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Qualitative research design

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What is qualitative research?

The qualitative research focus is a study design which focuses on understanding different subject matter such as people belief, experiences, attitudes, interaction, and behavior in a given phenomenon using a humanistic and idealistic approach to collect and analyze non-numerical data. Through this research design, research can access in-depth insight concerning a research area of interest and thus enable the researcher to generate new concepts and perspectives. There are various qualitative research types, such as phenomenology, arthrography, grounded theory, and case study. Researchers’ method to collect data includes interviews, focus group discussion, document analysis, and observations.

Examples of current qualitative research articles include:

Okamoto, I., Prieto, J., Avery, M., Moore, K., Fader, M., Sartain, S., & Clancy, B. (2017). Intermittent catheter users’ symptom identification, description, and urinary tract infection management: a qualitative study. BMJ Open, 7(9)

This research article focuses on identifying and evaluating the understanding of urinary tract infection for patients who use an intermittent catheter. The research aims to determine their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of this infection. It also includes a survey to identify how this group of patients to understand the cause and management of urinary tract information. The research uses a semi-structured interview approach to reach out to different individuals and identify their understanding of the cause, sign/symptom, cause, and management of this disease. After surveying a group of 30 intermittent catheter users using the semi-structured interview method, the researcher identifies that a few participants report some of the signs/symptoms related to urinary tract infection. However, they had difficulties distinguishing the UTI symptoms, which show a significant degree of uncertainty in understanding when an individual should seek medical help. This means the study approach helped identify that most people, especially those at risk of urinary tract infection (in this case, the Intermittent catheter users), do not have the self-help skills required to ensure the best care.

Ghouri, F., Hollywood, A., & Ryan, K. (2019). Urinary tract infections and antibiotic use in the pregnancy-qualitative analysis of online forum content. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 19(1), 1-8. This study uses qualitative descriptive research.

In this research, the study includes an online survey design that helps the researcher collect data about women’s discussion related to Urinary tract infection. The study has 202 participants from whom it collects and arranges data using NVivo 11 software and later analyzes the arranged data using inductive thematic analysis. After the survey, the researcher identifies that identify that the experience of women from urinary tract infection has high risk than one without medical knowledge would expect. For instance, the study indicates that women experience in urinary tract infection involve both risks related to the diseases and risk associated with the treatment of the disease. As a result, the study recommends the need for public awareness about prevention from urinary tract infection to mitigate the risk involved in this disease.

Application of Qualitative research in Nursing:

Research question: Providing quality care in the healthcare sector is a crucial element, yet some organizations face challenges in delivering the best care; how can specialization in professional nurses improve the quality of care compared to traditional nurses in the current healthcare facilities for patients with urinary tract infections?

There are different specialization fields in nursing, each based on a particular need of professional nursing care. The best qualitative study that can address this research area should be based on a case study design to explore the benefits of different types of specialization in nursing. The study also helps to identify how nursing specialization improves nursing care for patients with urinary traction infections compared to the general nursing approach where nursing was only an assistant to the physician in the traditional nursing system (Cruz & Tantia, 2017). This study’s information would help emphasize the importance of nursing specialization and how to encourage nurses to further their education in specialized fields to improve their potential in providing quality care for patients with urinary tract infection (Valizadeh et al., 2018).


Cruz, R. F., & Tantia, J. F. (2017). Reading and understanding qualitative research. American Journal of Dance Therapy39(1), 79-92.

Valizadeh, L., Zamanzadeh, V., Rassouli, M., Ghahramanian, A., Archibald, M. M., & Asghari, E. (2018). A Qualitative Study of Specialized Clinical Nurses’ Perceptions of Good Care in Practice. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 32(5), 260-267.