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 TOPIC: I/O Project Part 2

This is a 2 part assignment

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This second part of the assignment allows you to further explore the key points that are included in a research study. You will present three possible theories or models that may serve as the theoretical foundation for the research study and a rationale for considering each theory.

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

· Refer to the Topic 3 assignment, “I/O Project Part 1” as well as any related feedback from the instructor.

· Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. 

· Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for specific guidelines related to doctoral level writing. The Manual contains essential information on manuscript structure and content, clear and concise writing, and academic grammar and usage.

· This assignment requires that at least two additional scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included.

· You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Directions:

Part 1

Present a revised version (2,000-2,300 words total) of the paper “I/O Project Part 1” that makes improvements in the caliber of the writing and incorporates instructor feedback regarding content and writing. Include the following in your submission:

1. A reflection (250-300 words) that provides a bulleted list of the changes you made to the paper and discusses your revision process including how you incorporated your instructor’s feedback into the revised version. Similar to an abstract, this section will receive its own page following the title page and preceding the introduction to the paper.

2. The revised paper that incorporates instructor feedback; clarifies the thesis statement and solidifies supporting arguments; edits for grammar, spelling, and punctuation; adjusts word choice to display professional and scholarly language; and adjusts sentence structure for improved readability.

Part 2

Write an additional 1,500-1,750 words in which you identify three theories that could potentially serve as the theoretical foundation for your dissertation study. This section should flow naturally from the revised paper. So, you may also need to revise your introduction and thesis statement to allow the ideas to connect. Include the following in your paper for each of the three theories you select:

1. A description of the primary components of the theory.

2. A research-supported discussion of common applications of the theory.

3. A research-supported defense of why the theory might be viable for your proposed dissertation study.

4. A discussion of the limitations of applying the theory as a foundation for your proposed dissertation study.

FACTOR RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR UTILIZATION OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN TEXAS 2

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2

The running head is an abbreviated Title – Try this: MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN TEXAS

Hi Kenny,

I’m not exactly sure what the proposed topic is. You seem to be taking on more than is necessary. I don’t think you need to bring in Social Cognitive theory.

This seem like it would be more of a Needs Assessment, with the data coming from qualitative interviews.

See if you can lineup interviews with some of the larger mental health service providers, then do the same with the small providers, see what differences you get. That could be a doable, worthwhile project.

Dr. Kramer

Factor Responsible for Poor Utilization of Mental Health Services in Texas

PSY-830-Principles of Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Grand Canyon University

September 10, 2020

Factors Responsible for Poor Utilization of Mental Health Services in Texas

Rationale for the Topic

The topic for this dissertation is “Factor Responsible for Poor Utilization of Mental Health Services in Texas”. The study aims to determine the main factors that act as barriers to mental health utilization. It is very critical for the discipline of Industrial-Organization psychology to study this topic because it provides significant insights on how to improve the well-being of patients in mental healthcare organizations. This study can provide significant information about the characteristics of staff members in mental health organizations and matching them with patient’s needs to ensure increased productivity.

This particular study also provides an opportunity to study how the behavior of mental healthcare organizations affects the ability of patients to utilize mental health services. Role expectations, management styles and social norms are all factors that can affect the behavior of individuals in an organization. Understanding these factors can help psychologists improve individual performance for the benefit of the organization. This particular study will provide a deeper understanding on the role-played by these factors in poor utilization of mental health services. The knowledge developed in the study can be used by I-O psychologist to improve their performance in the organizational setting

Gap in the Literature

Poor utilization of mental health in the United States and particularly Texas has resulted in significant adverse effects. While numerous studies have been conducted on the issue of mental health, few have focused on determining the factors that influence individuals to utilize mental health (Ly, 2019). As a result, it has been difficult for researchers and mental health professionals to come up with effective strategies for improving the utilization of mental health services. According to Basu et al., (2016) changes in policies that have been experienced in the past few years have created a substantial gap in the access to mental health services among low income earners especially women in Texas. The study indicated the importance of understanding the relationship between welfare reforms and mental healthcare outcomes in the State. Ly, (2019) suggested that more studies need to be conducted to determine the impacts of culture on the utilization of mental healthcare services. While the study found a link between culture and poor utilization of mental services, its small sample size limited the ability to generalize the results.

Kwan et al., (2020) found that there was a close relationship between poor utilization of mental health services and cultural barriers, language, mental health stigma and cost associated with mental health services. People from poor communities who are at a high risk of developing mental disorders are unable to access services due to lack of enough financial services. People are also not willing to come out and seek mental health services as a result of stigma. This study did not explore these themes in detail to determine their impact on the poor utilization of healthcare. Kwan et al., (2020) recommended that more studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to validate the findings.

In another study aiming to evaluate mental utilization among the elderly, Volkert et al. (2018) found that most aged people failed to utilize mental health services because they believed they could deal with their situations. The study was however limited by the fact that it used a small sample size and the research design used could have introduced bias. The researchers suggested that more studies should be conducted in the area to validate the results.

Problem Statement

It was not known what mental health providers identify as factors influencing individual’s decision to utilize mental care services. Additionally, it was not known what mental health providers identify as factors contributing to the rejection of mental health services by patients. It was also not known what strategies are used by mental health providers to address the rejection of mental health services by patients experiencing mental illness. This gap in literature made it difficult for mental health providers in Texas to improve delivery of mental health services to patients with mental illnesses. This study aims to fill this gap in literature and also increase understanding of the utilization of mental health services.

Over the past few years, the number of people experiencing mental health illness has increased significantly in the United States. In addition, more people are experiencing adverse effects associated with mental conditions (Ly, 2019). This is as a result of poor utilization of mental health services. Despite concerted efforts by both state and the federal government to improve the access to mental health services, statistics show that most people suffering from mental conditions do not utilize these services. Emerging evidence suggests that the numbers of children in the United States experiencing mental health illnesses has also increased significantly over the past ten years.

Numerous studies have indicated the need for more research to be conducted in the area to determine the main cause of poor utilization of mental services (Ly, 2019). Few studies have shown a connection between poor mental health utilization and beliefs of people in the society. However, these studies have not delved deeper into the issue to bring an extensive understanding on the issue. This study will utilize the existing literature to explore factors that could be the leading cause of poor utilization of mental health services in Texas. The study will also examine why existing strategies for encouraging people to utilize mental health care services have been ineffective.

Theoretical Foundation

This study is based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The theory was developed by Albert Bandura in 1960s as an advancement of the Social Learning Theory. The theory suggests that learning occurs in the social context with reciprocal and dynamic interaction of environment, the person and behavior. The SCT has a unique feature that emphasizes on social influence as well as internal and external social reinforcement. It considers how an individual acquires and maintains a behavior as well as the environment where the behavior is performed. SCT also consider the experiences of an individual which determines whether a certain behavior will occur.

The past experiences of an individual influences’ expectations, expectancy, and reinforcements all of which determine whether a person will engage in a certain behavior. Most behavioral theories focus on initiating a behavior rather than maintenance of the behavior. This is a serious concern because maintenance of behavior is the main goal of public health. The main aim of SCT is to explain how individuals regulate their behavior to achieve a certain desired outcome that can be maintained in a period of time.

Morin & Cherry, (2019) noted that SCT is an applicable theory in the promotion and prevention of mental health. The constructs of the theory related to behavior change include:

· Self-efficacy: This is the level of individual’s confidence that he/she can effectively control and execute a behavior. This construct is a unique component in SCT although recently other theories have added it to their components (Beauchamp, Crawford & Jackson, 2019).

· Behavioral capability: This is the ability of an individual to execute a behavior through basic understanding and skills.

· Expectations: the anticipated outcomes of an individual behavior. The expected outcomes can either be health related or not related to health (Beauchamp, Crawford & Jackson, 2019).

· Expectancy: This refers to assigning a value to the anticipated outcomes of the behavior.

· Self-Control: This refers to the ability of an individual to monitor and regulate their behavior (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020).

· Observational learning: This suggests that individuals can watch and observe behaviors performed by others and model the desired behavior. By witnessing successful demonstration of a behavior, a person can also execute the behavior effectively.

· Reinforcements: This refers to promotional rewards and incentives that encourage individuals to maintain a certain behavior. Reinforcements can either be positive or negative and self-initiated or in the environment. This is an important component of the SCT (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020).

Like all other behavioral theories, SCT has its fair share of limitations. These limitations must be considered when applying the theory in public health. One of SCT limitation is that it assumes that environmental changes will automatically initiate changes in the behavior of an individual which may not always be true. The theory is also solely based on the interactions between the environment, behavior and an individual and therefore is loosely organized. It is not clear whether one of these factors is influential than the others or the extent to which each of the factors influence actual behavior (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020).

In addition, the theory does not consider hormonal and biological predispositions that may have significant influence on behavior. It also does not focus on motivation and emotions of an individual. In general, it can be difficult to implement the theory effectively particularly in the field of public health. Despite these limitations, the theory provides significant insights on the initiation and maintenance of a behavior. As a result, it is very applicable in this study as it will help the researcher to evaluate the factors initiating the negative behavior to utilization of mental health services. This is particularly important because the interaction of individuals and the environment is important in this study.

Research Questions

The following research questions will be utilized to develop a deeper understanding of the factors influencing utilization of mental health services.

· RQ1: What do mental health providers identify as factors contributing to patient’s utilization of mental health services? 

· RQ 2: What strategies do mental health providers use to encourage patients to use mental health services? 

· RQ3: What do mental health providers identify as factors contributing to patient’s rejection of mental health services? 

· RQ 4: What strategies do mental health providers use to address patient’s rejection of mental health services? 

Location of the Study

The study will take place in Harris County, Texas, United States. This location was selected because it has numerous mental health institutions making it easy for the researcher to access the target population. In addition, previous studies have identified Harris County as one of the areas significantly affected by poor utilization of mental health services. This provides an opportunity for the researcher to get insight from mental health providers on this particular issue. The location also has a huge population that makes increases the reliability and the validity of the results obtained.

Definition of Variable or Phenomenon

A qualitative methodology will be used in this study to help the researcher answer the research questions. As a result, various phenomena will be explored in this study . The study will focus on the factors that are responsible for the poor utilization of mental health services in Harris County. Previous studies have shown that most people in Texas do not seek mental health services. However, the root cause of poor utilization of mental health services is not known. This study will provide significant insight concerning the root causes associated with poor utilization of mental health in the county.

The study will also evaluate the high number of people experiencing mental health conditions in the state. Emerging evidence has suggested that adults, the youth, and young children are affected by mental health conditions in Texas. Previous studies have not been able to explain comprehensively the main cause of the increase rate of mental health conditions in Harris County. Evidence suggests that some behaviors may be a predisposing factor to the development of mental health conditions. However, it is critical to conduct a more detailed study to develop deeper understanding on the main causes of the increase in mental illnesses in the region.

It has been reported that Harris County has been misappropriating its allocated budget for mental healthcare. This study aims to investigate the circumstances that have led to the poor utilization of financial resources allocate for mental health services. In a state where mental health is a significant public health problem, it is critical to establish why the local and state governments have failed to utilize the financial resources allocated to them concerning mental healthcare appropriately. This is important in developing effective strategies for effective use of funding for mental healthcare in the County.

References

Basu, S., Rehkopf, D. H., Siddiqi, A., Glymour, M. M., & Kawachi, I. (2016). Health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization among single mothers after welfare reforms in the 1990s. American Journal of Epidemiology, 183(6), 531-538. doi:10.1093/aje/kwv249

Beauchamp, M. R., Crawford, K. L., & Jackson, B. (2019). Social cognitive theory and physical activity: Mechanisms of behavior change, critique, and legacy. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 42, 110-117. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.009

Kwan, P. P., Soniega-Sherwood, J., Esmundo, S., Watts, J., Pike, J., Sabado-Liwag, M., & Palmer, P. H. (2019). Access and utilization of mental health services among pacific islanders. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 11(2), 69-78. doi:10.1037/aap0000172

Ly, A. (2019). Mental illnesses and barriers to seeking mental health care in the Vietnamese community in Austin, Texas from the perspectives of community leaders and providers doi:10.26153/tsw/8260 Retrieved from https://search.datacite.org/works/10.26153/tsw/8260

Morin, A. & Cherry, K. (2019). How Social Learning Theory Works. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/social-learning-theory-2795074

Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.101832

Volkert, J., Andreas, S., Härter, M., Dehoust, M. C., Sehner, S., Suling, A., . . . Schulz, H. (2018). Predisposing, enabling, and need factors of service utilization in the elderly with mental health problems. International Psychogeriatrics, 30(7), 1027-1037. doi:10.1017/S1041610217002526

…services…

If you say numerous studies, you should cite numerous studies, or a review article.

This is the most widely used phrase in graduate student writing, try to avoid it. Make the authors active, try this:

Basu et al., (2016) reported that changes in…

Unless there are six or more authors, list them all the first time, after that go to et al.

Which study? Basu or Ly.

This works.

I’m not sure what this means. Was it a problem getting on Medicaid?

They recommended…

When you can, try not to refer to the “study.”

Volkert et al. (2018) evaluated mental health service utilization among the elderly. They found that most

Kick this to the next page.

Be careful of Widows and Orphans.

It is not known…

… gap in the literature makes it…

…close…

Don’t need it.

“also” is one of those words that is often not needed.

… mental health issues…

… mental health difficulties…

Be careful of repeating words.

Find the citation.

I would get rid of the bullet points. I don’t see what it is adding.

Cite Bandura

…overcome barriers to mental…

Don’t need it.

Don’t need it.

A qualitative methodology will be used to help answer the research questions.

Don’t need it.

Be careful of being too wordy. Simple short sentences.

…services…

If you don’t have to, don’t extend yourself.

See the last comment.

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