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MicroEssay 

Identify a behavioral tendency that you believe you have inherited (one that is determined, at least in part, by your genetic make-up). Explain the ways you think this trait has been affected by your environment by applying the different types of gene x environment correlations to your example (passive, evocative, and active)? What does this suggest about the nature-nurture debate?

Week 2.html

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Introduction  

 This week we will focus on Chapter 2. You will gain a basic understanding of the biological foundations of lifespan development, and you will understand how development is the result of reciprocal interactions between a person’s biological foundations and their environment. This is a lighter week in terms of workload… enjoy!

Learning Objectives

By the completion of this module, the student should be able to do the following:

  • Define the basic biological components of lifespan development
  • Describe the interactive nature of genes and environment on developmental trajectories.

To Do (in order):

Slides: Chunk 2.1 – Mechanisms of Heredity and Family Influences

Slides: Chunk 2.2 – SES

Slides: Chunk 2.3 – Gene/Environment Interaction and correlations

         MICROESSAY 1: Identify a behavioral tendency that you believe you have inherited (one that is determined, at least in part, by your genetic make-up). Explain the ways you think this trait has been affected by your environment by applying the different types of gene x environment correlations to your example (passive, evocative, and active)? What does this suggest about the nature-nurture debate?

Slides: Chunk 2.4 – Epigenesis

Slides: Chunk 2.5 – General Risk Factors and Prenatal Development

Assignments:

Reading: 40-42; 45-50; 57-62

Writing assignment: Microessay 1

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6/29/19

1

Chapter Two Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development,

and Birth

Mechanisms of Heredity: Genotype and Phenotype

▷ Genotype: complete set of genes one has inherited

▷ Phenotype: combination of genotype and environmental influences resulting in the actual expression of traits

○ Physical ○ Behavioral ○ Psychological

Environmental Influences

▷ What/Who has influenced your development?

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Family Influences

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Socioeconomic Status (SES)

▷ Social Status ○ Years of education ○ Prestige of job and

skill it requires

▷ Economic status: income

How would SES impact family functioning?

Paths from Genes to Behavior

▷ Gene x Environment Interaction

▷ Gene-Environment Correlations

○ Passive ○ Evocative ○ Active (Niche-Picking)

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Gene X Environment Interaction

▷ Individuals respond differently to the same environment because of genetic makeup

▷ Similar response can result from different gene- environment combinations

Example: Stress and Depression

Gene-Environment Correlation

▷ Passive correlation ○ Parents provide

their children with environments influenced by their own heredity

▷ Evocative correlation ○ Children evoke

responses influenced by their own heredity

▷ Active correlation: niche-picking

○ Tendency to actively choose environments that complement heredity

Epigenesis

▷ Development results from bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of environment ○ Genes affect behavior/experiences ○ Experiences/behavior affect gene

expression

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The Epigenetic Framework

Figure 2.7 (Adapted from Gottlieb, 2007.)

Influences on Prenatal Development: General Risk Factors

▷ What are some general risk factors that can effect prenatal development?

▷ What are pregnant women told to avoid? ○ Teratogens can influence prenatal

development