mothers are in line with the principle of beneficence that recommends that the actions taken by the caregivers should promote good by doing what is best for the patient. Additionally, various technologies are employed when isolating antibodies present in vaccines. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Citation? Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Same note on your plural abbreviation and subject / verb agreementRevise throughout as necessary. EWSs synthesize clinal Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Is this salient the to the milieu of this paragraph?

Lastly, access to healthcare promotes the socio-economic status of individuals.Socio-economic status (SES) is often defined by the level of education, income, and occupation. Good health provides an opportunity for individuals to focus on growth through investing in their education and other sectors. Highly trained and skilled persons tend to secure better jobs where they earn a substantial income. Additionally, (Pimentel, & Burgess, 2014) note that a high level of awareness reduces the economic and environmental impact of pesticide utilization due to proper management. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Citation? Comment by Kevin Wheeler: How does this relate to the topic of this paragraph?

Economic Benefits

The first benefit of employing technology in healthcare is that it enhances the quality of care for patients. Access to quality diagnostic tools, remote consultations, advanced treatment, and minimally invasive procedures have improved patient care (Austin et al., 2016). The quality of care for patients can be assessed using three aspects. The initial aspect involves data sharing between physicians for optimal care. The health records in the U.S have been digitized to reduce errors associated with the filing system. Normally, extensive data is generated for each patient in the form of laboratory reports, diagnoses, hospital stays, prescriptions, surgical interventions and so forth. Digitized records facilitate quick information sharing for optimal care of patients because it offers extensive details on their previous medical records. The digital health records and stored in the cloud. They can be accessed remotely by medical professionals and the patient. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Citation? Who’s opinions are these topic sentences? In APA, you have to cite your positions; they cannot be your opinions, or common knowledge- even though they may be obvious to us. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: APA Horizontal List Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Delete Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Fragment

The growth of electronic communication and reduced cost of computing has generated an explosion of healthcare data. However, a large amount of data creates value when it is used to make faster and better decisions. For instance, patient data obtained in EHR, as well as data streaming from mobile applications and diagnostic images, can be analyzed and used to make predictions about possible epidemics thereby, preventing premature death in the population. Big data that offers a rapid and sophisticated analysis of a large amount of diverse information can be applied in healthcare to improve health outcomes at a low cost. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Citation? Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Citation?

The second aspect involves peer-peer support for various patients with similar health needs. Peer support is a powerful tool that influences human behavior and health(Naslund et al., 2016). Individuals suffering from chronic conditions such as mental health problems solicit peer support through social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. The support groups offer assistance in the daily management of the health need through facilitating the development of routine plans as recommended by clinicians. The groups also provide emotional and social support to encourage new behaviors to counteract negative emotions. They offer ongoing support and encourage health-seeking behavior to improve health outcomes.

Provisions of Quality Care

The last aspect involves the provision of care and continuous monitoring of patients(Majumder et al., 2017). Advancement in technology, medicine, public health in addition to raising consciousness about personal hygiene, nutrition, and environmental hygiene has contributed to high life expectancy globally. However, increased life expectancy has also contributed to the rising aging population, which influences the socio-economic structure of the country through increased expenditure to cater to the healthcare and wellbeing of the elderly. According to the U.S Census Bureau, individuals aged 65 years and above accounted for 16% of the total population. The Bureau projects that this figure will exceed 20% by 2030. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Include date to make a proper citation

The growing need for healthcare services for the elderly in America demands unobtrusive, affordable and easy to use solutions that offer high-quality care (Majumder et al., 2017). Smart homes offer the best healthcare solution. The homes have incorporated environmental and wearable medical sensors, modern communication and information technologies, and actuators that facilitate remote and continuous monitoring of the health and wellbeing of the ageing population at a low cost. Furthermore, smart homes enable the elderly to stay in their comfortable homes. Healthcare workers can track overall health and provide real-time feedback and support the patient from distant facilities. The application of these technologies, alongside the provision of additional services to manage the wellbeing of the elderly, should honor their autonomous nature in line with the principle of respect to persons. Despite their advanced age, the elderly still have the right to choose their treatment options. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Should this be in a background section?

The introduction of telemedicine in the early 1950s in two health centers in Pennsylvania facilitated the sharing of images and other health-related information via phone. Telemedicine refers to the use of software and electronic communication to offer clinical services to patients without in-person visits. On the other and WHO defines telehealth to include remote healthcare services such as health promotion, surveillance, and public health functions. (Kvedar et al., 2014) notes that the utilization of telemedicine technologies in addition to monitoring systems improve healthcare efficiency, reduce cost, and ensure patients receive quality care whether at home, in a clinic or at the office. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Kvedar et al. (2014) noted that Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Confused – already wrote lastly. Now I’m not sure of the order or to what thirdly is referring to.

Thirdly, the use of technology in healthcare has economic benefits both for the state and the individual patients. First, it promotes savings to exclusion of income taxes and other preferences. The cost of healthcare in the U.S continually rises annually. For instance, in 2018, the budgetary allocation for healthcare in the U.S was $ 3.6 trillion, which provides an average of $11,000 per person. It is estimated that healthcare expenditure will rise to $ 6.2 trillion with an average of % 18,000 per person in 2028(Tolbert et al., 2019). The cost of healthcare took up 18% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2018. The federal government initiative to exclude employer and most employees’ contributions from income taxes introduce savings. It is estimated that the government lost approximate $234 billion in income taxes revenue owing to tax preferences for healthcare in 2019 (Tolbert et al., 2019). The preferences also include exclusions of employer contribution to health insurance premiums from taxation. The incentives are intended to increase the number of insured Americans allowing them to access affordable and quality care. The adoption of uniform income tax tariffs and allocation of healthcare resources and dollars across all states represent the principle of justice as promoted by the rights theory. Justice involves equity, entitlement, and fairness in the distribution and care for patients irrespective of their socio-economic status or race.

The use of appointment scheduling software and electronic communication to store health data and facilitate the delivery of clinic services has contributed to the fourth industrial revolution (Lewis, & Wyatt, 2014). The second economic benefit of incorporation of technology in healthcare involves industrialization and job creation. The ubiquity of mobile devices, reducing the cost of cloud services, and uptake of artificial intelligence technologies have revolutionized all spheres of human life including healthcare. Digital technologies create opportunities for entrepreneurs to design models that deliver digital clinical services. For instance, the development and management of appointment scheduling applications such as Acuity Scheduling and Gigabook, which are supported by Android and iOS have created employment opportunities. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Confused – Does this relate to the “Thirdly” in the previous paragraph?I think additional / different headings relating to your Intro will help guide the reader as to the layout of this section, as well as the flow. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Confusing – “second”

Several resources that improve the delivery of digital clinical services have been designed. They include sensors, which facilitate monitoring of patients and big data analytics for processing of a variety of health data that is often collected in massive volumes (Wang et al., 2018). Similarly, companies involved in none information technology (IT) services have also been established to offer supportive services for the technologies. Furthermore, telemedicine service providers enjoy enhanced office efficiency and increased revenues. Many people can now utilize telemedicine technologies since they are affordable, efficient, and offer better monitoring and follow up services that improve their health outcomes. Comment by Kevin Wheeler: ? Comment by Kevin Wheeler: Let’s stop here. You should apply the preceding notes to the opposing section, but I’d like to see a revision of the Pro position section before moving forward. Look at your headings to help guide the reader. This will reduce redundancy as well, as each sub-topic will have its specific place in the section.

Opposing Position

Ethical Theory and Principles

The opposing argument is based on the utilitarian theory which posits that what matters is what is good for groups and not an individual (Mallia, 2015). In the context of the discussion, the theory is flawed because health is personal where individuals have different health needs. For example, while the majority of Americans have access to care, care is not equal. The principles of the utilitarian theory include pleasure and happiness. However, when individual care needs are not prioritized disparities and inequalities in access to care expound.

Technology can Create Risks

The main counterargument against the integration of technology in healthcare is that it creates risks. The adoption of various technologies in the delivery of healthcare offers numerous benefits to the patient as discussed above. Unfortunately, the technologies also bring significant risks, which could threaten the patients’ safety. Some of the hazards created by several technologies have either caused an injury or premature death. The first risk involves alarm fatigue. Currently, several medical devices such as ventilators, infusion pumps and dialysis machines have been fitted with alarms that are intended to warn of impending danger to the patients. However, the alarms can result in adverse events such as alarm fatigue. Healthcare workers could be less sensitive to the frequency with which the alarms go off that they become complacent and delay required action. Alarm related adverse events can be reduced through the establishment of protocols, which ensure that each alarm that goes off is attended to by the appropriate caregiver.

The second risk involves exposure to radiation. Utilization of imaging technologies for diagnosis such as CT scan and radiotherapy could present devastating effects is errors are made. Administration of inappropriate radiation dose levels can contribute to secondary conditions such as skin cancer. The third risk involves medical administrative errors made while using infusion pumps. Data entry mistakes such as entering data in a wrong field or mistyping of information by nurses, doctors or pharmacists could be fatal (Agha, 2014). For instance, medication orders could be incorrect, drugs and solutions may be inappropriately prepared, and medications could be administered to a wrong patient. Dose error reduction systems should be into the health information technology (HIT) that will identify the error before it occurs.

Agha (2014) notes that effective utilization of HIT improves the quality of care by minimizing adverse drugs events, readmission and mortality rates. Fourthly, cross-contamination of patients can occur due to improper cleaning of flexible endoscopes, which could cause life-threatening infections. Fifthly, issues arising from interoperability between systems and software problems can result in a domino effect where alteration of one system influences the operations of other systems. It is estimated that nearly 600 surgical fires occur each year in the United States. These fires are easily avoidable through careful utilization and management of fuels, oxidizers, and ignition sources in operating rooms. Several risks associated with other healthcare technologies exist. The medical professional must observe all the laid down protocols concerning their use and management to reduce potential adverse effects.

Flaws with the Opposing Argument

Based on the utilitarian theory, actions and services that are good to groups rather than an individual are advocated. The main principles of the theory are pleasure and happiness. According to the theory, individuals value things based on their based on pleasure and happiness. Most healthcare technologies are adopted based on the benefits that they will offer to patients. However, mishandling and administrative errors produce adverse events. Hence, the application of utilitarian theory in healthcare is inappropriate because individuals have varying needs and depending on the users of specific technologies threats could be minimized thereby, affecting happiness and pleasure (Rodger, & Blackshaw, 2017). Similarly, in the event of a disaster, healthcare workers triage and care for persons depending on the severity of their health needs. The focus is still on individual health issues rather than a group as utilitarian theory points out.

Faith Integration

Based on the utilitarian theory, a choice is right if it provides the greatest good. Utilization of EHR in healthcare facilities allows physicians to easily access medical data of patients. Patients can receive optimal care irrespective of the health facility they visit. The principles of pleasure, happiness, and everyone happiness count govern utilitarianism. EHR enables patients to receive optimal care that ensures continued happiness and pleasure through accessible and affordable healthcare. Moreover, faith integration in nursing care promotes equitable and companionate care for all patients. However, deontology theory suggests that actions are right or wrong based on a set of rules. The principles of right or wrong are flawed because healthcare is individual and inconsistencies come up that demand flexibility of care. Deontology theory recommends inflexible actions.

Value to Nursing

Integration of technology in healthcare is a welcome change because it allows patients to access the best care at their convenience. For instance, telemedicine and smart homes ensure the provision of quality care for the elderly at the comfort of their homes(Wang et al., 2018). The use of up to date technological systems ensures the delivery of quality services. The systems also address affordability, equality and privacy of clients.

Lastly and most importantly, the most significant argument for why technological integration is essential to improve access to healthcare is health is a fundamental American right. According to WHO, the attainment and enjoyment of the highest standard of health is a fundamental human right for everyone irrespective of their religion, race, socio-economic condition, and political beliefs. The United States federal government annually invests in healthcare through the provision of resources to ensure citizens can access quality care. Income tax incentives have also been adopted to promote uptake of insurance coverage such that in the event of financial hardships, everyone should receive the health services that they need (Tolbert et al., 2019). Furthermore, technology has contributed to improvement of other aspects of health such as mental health, fitness and weight loss management, and increased independence of the elderly and persons with disability.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the integration of technology in the healthcare industry does not only make work easier for medical professionals but it offers numerous benefits to patients. First, health is a fundamental human right in America where all persons without distinction of race, socio-economic status or religion is allowed to access it and be treated with respect and dignity. Secondly, technology use improves the quality of life through reassurance, reducing premature death and improving the socio-economic status of individuals. Thirdly, it improves the quality of care via peer-peer support, data sharing between physicians for optimal care and continuous monitoring to offer feedback and support. Lastly, technological adoption has economic benefits both for the government and individuals. Unfortunately, the utilization of these technologies carries hazards that could compromise patient safety if not properly monitored. The established protocols and standards should be observed to reduce adverse events and mortality rates. Therefore, the incorporation of technology in healthcare delivery is a welcome change because it ensures delivery of quality care to patients whether at home, work or in the office at an affordable cost. The technology ensures access to healthcare irrespective of the varying location of doctors and patients. The utilization of EHR in healthcare systems is beneficial because it improves the care of patients. It also promotes efficiency as doctors can access the medical data of patients. President Bush initiate has improved healthcare systems.

Reference

Jones, M. (2018). Healthcare: How technology impacts the healthcare industry. https://healthcareinamerica.us/healthcare-how-technology-impacts-the-healthcare-industry-b2ba6271c4b4

Agha, L. (2014). The effects of health information technology on the costs and quality of medical care. Journal of health economics34, 19-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415264/

Agree, E. M. (2014). The potential for technology to enhance independence for those aging with a disability. Disability and health journal7(1), S33-S39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.09.004

Austin, J., Bentkover, J., & Chait, L. (2016). Setting the stage: Today’s healthcare challenges. In Leading strategic change in an era of healthcare transformation (pp. 15-24). Springer, Cham. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319307756

Douthit, N., Kiv, S., Dwolatzky, T., & Biswas, S. (2015). Exposing some important barriers to health care access in rural USA. Public health129(6), 611-620. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0033350615001584

Gordon, W. J., & Catalini, C. (2018). Blockchain technology for healthcare: facilitating the transition to patient-driven interoperability. Computational and structural biotechnology journal16, 224-230. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30069284/

Kvedar, J., Coye, M. J., & Everett, W. (2014). Connected health: a review of technologies and strategies to improve patient care with telemedicine and telehealth. Health Affairs33(2), 194-199. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0992

Lewis, T. L., & Wyatt, J. C. (2014). mHealth and mobile medical apps: a framework to assess risk and promote safer use. Journal of medical Internet research16(9), e210. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25223398/

Majumder, S., Aghayi, E., Noferesti, M., Memarzadeh-Tehran, H., Mondal, T., Pang, Z., & Deen, M. J. (2017). Smart homes for elderly healthcare—Recent advances and research challenges. Sensors17(11), 2496. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320740711

Mallia, P. (2015). Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy18(1), 3-11. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25028162/

Murphy, J. (2010). The journey to meaningful use of electronic health records. Nursing Economics28(4), 283. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21761616/

Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., Marsch, L. A., & Bartels, S. J. (2016). The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences25(2), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796015001067

Pimentel, D., & Burgess, M. (2014). Environmental and economic costs of the application of pesticides primarily in the United States. In Integrated pest management (pp. 47-71). Springer, Dordrecht. http://www.biological-control.org/chemicalpest/usaPesticide.pdf

Rodger, D., & Blackshaw, B., (2017). An introduction to ethical theory for Healthcare assistants. https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/bjha.2017.11.11.556#

Roski, J., Bo-Linn, G. W., & Andrews, T. A. (2014). Creating value in health care through big data: opportunities and policy implications. Health affairs33(7), 1115-1122. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0147

Wang, Y., Kung, L., & Byrd, T. A. (2018). Big data analytics: Understanding its capabilities and potential benefits for healthcare organizations. Technological Forecasting and Social Change126, 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.12.019

Annotated Bibliography

Agha, L. (2014). The effects of health information technology on the costs and quality of medical care. Journal of health economics34, 19-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415264/

The article uses qualitative study to determine the impact of health information technology (HIT) on the quality and the cost of medicare. The author aimed to determine if the technology has the potential to enhance the quality of healthcare in America through eliminating the challenges of utilizing a paper system such as increased possibility of errors, which reduces health outcomes attained.

The article is relevant for the study as it details the impact of HIT adoption on the quality of healthcare. The findings indicate that the adoption of HIT does not affect cost savings while it has little effect on the quality of care as measured by adverse drug events, readmission and mortality rates.

Agree, E. M. (2014). The potential for technology to enhance independence for those aging with a disability. Disability and health journal7(1), S33-S39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.09.004

The author employs a qualitative research study design to examine the potential of new emerging ‘smart’ technologies that have contributed to the development of individualized tools that will enable persons with disabilities to meet their needs. The technologies can also accelerate improvement in health and the quality of life for the aging population and improve their independence.

The article is relevant for this study because it provides details on the importance of technology for access to quality healthcare. Assistive technologies ensure independent functioning. However, the author acknowledges issues concerning access and usability of the technologies, which determines their usefulness.

Austin, J., Bentkover, J., & Chait, L. (2016). Setting the stage: Today’s healthcare challenges. In Leading strategic change in an era of healthcare transformation (pp. 15-24). Springer, Cham. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319307756

The book employs qualitative research and cases studies to offer a strategic framework that will ensure a strategic and transformative change in the healthcare industry. The industry across the globe is faced with a challenge of increasing demand for care in the the face of the rising cost of providing such care.

The book is relevant for the study as it informs healthcare leadership on why and when to implement changes that improve access to healthcare. It offers knowledge about leading change that is relevant for the leadership in the healthcare sector to ensure transformative change in the sector. Evolution in healthcare systems will promote sustainable access to healthcare for generations to come.

Douthit, N., Kiv, S., Dwolatzky, T., & Biswas, S. (2015). Exposing some important barriers to health care access in rural USA. Public health129(6), 611-620. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0033350615001584

The authors employed a literature review study design to examine rural healthcare provisions and access in the USA. The article focused on evaluating barriers in seeking healthcare services in the rural USA. Variation between access to healthcare in the urban and rural areas in country was determined. Such variations occurred due to financial constraints, scarcity of services, and lack of trained physicians especially in the rural areas.

The article is relevant as it outlines underlying issues that affect access to healthcare. The findings indicate that ongoing reform is required to increase comprehensive health insurance coverage and encourage healthcare providers and residents to engage in health promotion.

Gordon, W. J., & Catalini, C. (2018). Blockchain technology for healthcare: facilitating the transition to patient-driven interoperability. Computational and structural biotechnology journal16, 224-230. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30069284/

The authors use qualitative research study design to evaluate patient – driven interoperability that ensures patient-driven and patient-driven health data exchange. However, the authors acknowledge that patient-driven interoperability is associated with challenges that involve security, privacy, technology and incentives.

The paper is relevant for the study because it offers mechanisms that will reduce challenges encountered during the implementation of patient interoperability. The authors propose the use of blockchain-enabled patient interoperability to facilitate the transition from institution centric to patient-centric data sharing. Blockchain technology uses various mechanisms such as digital access rules, data liquidity, data aggression, patient identity, and data immutability to address the concerns of data sharing in healthcare systems.

Kvedar, J., Coye, M. J., & Everett, W. (2014). Connected health: a review of technologies and strategies to improve patient care with telemedicine and telehealth. Health Affairs33(2), 194-199. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0992

The article employs qualitative research study design to evaluate the idea of connected health as an overarching structure for telehealth and telemedicine and provides examples for its value to patients and healthcare professionals. The implementation of national health reforms enabled millions of Americans to gain access to healthcare system that is struggling with offering high quality care at a lower cost.

The article is relevant for the study because it examines the use of new healthcare technologies such as telemedicine to ensure access to high quality care. The authors propose that all parties involved in the healthcare delivery system should partner to test, evaluate, deploy, and pay for healthcare models, which offer high-quality care at reduced costs for American citizens.

Lewis, T. L., & Wyatt, J. C. (2014). mHealth and mobile medical apps: a framework to assess risk and promote safer use. Journal of medical Internet research16(9), e210. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25223398/

The article employs qualitative research study design to evaluate the risks associated with the use of medical apps for the delivery of medical knowledge. It also offers variables that can help modify these risks thereby, improving their safety. Medical apps are used to access medical knowledge and patient information at the point of care. However, the authors acknowledge the risks associated with medical applications. They developed a framework for assessing the specific risk that each app poses at a particular context.

The article is relevant for the study as it examines the potential benefits and effects of using medical apps. It identifies risks and mechanisms to reduce them thereby, ensuring patients’ safety. Moreover, the authors offer a generic risk framework that will enable developers, stakeholders, and users to examined risks posed by the apps at a particular context. Thus, the paper offers mechanisms for assessing risks to promote safe use of medical apps technology that increases access to quality healthcare by Americans.

Majumder, S., Aghayi, E., Noferesti, M., Memarzadeh-Tehran, H., Mondal, T., Pang, Z., & Deen, M. J. (2017). Smart homes for elderly healthcare—Recent advances and research challenges. Sensors17(11), 2496. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320740711

The authors use qualitative research study design to evaluate the need for developing affordable and easy to use healthcare solutions to ensure healthcare and well-being of the elderly population. The authors propose the use of smart homes that incorporate wearable medical sensors, modern communication and information technologies, and actuators to promote continuous monitoring of the health and well-being of the elderly at a low cost.

The article is essential for the research as it presents practical utilization of various technologies to offer high quality and affordable healthcare to the elderly. The rise of life expectancy globally due to advancement in medical technology and increased consciousness on personal hygiene and nutrition has contributed to the increase of the aging population. The paper presents a comprehensive review of remote healthcare technologies that are used in smart homes to improve care and well-being of the elderly.

Mallia, P. (2015). Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy18(1), 3-11. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25028162/

The author uses retrospective research design to examine disaster situations that healthcare professionals have encountered and the choices they made to save persons lives. Healthcare professionals are faced with ethical choices in disaster situations, especially when they have to select whom to treat first.

The paper is relevant for the study as it presents challenges that influence access to health. The author proposes that a crisis could arise if healthcare workers are not thought that ethics is not harmonizable in all situations and that there are circumstances where saving many lives could mean sacrificing others.

Murphy, J. (2010). The journey to meaningful use of electronic health records. Nursing Economics28(4), 283. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21761616/

The author uses a mixed research design (qualitative and quantitative research) to explain the transformations accomplished in the journey towards the use of electronic health records in America. The Recovery Act of 2009 that include that allocation of $787 billion intended to stimulate the economy also saw allocation of the funds to the healthcare system to improve the quality of services. Mostly, the funds enabled healthcare providers to purchase and EHR and HIT systems.

The article is relevant for the study as it explains that transformations achieved towards the realization of accessible and affordable healthcare to millions of Americans whether at home or within the healthcare facilities across the country.

Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., Marsch, L. A., & Bartels, S. J. (2016). The future of mental health care: peer-to-peer support and social media. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences25(2), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796015001067

The article employs qualitative research design to evaluate the impact of the use of social media technologies to improve mental health and well-being, especially among persons suffering from mental health issues. Online platforms allow individuals with mental health issues to share stories and strategies for coping with everyday challenges.

The article is essential because it outlines use of technologies to promote health seeking behavior. The platforms offer empowerment that could promote mental healthcare seeking behavior. Thus, the use of social media improves access to mental healthcare that in turn enhances the healthcare of individuals.

Pimentel, D., & Burgess, M. (2014). Environmental and economic costs of the application of pesticides primarily in the United States. In Integrated pest management (pp. 47-71). Springer, Dordrecht. http://www.biological-control.org/chemicalpest/usaPesticide.pdf

The authors use qualitative research study design to access the impact of the risig application of pesticides across the United States on the quality and cost of healthcare for its citizens. They claim that utilization of pesticides to controls pests affecting crops has contributed to high economic and environmental costs across the United States.

The article is relevant for the study because it outlines the impact of using particular technology on the environment and public health. Pesticides cause acute poisoning, and contribute to chronic conditions because some residues remain in food. Therefore, the utilization of pesticides has public health effects that lead to poor health.

Rodger, D., & Blackshaw, B., (2017). An introduction to ethical theory for Healthcare assistants. https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/bjha.2017.11.11.556#

The authors use qualitative research study design to provide an overview of ethical theories that are relevant for healthcare workers. These include virtue ethics, deontology, utilitarianism, and principlism. The authors argue that understanding these theories informs healthcare providers on the care for patients, challenges bad practice, and enables staff to be more informed on the areas of moral disagreement.

The article is relevant for the study because an understanding of the ethical theories that influence the quality of care, decision-making, and beliefs will enable healthcare workers to appreciate the diversity of moral views from colleagues and patients. It offers an overview for the practical application of the theories for ethical decision making for the delivery of quality healthcare to patients.

Roski, J., Bo-Linn, G. W., & Andrews, T. A. (2014). Creating value in health care through big data: opportunities and policy implications. Health affairs33(7), 1115-1122. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0147

The authors use qualitative research study design to evaluate the use of big data to create value in healthcare. They argue that the use of big data analytics, which is able to handle massive data at a high velocity, can improve healthcare outcomes at a low cost.

The article is relevant for the study as it details the importance of using healthcare information systems (IT) infrastructure to enable data use, access, sharing, and privacy thereby, creating value in healthcare. However, use of big data may require changing current policies to balance protection of patients’ confidentiality and potential benefits of using big data approaches.

Tolbert, J., Orgera, K., Singer, N., & Damico, A. (2019). Key facts about the uninsured population. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation . https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/

The author uses a mixed research design to present key facts about uninsured population in the United States and their struggle to access quality healthcare. The article outlines health coverage problem that has been persistent in the United States. Despite the adoption of Affordable Care Act (ACA) that sought to address gaps in health insurance coverage, millions of Americans are unstill an insured. The authors claim the number of an insured people increase by 500,000 each year. Therefore, they evaluate the effect of access and financial implications of not having health coverage.

The article is relevant is it outlines the impact of financial constraints on access to high quality healthcare. The high cost of insurance is cited as the leading reason for people being uninsured. Various variations among uninsured people exist, for instance, children and non-Hispanic whites are likely to be insured that people of color of adults from low income families. Hence, the high cost of insurance and health services influence access to quality healthcare among Americans.

Wang, Y., Kung, L., & Byrd, T. A. (2018). Big data analytics: Understanding its capabilities and potential benefits for healthcare organizations. Technological Forecasting and Social Change , 126 , 3-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.12.019

The article employs retrospective research study design to examine historical development, architectural design and component functionalities of big data analytics. The authors present benefits of implementation of big data analytics of healthcare IT infrastructure in operational, strategic, managerial, and organizational spheres.

The article is relevant because it outlines potential benefits and capabilities of big data analytics that can enable healthcare organizations to formulate effective data-driven strategies. It also delivers potential benefits such as traceability, analytical capability for patterns of care, predictive capability, decision support capability and unstructured data analytical capability.

Outline

Thesis Statement: Access to affordable and quality healthcare is a fundamental American right which can be attained through technological integration into available healthcare infrastructure.

I. First, access to health care improves quality of life.

A. A source of reassurance.

i. Promotes healthy lifestyle habits.

ii. Improves Patient satisfaction/engagement

B. Reduce the likelihood of premature death.

i. Early detection testing.

ii. Preventative treatment

C. Promotes socioeconomic status.

i. People with good health tend to move upward.

II. Second, utilization of technology improves quality of care

Promotes data sharing for optimal patient care

Facilitates peer-peer support

Care and continuous monitoring of the elderly

III. Second, technological integration has economic benefits

A. Government income through taxation/savings/subsidy (health care cost are increasing at an annual rate)

i. Taxation on cultivation and sale of health coverage.

ii. Long term cost savings.

B. Industrialization and job creation.

i. New establishments and resources.

ii. Development of companies dealing with outdated/none IT services.

C. Technology enhances the provision of quality care and improves public health.

i. The government spends more each year due to administrative errors. According to a study from the University of Michigan, switching to electronic records reduces the cost o outpatient care by 3%.

ii. When data is analyzed by experts, information can predict epidemics/trends.

IV. Counterargument & Rebuttal.

A. Medical technology and information technology can create risks.

i.Hazards arise due to software problems/poor network.

ii. There isn’t a uniform reporting system in place to define what is reportable

iii.Mistyping information/entering it into wrong field- these can be fatal.

B. Rebuttal.

i. Technology has welcomed change in healthcare. It allows patients to have access to some of the best care without a delay in care.

ii. Providers should be required to adopt up-to date technology systems.

V. Lastly and most importantly, the most significant argument for why access to technological integration into the health care is a fundamental American right.

A. Personal Mobile health

i.Medical information that is supported by technology. In 2015, approximately 80% of physicians used mobile devices and medical apps, and 25% applied them for patient care.

iii. Improved care and independence for the elderly and persons living with disability

B. Technology has improved all forms of health.

Mental healtht

Fitness and weight loss /medication management

Improved care and independence for the elderly and persons living with disability

VI. Conclusion

In this topic, the emphasis is on access to healthcare by the use of up-to date technology that is flexible to all people. Despite the concerns, it is important to understand that technology in healthcare means the advantages outweigh the disadvatanges. The economic benefits of fast and accessible health care saves lives.

UNRS 496 Grading Rubric: Senior Thesis Paper (125 points )
Student________________Title:_______________
Introduction· Thesis Statement clearly identified (8)· Purpose stated clearly (8)· Target Audience (3)· Ethical relevance (4)· Motivated the reader to engage and continue reading with use of creativity in writing (2)25
Organization of Content· Main ideas arranged effectively (5)· Support Thesis using current academic articles and books and points of view/ or Describe subject & bioethical relevance using current academic articles (15)· Argument well supported with references, ethical theory and principals Supporting argument 1 theory, 3 principles/ (15)· Opposing position supported by references, ethical theory and principals opposing argument 1 theory and 2 principles (15)The Arguments cannot use the same theory or principles· Flaws with either of the supporting/opposing arguments (5) (does not need to be both)· Faith Integration (10)· Value to Nursing using Standards of Practice/Code of Ethics/Social Policy Statement Integration & Clinical practice application (15)80___
Supporting Material· Quantity of resources (2)· Variety of resources (2)· Multidisciplinary resources (1)· You must include the Annotated Bibliography & Reference page to obtain points (1)5
Conclusion· Summary of main ideas or conclusions(5)· Clinical application appropriately summarized (5)10
Overall Paper Critique· Material thoroughly covered (2 points)· APA format with proper syntax, diction, usage, spelling, punctuation, grammar (13)· Material properly cited using mostly paraphrases with an occasional use of quotes(5)20
Total Points/140

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