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Educators strive to create a classroom that instills creativity and innovation. In this discussion, you will think about the creative and innovative instructional approach known as the flipped classroom (Links to an external site.) while making direct connections to the Common Core State Standards and teacher decision-making based on student assessments. Reflecting on your previous discussion on CCSS (Links to an external site.) in Week Two, you will complete the three parts of this discussion’s initial post.

There are three parts to this discussion, which are described below.

Part 1

  • Discuss      how the flipped classroom idea can be used in conjunction with CCSS (Math      or English Language Arts)
  • Describe      ways you could incorporate technology used in the flipped classroom idea      to support the Framework for 21st Century      Learning (Links to an external site.)      in the classroom as it relates to decision making based on student      assessments.

Part 2
Now, think about assessments you have created or used in the past to address the following:

  • Discuss      if a school or teacher should use a multimedia resource that is absolutely      amazing in delivering both content and assessment but is not accessible.
  • Evaluate      whether the resource must be excluded from a course if there are no      reasonably equivalent accessible alternatives.

Part 3

  • Attach      a link to your Folio.

In one paragraph, reflect on your experience with the redesign in terms of challenges you encountered during the Week Two Assignment and how you overcame those challenges including any difficulties experienced in revising to meet the components of one ISTE-S standard (Links to an external site.) and the CCSS (Links to an external site.) (Math or English Language Arts) which are aligned with a minimum of one core subject and 21st century themes (Links to an external site.) and a minimum of one learning and innovation skill (Links to an external site.), one information, media, and technology skill (Links to an external site.), and evidence of at least one life and career skill (Links to an external site.) 

Week 3 Discussion Creativity and Innovation

Educators strive to create a classroom that instills creativity and innovation. In this discussion, you will think about the creative and innovative instructional approach known as the flipped classroom (Links to an external site.) while making direct connections to the Common Core State Standards and teacher decision-making based on student assessments. Reflecting on your previous discussion on CCSS (Links to an external site.) in Week Two, you will complete the three parts of this discussion’s initial post.

There are three parts to this discussion, which are described below.

Part 1

· Discuss how the flipped classroom idea can be used in conjunction with CCSS (Math or English Language Arts)

· Describe ways you could incorporate technology used in the flipped classroom idea to support the Framework for 21st Century Learning (Links to an external site.) in the classroom as it relates to decision making based on student assessments.

Part 2 Now, think about assessments you have created or used in the past to address the following:

· Discuss if a school or teacher should use a multimedia resource that is absolutely amazing in delivering both content and assessment but is not accessible.

· Evaluate whether the resource must be excluded from a course if there are no reasonably equivalent accessible alternatives.

Part 3

· Attach a link to your Folio .

· In one paragraph, reflect on your experience with the redesign in terms of challenges you encountered during the Week Two Assignment and how you overcame those challenges including any difficulties experienced in revising to meet the components of one ISTE-S standard (Links to an external site.) and the CCSS (Links to an external site.) (Math or English Language Arts) which are aligned with a minimum of one core subject and 21st century themes (Links to an external site.) and a minimum of one learning and innovation skill (Links to an external site.) , one information, media, and technology skill (Links to an external site.) , and evidence of at least one life and career skill (Links to an external site.) .

Technology and Communication

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

1. Evaluate the importance of and value in sharing assessment items, rubrics, and 21st century practices with colleagues.

2. Reflect on the impact digital technology tools has had on your ability to research, organize, evaluate, and communicate information while considering the ethical and legal issues and challenges associated with using these technologies.

Introduction

In Week Two, you participated in a discussion about diversity in the classroom and the use of CCSS in relation to technology. During Week Three, you will think about and debate the role critical thinking and problem solving has in the classroom. Furthermore, this week you will reflect on how technology plays a large role in today’s classrooms in the United States. In this week’s redesign assignment, you will make the connection between high-quality assessment and learning and innovation skills. Additionally, you will continue to work on your Folio and share a section of your Week Two Assignment

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Read the standards (Links to an external site.) . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards

· This web page provides information on how the standards communicate what is expected of students at each grade level. The focus of CCSS is on core conceptual understandings and procedures starting in the early grades, providing teachers a timeline needed to teach core concepts and allowing each student the time needed to master the concepts. This resource will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist.

Website

Folio. (https://ashford.instructure.com/users/893/external_tools/2653)

· This website provides a Folio resource. This resource will support student completion of the final project, as well as discussions and assignments throughout the course. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist

Supplemental Material

Brame, C., (2013). Flipping the classroom (Links to an external site.) . Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. Retrieved from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/

· This resource provides information related to the use of technology in the classroom as well as how the flipped classroom approach takes learning outside of the classroom for students to experience independently, moving homework help back into the classroom. This resource will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist.

Recommended Resources

Text

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day . International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved from http://proquest.libguides.com/ebrary

· Bergmann and Sams discuss how students need their teachers present to answer questions or to provide help if they get stuck on an assignment; they don’t need their teachers present to listen to a lecture or review content. This resource will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week.

Articles

Gray, A. (2013). Week four, discussion 1: Data analysis practice scenario Preview the document. College of Education, Ashford University, San Diego, CA.

· This document was used to inform your Week Four Discussion response for those that have completed EDU 671 when practicing data analysis and serves as a reminder to help inform your response to Discussion Two in Week Three of this course.

Nelson, M. E., (2012). Review of deconstructing digital natives (Links to an external site.) [Review of the book, Deconstructing digital natives: Young people, technology, and the new literacies by M. Thomas (Ed.)]. Language, Learning, & Technology, 16(3), 35-39. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/issues/october2012/review1.pdf

· Nelson discusses the ideas behind Prensky (2001) and the flipped classroom. The review discusses the myth, perspectives and beyond digital natives examining the varied interpretations and significance of Prensky’s ideas. Nelson reports research that grounds and tests the digital natives/digital immigrants formulation. This resource will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week.

Web Page

Defining critical thinking (Links to an external site.) . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/define_critical_thinking.cfm

· On this web page, critical thinking is defined with specific examples. This resource will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week. Accessibility Statement does not exist. Privacy Policy does not exist.

EDU696

Week Three Instructor Guidance

As you were reminded in Week Two, it is a good idea to look ahead to Week Five to prepare for the group activity – ask questions now with a quick email to your instructor if you are unclear about any of the requirements for the group activity. In Week Two, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were discussed as well as a summary of your understanding of the foundation of the CCSS in Math and English Language Arts. This week, one discussions and an assignment are required.

Week Three Intellectual Elaboration

The intellectual elaboration for Week Three explores 21st Century Learning Skills, the cognitive taxonomy, often referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy, or the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the process for creating high quality assessments.

21st Century Learning Skills

The concept of 21st Century Learning Skills recognizes the need for students to think critically, analyze information, comprehend new ideas, communicate, collaborate, solve problems, and make decisions. In 1956, a group of educational psychologists, headed by Benjamin Bloom, created a system that categorized the level of intellection in assessment questions commonly used in educational settings (Krathwohl 2002; Clark, 1999). Figure 1, below, shows the original taxonomy.

Figure 1. Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom, 1994)

· Evaluate is the ability to make judgments about information, provide for validity on ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. It is the ability to debate a subject and provide evidence for your answer

· Synthesis is the “…ability to compile information together to form new patterns or proposals to alternative solutions” (Krathwohl, 2002, p. 212).

· Analysis is process of examining and breaking down information into parts to identify motives or causes. To make inferences on and find supporting evidence to support the information.

· Application is “… using new knowledge. Solving problems in a new situation by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way ” (Krathwohl, 2002, p. 212).

· Comprehension is the basic demonstration of understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing and translating the information into the main ideas.

· Knowledge, the lowest on Bloom’s Taxonomy is the recalling of facts, terms, and basic concepts to answer questions.

Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning

The cognitive taxonomy has been used by educators to guide curriculum assessment and development for decades. However, while the levels of thought are still recognized as valid, 21st Century Skills required a revision of Bloom’s terms and considerations of how technology influences the assessment of the levels. Essentially, the revisions require technology skills to be of use in today’s classrooms (Krathwohl, 2002; Clark, 1999).

Table 1, below, lists the cognitive level and some verbs commonly associated with assessment at each level in the traditional and digital realms. For additional inspiration about designing with the revised taxonomy, see Johnson (2008) or search online where you can find multiple resources for designing and assessing learning in the digital age with the cognitive taxonomy.

Cognitive LevelTraditional Assessment StrategiesDigital Assessment Strategies
  Creatingdesigning, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, makingprogramming, filming, animating, blogging, mixing, wikiing, publishing, podcasting
  Evaluatingchecking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoringreviewing, posting, moderating, collaborating, and networking
  Analyzingcomparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integratingmashing, linking, tagging, validating, cracking
  Applyingimplementing, carrying out, using, executingrunning, loading, operating, uploading, sharing, editing
 Understandinginterpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifyingadvanced searches, Boolean searches, blog journaling, twittering, commenting, annotating, subscribing
  RememberingRecognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, findingBulleting, highlighting, bookmarking, searching, Googling

Table 1. Comparison of Traditional and Digital Assessment Strategies for Cognitive Taxonomy; adapted from Krathwohl (2002) and Clark (1999).

Creating High Quality Assessments

Keeping the Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy restructuring in mind, in regards to 21st Century Skills, one can debate the issue of creating high quality assessments for today’s students. Many states and school districts across the nation are discussing student assessments as they move to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Standards focus on an increased need for deeper learning and the students’ ability to analyze, synthesize, compare, connect critique, hypothesize, prove, and explain their ideas. Therefore, the question becomes: are assessments still valid measures of student learning when the CCSS promotes a deeper learning of 21st Century skills?

Chapter 5 of Brown and Burnaford (2014) includes several articles on the topic of dynamic curriculum and instruction in the 21st Century. For example in the article by Boss and Krauss (2007) they discuss the need to include project based learning into the classroom to support 21st century learning using real world assessments. Additionally, the Noddings (2013) article discusses the need to create in classrooms the “…concept for guiding a dynamic approach in the 21st century suggests the critical role of creating and making in an environment that fosters problem solving and critical thinking” (p.19).

Week Three Assessments Overview

Remember to review the full instructions for each assessment on the Week Three homepage in addition to the guidance provided here.

Discussion 1 – Creativity and Innovation

Discussion one ask you to think about the concept of the Flipped Classroom; an instructional approach that brings creativity and innovation to the classroom. A direct connection will be made between the flipped classroom concept, the Common Core State Standards, and teacher decision-making based on student assessments. You also attach a link to your Folio and reflect on your redesign activity from your Week Two assignment. In this discussion reflect back on the discussion of Common Core State Standards from week two, discussion one and how the incorporation of technology was used to enhance instruction. Think about how the concept of the Flipped Classroom in relationship to the incorporation of technology, assessment and student learning all intertwine to create a learning experience for diverse learners.

Assignment – Learning and Innovation Skills and Student Assessment

This assignment requires you to make connections between high quality assessment with 21st Century Learning and Innovation Skills. Using the Framework for 21st Century Learning as a resource, you will redesign or modify a prior activity from one of your courses in your Master’s program. For this assignment; consider all the discussions you have had to date about differentiated instruction, diversity, assessment/report cards and technology. Consider as well the information presented this week in the instructor guidance about the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning list. You may want to include in your discussion how this revision of Bloom’s affects students’ assessments and learning in the classroom.

References

Bloom, B. S. (1994). Reflections on the development and use of the taxonomy. In Rehage, Kenneth J.; Anderson, Lorin W.; Sosniak, Lauren A. “Bloom’s taxonomy: A forty-year retrospective”. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 93(2).

Boss, S. & Krauss, J. (2007). Mapping the journey: Seeing the big picture. In Reinventing project based learning: Your field guide to real-world projects in the digital age. Washington, DC: ISTE.

Brown, T. & Burnaford, G. (2014). Masters in education capstone reader. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Clark, D. R. (1999). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

Gerwetz, C. (June, 2013). Experts urge states to stay course on high-quality assessments (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2013/06/experts_issue_assessment_crite.html

Johnson, L. (2008). Bloom’s taxonomy: Designing activities tutorial (Links to an external site.)(Flash File). Retrieved from http://media.ccconline.org/ccco/FacWiki/TeachingResources/Blooms_Taxonomy_Tutorials/BloomsTaxonomy_Activities_Tabs/BloomsTaxonomyActivitiesTabs.swf

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: An overview. Routledge 41 (4). 212–218.

Noddings, N. (2013). Standardized curriculum and loss of creativity. Theory into Practice, 52(210), 215.