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Guided Response Guide: Answer any questions your instructor has about your initial post. Review several of your classmates’ posts, prioritizing those who have not received feedback, and respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts by Day 5.

Each of your responses to your classmates should be at least 100 words in length. Indicate whether you agree that the studies identified by your classmate are quantitative research studies. Provide specific information to reinforce your assessment. Reflect on your classmate’s appraisal of the usefulness of each study.

Respond to classmate one:

Hello Everyone,

Create a complete APA citation for three articles that report on quantitative research studies that address your research topic or research focus. 

Biases affect how students perform academically (Weissman, P., & Hendrick, J., 2014). The research topic I would like to explore is how implicit and explicit biases affect student academic achievement. Educators spend a great deal of time with students during school hours. They grade students, watch their interactions with others, and can view their intrinsic academic growth. If students need services, educators can refer them to specialists that can help them improve. Educators have the power to influence their students’ academic pursuits and interests. This influence can be positive or negative. Implicit and explicit biases play a role in a student’s academic achievement (Peterson, Davies, Sibley, and Osborne, 2016). I have gathered three quantitative research articles that contribute to my topic of interest.  

The three reports that are quantitative research studies are: 

Dhaliwal, T., Chin, M., Lovison, V., & Quinn, D. (2020). Educator bias is associated with racial disparities in student achievement and discipline. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2020/07/20/educator-bias-is-associated-with-racial-disparities-in-student-achievement-and-discipline/ (Links to an external site.)

Nance, J.  (2019). IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS AND STUDENTS’ FOURTH AMENDMENT RIGHTS. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.).   

Peterson, R. (2019). The Relationship Between Overrepresentation of Minority Students and Explicit and Implicit Bias. Retrieved from edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1087&context=sped_etds”>https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1087&context=sped_etds (Links to an external site.). 

Identify the characteristics of each article that tell you the study is a quantitative research study, and not a qualitative research study, citing at least two required or recommended resources. 

The first article that I picked was about the effect of institutionalized racism bleeding into our school system. With this in mind some school districts have come together for the attempt to change certain school policies and suggest action to reduce racial disparities in the education system (Dhaliwal, T., Chin, M., Lovison, V., & Quinn, D. , 2020). The article poses that implicit biases can lead to obstinate racial disparities. This can cause differences in school achievement and differences in how some students are disciplined (Dhaliwal, T., Chin, M., Lovison, V., & Quinn, D., 2020). This article is a quantitative study because it measured teachers’ implicit biases and how they correlate. Educators involved in the experiment took the White-Black Implicit Association Test (IAT). The IAT recognizes biases through an array of computerized assignments that compare how people associate White and Black people with specific behaviors. The results from this was dichotomized with nationwide information on racial achievement gaps (Dhaliwal, T., Chin, M., Lovison, V., & Quinn, D., 2020). This was a descriptive non-experimental study that was performed. A descriptive non-experimental study is a research that uses information to see how they correlate to a phenomenon. A relationship between two or more variables is explained without the researchers getting involved (NurseKillam, 2013).  

The second article that I picked was from the Ashford Library. It discussed how schools that serve students of color are more inclined to use forcible measures of surveillance to monitor students. These prisonlike conditions affect students negatively. They make them not want to attend school. Many students have also claimed that they coercive surveillance makes them feel like criminals (Nance, J., 2019). The article proclaims that implicit racial biases do contribute to harsher surveillance measures (Nance, J., 2019). It also supports that laws be changed to alter the use coercive surveillance methods which is grounded in the U.S. Supreme Courts 4th Amendment. This article is a quantitative article. In it a meta-analysis was performed to see if implicit biases exist. The results corroborated the findings that the IAT is a legitimate test to use to measure implicit biases. Researchers also conducted an experiment in which a videogame where African Americans and Whites appeared in several different backgrounds holding a gun or a different object such as a cell phone, camera, wallet, or aluminum can was created. The outcome was that both African Americans and Whites associated criminal behavior and aggression with individuals of color (Nance, 2019). This article used different types of quantitative research to support its findings. The meta-analysis analyzes previous research to deduce a conclusion about the validity of the IAT exam. It also used a descriptive experimental study. This is a quantitative style of gathering information that is used for gathering data to compare findings (Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F., 2007).  

The third article is about how minority students are overrepresented in special education classrooms and how implicit and explicit biases affect their academic achievements. The article explicates that there has been an increase in the number minority students in the education system. These has also been a substantial increase in the number of minority students placed in special education as well. The article purports that African Americans met the requirements for special education services linked to emotional disturbances and learning disabilities with a risk ratio of 2.0 and 2.2 (Peterson, R., 2019). This is very high considering that the Department of Education regards 2.0 as being twice as likely to be in need (Peterson, R., 2019). Further minority students are reported as being 15% more apt to having specific learning disabilities in comparison to White students (Peterson, R., 2019). The researcher in this paper believes that understanding the role of implicit biases will help to understand why minority students are overrepresented in special education classes. Quantitative research methods were used in this study. A descriptive non-experimental study was performed. Different studies were examined to understand how certain experiences connect.  

Discuss how these three studies are useful in helping you develop a better understanding of your topic of interest or your research focus, and what you learned from each study. 

My topic of interest is about how implicit and explicit biases affect student academic achievements. The research articles that I mentioned above expand the view on my topic. It gives me a comprehensive understanding of different elements that are experienced in the education system that affect students. The quantitative studies provide an empirical view of studies performed in order to analyze how biases affect students and how educators respond to students. The first article examines how historical racism carries over into the education system today. It explains that implicit biases held by educators affect how students are disciplined and how students learn. The second article explains how schools that have students with more color practice harsher methods of student monitoring. This affects students by making them feel criminalized and less motivated to attend class. Quantitative studies were performed in the research article that validate the researchers point of view. The last article is about the overrepresentation of minority students in special education programs and how implicit biases have led to this. I have learned that it has been recognized that biases affect not only how students learn but how they are reprimanded in school. These biases leak into categories including programs that minority students are overrepresented in. Many steps are needed to be taken including examining legislatures that pertain to punitive measures taken by schools against students (Peterson, R., 2019). Both educators and students need to be protected and in a safe environment for intrinsic learning to transpire (Weissman, P., & Hendrick, J., 2014). 

References 

Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: Quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663. https://info.britishjournalofnursing.com/ (Links to an external site.) 

Dhaliwal, T., Chin, M., Lovison, V., & Quinn, D. (2020). Educator bias is associated with racial disparities in student achievement and discipline. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2020/07/20/educator-bias-is-associated-with-racial-disparities-in-student-achievement-and-discipline/ (Links to an external site.)

Nance, J.  (2019). IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS AND STUDENTS’ FOURTH AMENDMENT RIGHTS. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.).   

NurseKillam. (2013, November 12). 

Respond to classmate two:

Create a complete APA citation for three articles that report on quantitative research studies that address your research topic or research focus. 

My research is over challenges in education, which there are many.  

My first article is quantitative research over the usefulness of homework. Is homework for school age children really necessary?In my article the researcher will  analyze the advantages and limitations of homework. 

These studies show that the stress relation between a child and homework issues were many.  For example, some children need structure to do their school work and some need to be left alone.  The goal of this research was to investigate the faculty and ask questions as to how they felt about homework being given to elementary students.  60% said homework was very useful, 25% said indispensable, 6% both useful and quite useful, and 3% said useless. 

  Some say yes and there are some who argue no, is not necessary.  I am one that is on the fence about the issue.  I think that there are teachers who give too much homework to students and the students then get overwhelmed.  There are times that when a child is given homework it does not get done and/or the parents get upset because the teachers are getting paid to teach, especially this pandemic we are facing.  Should homework be given or not given to elementary students? What do you think? 

 Catalano, H., & Catalano, C. (2018). Quantitative Study on the Usefulness of Homework in Primary Education. In V. Manolachi, C.M. Rus, S. Rusnac (eds.), New Approaches in Social and Humanistic Sciences (pp. 129- 136). Iasi, Romania: LUMEN Proceedings.  https://doi.org/10.18662/lumproc.nashs2017.11 (Links to an external site.)

My second article was quantitative research to better understand if school leaders meet the expectations of applying research finding to practice.  Although school leaders should use both qualitative and quantitative research, they tend to lean towards quantitative.  And for three reasons: 1). Educational policies have enhanced the ability to analyze data. 2). Educational policies Have increased expectations for data and 3). Educational policies have begun to expect that school leaders implement curricula, reforms, interventions, policies, and procedures supported by strong research evidence (Herman, Dawson, Dee, Greene, Maynard, & Redding, 2008).

During the last decade the role and expectations of school leaders have increased considerably. There is more training to do and continuous learning on the part of the school leaders (teachers and principals). The research shows the data has increased for quantitative studies for the role of these school leaders.  Do they need more training? Is the training they are receiving good enough to make them great leaders? School leaders can become as overwhelmed with all this training as their students.  Is this all for the good of teaching and leading our students or should good leaders just be left to do what they do best?

Craig Hochbein & Katherine S. Smeaton; An Exploratory Analysis of the Prevalence of Quantitative Research Methodologies in Journal Articles; Volume 13(11) 2018;  https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1199456.pdf (Links to an external site.)

My third article is the quantitative research  relationship between students and the qualifications of the teacher. Research shows that if a teacher is qualified and has the credentials needed to teach in an early childhood environment, the students will learn on a higher level and have a better relationship with their teachers.  The teacher in turn will not only have a good student they will also have a good relationship with the parents.  The lack of qualifications some of the teachers possess have made it difficult to enhance the learning outcomes of the students.  

Studies included the qualifications of early childhood teachers versus the quality ofsaid teachers.  Results proved that teachers with higher qualifications turned out better quality of enhanced learners.  These results are important for governments who want to improve childhood services and enhance family outcomes.  It is important for teachers to have the qualifications that are needed to work with children because this could lead to significant gains for the students and their families. 

Matthew Manning (Links to an external site.) ,  Susanne Garvis (Links to an external site.) ,   Gabriel T.W. Wong (Links to an external site.) ; First published: 20 January 2017; The Relationship Between Teacher Qualification and the Quality of the Early Childhood Education and Care Environment;

https://do.org/10.4073/csr.2017.1