Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage oneself and relationships with others. It is one of the most important factors in successful leadership and management. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is twice as effective as cognitive intelligence (IQ) and expertise. Superior performers who have high emotional intelligence and self-awareness scores contribute more than twice the revenues to the firm and are four times more likely to be promoted in the company. Self-awareness lies at the heart of the ability to master oneself. It clarifies priorities and goals, creates direction in our lives, effectively manages time and stress, in addition to being adaptive and flexible. We cannot improve ourselves or develop new capabilities until we know our current level of competency. Self knowledge is a prerequisite for and motivator of growth and improvement.
The Self-Awareness Survey identifies self-disclosure and openness to feedback from others. In addition, it discloses awareness of terminal and instrumental values, cognitive style, change orientation, and interpersonal orientation. This assessment correlates with the Johari Window information discussed in Session 2.
Self awareness can be managed by exercising some control over sensitivity lines, threat-rigidity responses, and self-disclosure. The feedback and support individuals receive from others provides information that helps discover our self-awareness without crossing the sensitive line.
Managing diversity, whether it is gender, age, culture, or ethnicity, is an important attribute of effective management. We observe differences to help us understand potential sources of misunderstanding. We create distinction, which often destroys trust. Identifying differences is helpful. Creating distinctions can be hurtful in building trust and understanding.
Source: Reprinted, by permission of the publisher, from “Minds and Managers: On the Dual Nature of Human Information Processing and Management,” Academy of Management Review, 1981. ©1981, Academy of Management. All rights reserved. Click HERE if you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader.
The Defining Issues Test assesses opinions about controversial social issues. What action would you take? Why? After reading the story, rate each statement in terms of importance in making a decision. Select the four most important statements and rank them 1-4 with 1 being the most important. Use 5 if the statement does not make sense, or if you do not understand its meaning.
· The Escaped Prisoner (p. 49)
· The Doctor’s Dilemma (p. 50)
· The Newspaper (p. 51)
The Defining Issues Test identifies in which stage of moral development you are when facing moral dilemmas. Reference Comparison Data scores and the end of the chapter, and compare your results.
Four of the most critical areas of self-awareness in developing successful management skills are:
· Personal values
· Learning styles
· Orientation toward change
· Interpersonal orientation
Refer to Figure 1.2 on p. 63 for the Five Core Aspects of Self-Awareness.
Personal values define an individual’s basic standards about what is good and bad, worthwhile and worthless, desirable and undesirable, true and false, moral and immoral. Values are separated into distinct types: instrumental and terminal. Instrumental values are means-oriented (morality and competence). Instrumental values are standards of conduct or methods for attaining an end. Terminal values are ends-oriented and represent desirable ends or goals for the individual. As individuals progress from one level of maturity to another, value priorities change. Refer to Values maturity on pp. 70-72 and review Table 1.2 – Kohlberg’s Classification of Moral Judgment into Stages of Development. Kohlberg’s theory identifies the stage on which the person relies most. This theory assumes that individuals use more than one level of maturity (or set of instrumental values); however, one level generally predominates.
The level of values maturity has important practical implications that relate to ethical decision making. A major conflict that most managers face is the decision of maximizing the economic performance of the organization (revenues, costs, profits) with the social performance of the organization (obligations to customers, employees, suppliers). According to Kohlberg’s research, most individuals do not follow a well-developed set of principles in making decisions.
The Learning Style
Learning Style determines individual thought processes, perceptions, and methods for acquiring and storing information. It also determines interpretation, judgment, and response to the information. The Learning Style Inventory relates to Maslow’s Four Stages of Learning discussed below.
· How do you approach new learning opportunities?
· What method of learning will help you become a more effective manager?
Comparison Data scores are located at the end of the chapter.
4 Stages of Learning
Abraham Maslow has given us a valuable conceptual framework to understand how we learn anything:
1. Unconscious Incompetence
We don’t know that we don’t know.
An energetic two-year-old boy wants to ride a bike that he sees his older brother riding. But he doesn’t know that he doesn’t know how to ride it. All he says is, “Mommy, I want to ride the bike.” Most of us in business who have never had extensive feedback about our interpersonal skills are at this state of unconscious incompetence. We simply are not aware of our interpersonal communication.
2. Conscious Incompetence
We know that we don’t know.
Here, we learn that we are not competent at something. This often comes as a rude awakening. The two-year-old boy gets on a bike and falls off. He has immediately gone from stage one to stage two and knows that he does not know how to ride a bike. A communicator with “slow blink” or “the fig leaf” knows for the first time that he or she has a distracting eye pattern or gesture when it is realized first-hand by that person.
3. Conscious Competence
We work at what we don’t know.
Here, we consciously make an effort to learn a new skill. Practice, drill, and repetition are at the forefront. This is where most learning takes place. It takes effort and work. The little boy carefully steers and balances and pedals and thinks of what he is doing, step by step. The person with slow blink (or a fig leaf or non-words or monotone, etc.) consciously works at changing a distracting habit.
4. Unconscious Competence
We don’t have to think about knowing it.Here, the skill set happens automatically at an unconscious level. The little boy rides his bike without even thinking about it. He can whistle, talk, sing, or do other things with his mind at the same time. A speaker with a distracting habit who has learned to overcome it through practice does not have to concentrate on not doing the distracting habit.
Adapted from The Art of Communicating: Achieving Interpersonal Impact in Business.
Attitudes Toward Change
Attitudes toward change focuses on the methods people use to cope with change in the environment. Is an individual open or closed, assertive or retiring, controlling or dependent, affectionate or aloof? Locus of control and intolerance of ambiguity are two effective measurements of how we deal with rapidly changing, tumultuous conditions. Comparison Data scores are located at the end of the chapter.
Tolerance of Ambiguity might be caused by a lack of information or uncertainty that could make a person uncomfortable. Ambiguity arises from three main sources: novelty, complexity, and insolubility. High scores indicate a greater intolerance for ambiguity. Comparison Data scores are located at the end of the chapter.
Emotional Intelligence Assessment
Emotional intelligence is the ability to diagnose, recognize, and control your emotions. People with emotional intelligence can also diagnose, recognize, and emphasize with the feelings of others. Seventy four percent of successful managers have emotional intelligence as their most salient characteristic. A study at PepsiCo found that company units headed by managers with well-developed emotional intelligence skills outperformed yearly revenue targets by 15 to 20 percent.
Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES)
The Core-Evaluation Scale (CSES) encompasses personality traits that make each individual unique in behaviors, attitudes, emotional reactions, and thought patterns. The authors refer to the “Big Five” personality attributes of extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness.
*Developing Management Skills
· Author: David A. Whetten and Kim S. Cameron
· Publisher: Pearson
· Edition: 9th edition